South Bend is a city in and
the county seat of St. Joseph
County, Indiana, United States, on the St. Joseph River.
of the 2000 census
city had a total of 107,789 residents; its Metropolitan Statistical
had a population of 316,663. It is the fourth
largest city in Indiana and the
economic and cultural hub of the region commonly known as Michiana, and may be best known as the home of the
South Bend lies along the Indiana Toll
at the south-most turn in the St. Joseph River
which it derives its name. The area was originally settled in the
early 19th century by fur traders
established as a city in 1865. The St. Joseph River shaped South
Bend's economy through the mid-20th century. River access led to
heavy industrial development that peaked with Studebaker
being based in the city, along with
Oliver Chilled Plow Company
several other industrial companies.
The population of South Bend has declined since its peak of 132,445
in 1960. This is in large part due to the demise of Studebaker
and other heavy industry. The 2000
census saw South Bend's population increase 2.2% from 1990, the
first gain since 1960
. Today, the largest
industries in South Bend are health care, education, and small
business. A large tourism sector
also exists, mainly supported by the University of
Notre Dame. South Bend still remains the focal point for
Michiana, with the second busiest airport
in Indiana, interurban rail service to
downtown Chicago, and several
large businesses including Crowe
Horwath, Bosch and AM
The first settlements in the current South Bend area were
established as fur trading
first westerner to make permanent settlement was Pierre Frieschutz Navarre
. Navarre arrived on behalf of the American Fur Company
. His home was not
far from what would become downtown South Bend. Alexis Coquillard,
another agent of the American Fur Company, passed through South
Bend in 1823 and returned in 1824 with his family to make it his
home. At the time, the post was known as Big St. Joseph Station. In
1827, Lathrop Minor Taylor established a post for Samuel Hanna and
Company. The area soon became known as St. Joseph's, Indiana as
recorded in the Samuel Hanna and Company records. By 1829, the town
was growing, with Coquillard and Taylor emerging as leaders. The
town applied for a post office, and Taylor was named postmaster
later that year. The town was
designated as Southold, Allen County, Indiana . The following year,
the name of the city was changed to South Bend. This change was in
order to ease confusion as several other communities called
Southold existed at the time. In 1831, South Bend was laid out as the
county seat and as one of the four original townships of St. Joseph
Soon after, design began on what would
become the town of South Bend. The area was incorporated as a town
in 1835 and rapidly grew. In 1856 attorney Andrew Anderson founded
May Oberfell Lorber, the oldest business in St. Joseph County, and
came to compose a complete index of South Bendâ€™s real estate
During the late 1830s through the 1850s, much of South Bend's
development centered around the industrial complex of factories
located on the two races
along the St. Joseph
in South Bend). Several dams were created, and mills were
built on each side of the river. On October 4, 1851, the first
steam locomotive entered South Bend. This led to a general shift of
businesses from the river toward the tracks. In 1852, Henry
Studebaker set up a wagon shop in South Bend. Studebaker
would go on to become a large
automobile manufacturer of the United States. Other manufacturing
companies such as the Singer Sewing
and the Oliver Chilled
would soon follow suit, and manufacturing would
become the driving force in the South Bend economy through the
South Bend in 1866
South Bend also gained from its position on what was known as
The Michigan Road
, the main
northâ€“south artery of northern Indiana in the 19th century.
significant development occurred near South Bend in 1842, when the
Reverend Edward Sorin founded the
Notre Dame, just north of the town.
The University of
Notre Dame would eventually contribute greatly to the areas economy
and culture. In 1865, a petition was introduced for South Bend to
incorporate as a city. South Bend held its first elections as a
city on Monday, June 5, 1865.
Other industries continued to develop in South Bend in the early
twentieth century, including Birdsell Manufacturing Company, the
, the Robert Bosch GmbH
, South Bend Lathe Works
, the O'Brien
Paint Corp., and the South Bend Toy Company. Fast development led
to the creation of electric rail
throughout the area, and in 1925 and the South Shore interurban
streetcar service was established from
downtown South Bend to downtown Chicago.
On June 30, 1934 The Merchants National Bank in South Bend was the
last bank to be robbed by the notorious "Dillinger gang" (also
known as the "second dillinger gang") before the rest of the gang
was hunted down and killed by the F.B.I.
During World War II
, the South Bend Blue Sox All-American
Girls Professional Baseball League
team was formed in South
Bend. The team participated in all the league's seasons from
By 1950, more than half of all employment was in the manufacturing
sector. Due to economic difficulties, the Studebaker
Company closed its automotive
manufacturing plants in South Bend in December 1963. A general
decline in manufacturing soon followed. By the year 2000
manufacturing only made up 16% of the local economy, and the
population decreased by nearly 30,000.
In 1984, South Bend community leaders began seeking a minor league
baseball team for the city. A stadium was constructed in 1986 and a
10 year player development contract was signed with the
Chicago White Sox
. The team would
be known as the South Bend White Sox. In 1994, the team's name was
changed to the South Bend Silver
. The Silver Hawks are currently a Class A minor league
affiliate of the Arizona Diamondbacks in the Midwest League.
South Bend is located at (41.672597, -86.255157) . According to the
United States Census
, the city has a total area of 39.1 square miles
), of which, 38.7 square miles
(100.2 kmÂ˛) is land and 0.4 square miles (1.1 kmÂ˛)
(1.10%) is water.
is located 5 miles (8 km) from the Michigan border, and
approximately equidistant from Illinois and Ohio.
city is 93 miles (150 km) driving distance from Chicago.
nearest shore of Lake
20 miles (32 km) away.
Just after sundown along the St.
The St. Joseph
flows from the east end of the city turning north near
the city center, giving South Bend its name at the bend in the
river. South Bend sits on the North-South continental divide, and
the river flows north into Lake Michigan. The downtown area is
located in the north central part of the city along the St. Joseph
River, with Notre Dame,
Indiana directly adjacent to the north. The city extends
further north on the west side, mainly with manufacturing and
distribution facilities near the South Bend
Regional Airport. Mishawaka is adjacent to South Bend's east side.
South Bend has a humid
, with a KĂ¶ppen climate
of Dfa. Lake Michigan has a large effect on the
climate of South Bend, including lake
in winter and moderating temperatures year round.
June through August are the warmest months, with average
temperatures above 80 Â°F. Normally, 42 days with thunderstorms
occur each year. The snowiest
month is usually January, with snow fall normally recorded from
October through April. On average South Bend receives of snow per
year. Spring and fall are often mild and overcast, with 293 partly
cloudy to cloudy days each year.
As of the census
of 2000, there were 107,789
people, 42,908 households, and 25,959 families residing in the
city. The population density
2,786.4 people per square mile (1,075.9/kmÂ˛). There were 46,349
housing units at an average density of 1,198.1/sq mi
(462.7/kmÂ˛). The racial makeup of the city was 56.05% White
, 34.60% African American
, 0.06% Pacific Islander
, 4.87% from
, and 2.80%
from two or more races. Hispanic
of any race were 8.45% of the
(5.8%), United States (3.9%),
There were 42,908 households out of which 30.5% had children under
the age of 18 living with them, 39.0% were married couples living
together, 17.0% had a female householder with no husband present,
and 39.5% were non-families. 32.5% of all households were made up
of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone who was
65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45
and the average family size was 3.12.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age
of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to
64, and 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median
age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 91.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,439, and the
median income for a family was $39,046. Males had a median income
of $31,958 versus $23,744 for females. The per capita income
for the city was
$17,121. About 13.6% of families and 16.7% of the population were
below the poverty line
, including 24.0%
of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over.
25-story Chase Tower, the tallest
building in South Bend.
South Bend's location on the St. Joseph River led to an industrial
based economy in the late 1800s and early to mid-1900s. By the end
of World War II
that economy began to
diminish. The Studebaker
plant, which had
been one of the city's largest industrial employers, closed
in 1963; its
engine block plant shuttered the following year. These and other
remnants of the old economy can still be seen in the abandoned
industrial buildings around the city, most of which have not been
reclaimed, though a number have been demolished. Since that time,
education, health care, and small business have come to the
forefront of South Bend's economy, though the city has never
regained the level of prosperity it enjoyed prior to the 1960s.
Large swaths of housingâ€”7.4% of the city's housing stock in
Notre Dame is a large contributor to the local economy.
The university is the largest employer in St. Joseph County,
employing 4,758 people.
Health care is another major contributor to the South Bend economy.
Memorial Health Systems is the largest employer in the city. Other
notable businesses include Honeywell
Bosch, Woodwind &
and PEI Genesis. Both AM
and Crowe Horwath
corporate headquarters in South Bend.
Efforts are underway to spur economic growth in South Bend. The St.
Joe Valley Metronet is a not for profit organization attempting to
create a more robust telecommunications infrastructure capable of
inexpensive high speed data transmission. It is thought this could
bring more high tech firms to the city and surrounding area.
Redevelopment is underway for some of the abandoned industrial
facilities, with the abandoned Oliver
buildings being the most recent example of reclaimed
Arts and culture
South Bend was influenced by a large influx of Polish Catholic
immigrants in the late 19th century. Dyngus
is widely celebrated on the Monday after Easter
and is known locally to be the beginning of
the city elections campaign
. Fat Tuesday
celebrated in South Bend, with Paczkis
a staple food product in the city for the day. There are
twenty-three Catholic churches in the city and surrounding county,
eleven Catholic schools, and two Catholic universitiesâ€”Holy Cross
College, Saint Mary's Collegeâ€”adjacent to the city in Notre Dame,
The World Pulse Festival is held annually in South Bend. The event
is an annual Contemporary
festival, attracting more than 50,000 visitors
Museums, Arts and Entertainment
The South Bend Museum of
is located in the Century Center
in downtown South
Bend. The Museum was opened to the public in March 1996, and
features a variety of artists from South Bend and the Michiana
region. Currently, over 850 works are
featured in the permanent collection. The museum also offers
several classes and workshops for adults and children.
The Center for History (Northern Indiana Historical Society) is the
second oldest historical society in Indiana. It was started in 1867
to collect and interpret the history of the northern Indiana region
and started by many leading citizens of St. Joseph County, Indiana.
Copshaholm is one of the central features of the Center for
The 38-room mansion was built in 1895 and is
currently listed in the National Register of
. The home was built by Joseph Doty Oliver, the
son of James Oliver, the founder of the Oliver Farm Equipment Company
once the largest plow manufacturer in the United States. The
history museum is composed of several buildings on its campus.
includes areas dedicated to the history of the St. Joseph River
Valley, the University of Notre Dame, the All-American
Girls Professional Baseball League, and the Kidsfirst
The Studebaker National
is a large collection of wagons and automobiles from the
150 year production history of the Studebaker
company. The museum began as a
collection of wagons and automobiles produced by Studebaker,
including the Presidential carriages of Lincoln, McKinley, Harrison
and Grant. The company donated the collection to the city of South
Bend in 1966. The collection was housed in various locations from
the Century Center
its current location in downtown South Bend adjacent to the
Northern Indiana Center for History. The two museums share one
campus, and together form The Museums at Washington
.Northern Indiana Center for History<"
".Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
South Bend is also home to the Morris Performing Arts Center
The center was built in 1922 and included the Palace Theater,
featuring vaudeville acts. The theatre saw its heyday in 1940 with
the premiere of Knute Rockne,
. A crowd estimated at 24,000 gathered outside the event.
The theater was scheduled for demolition in 1959, when E.M. Morris
purchased the facility and sold it to the city for one dollar. The
Palace was then renamed the Morris Civic Auditorium. A total
renovation was completed in 2000. The Morris Performing Arts Center
also includes the Palais Royale Ballroom, on which restoration was
recently completed. The center serves as home to the Broadway
Theater League and the South Bend Symphony Orchestra. The symphony
orchestra's Shanghai-born conductor Tsung Yeh was the first
conductor ever to hold music directorships of both a western
symphony orchestra and a major Chinese instrument symphony
National Chamber Music Association
, sponsor of the world's
largest chamber music competition, was founded in South Bend in
annual Fischoff National
Chamber Music Competition is held on the campus of the University of
In addition to the esteemed Fischoff Competition
, the Fischoff is
also dedicated to enrichment opportunities for regional community
children. Fischoff is uniquely able to engage its national pool of
Fischoff musicians in reaching more than 6,000 community children
every year. Through free programs at schools, libraries and
community centers, Fischoffâ€™s outreach programs have reached more
than 43,700 Northern Indiana and Southwestern Michigan area
children and youth, ages 4â€“18, since 1995.
Another dynamic cultural institution is the South Bend Civic Theatre
in 1957. For many years it was located at The Firehouse at 701
Portage Avenue. At the beginning of 2007 a new theatre opened at
403 N. Main Street, in what was formerly the Scottish Rite
Building. The new site includes a 209-seat Main Stage Auditorium
and a 90-seat "black-box" Studio Theatre. The South Bend Civic
produces more than a dozen plays per year, including several
productions in its Family Series.
, the 17th Vice President of the United
, is interred in South Bend City Cemetery.
Notre Dame's Fighting Irish
provide much of the sports action for the South Bend locale.
Football Saturdays have become a major event for the city,
attracting fans who come to watch the game and tailgate party
. Notre Dame basketball games
are also popular, along with the other sports at Notre Dame
large part to the location of the University of Notre Dame in Notre
Dame, Indiana to South Bend's immediate north, the College
Football Hall of Fame was moved from Kings Mill, Ohio to downtown
South Bend in 1995; it will leave South Bend in 2010 and move to
South Bend is home to the South
Bend Silver Hawks
, a class A Minor League Baseball
Silver Hawks play at Coveleski Stadium in downtown South Bend. In 2005 the franchise
nearly moved to Marion,
A group of investors led by former Indiana
Governor and South Bend Mayor Joe Kernan
bought the Silver Hawks, keeping the team in South Bend.
South Bend has also produced many High School State Basketball
Champions over the years, most recently with the success in Girl's
Basketball headlined by State Champions St. Joesph's High School
(2005-2006) and Washington High School (2006-2007). Washington has
also produced one of the top prospects in Girl's Basketball history
in Skylar Diggins who has signed a national letter of intent to
play for the University of Notre Dame.
South Bend houses Michiana's only public competitive Ice Hockey
rinks(2)at The Ice Box Skating Rink. Though the area has seen a
decline in the sport over the past few decades the high school
all-star team known as Team Michiana won the tier-2 State and
Districts for the 2008-09 season and made their way, for the first
time in the team's history, to Nationals. The rink is also the home
ice of the Ice Box Skating Club which is a figure skating club that
teaches new skaters basic skills, helps improve on skills for
intermediate skaters, and has a competitive group that competes in
area figure skating competitions.
Each July, the National Baton Twirling Association holds its
national competition at the University of Notre Dame. Known as AYOP
(America's Youth on Parade), the week-long event brings together
twirlers from all over the country to compete for coveted baton
Parks and recreation
Zoo opened in 1902.
People enjoy the East Race in South
Potawatomi is the oldest zoo
in Indiana, and
features over 400 animals in its 23 acres. The zoo is run by
the South Bend Parks and Recreation Department which maintains a
variety of parks and facilities for the city. Along with the zoo,
the South Bend Parks and Recreation department operates over fifty
parks, golf courses, and recreational areas throughout the
Near the Potawatomi Zoo are the Potawatomi Greenhouses
and Ella Morris and Muessel-Ellison
The green houses were originally constructed in the 1920s, with the
conservatories being added in the 1960s. In 2007 the greenhouses
and conservatories were in danger of closing due to increased
operating costs, but a campaign by the Botanical Society of South
Bend was able to solicit funds to keep the facilities
The city is home to the East Race
County-City Building in South
South Bend government follows the mayor-council representative municipal government
government operates out of the County-City building in downtown
South Bend. The government of St. Joseph county also operates at
The government of South Bend is led by the office of the mayor
. The mayor is elected to a four-year term and
acts as chief executive for the city government. The current mayor
is Steve Luecke.
The legislative branch of the South Bend government is the city council
. The council is composed of nine
members each elected to four year terms. South Bend is divided into
six districts, each district electing one council member. The final
three members are elected at-large
Indiana state law, the council may pass resolutions
. Resolutions are in regard to internal
council procedures, while ordinances address city municipal
The final elected member of the South Bend government is the
. The city clerk is responsible
for maintaining official city records, and providing general
clerical assistance to the City Council.
Michael A. Dvorak is the Prosecuting Attorney for the 60th Judicial
Circuit, which consists of St. Joseph County. He was first elected
Bend area is home to several institutions of higher learning; the
most famous of which is the University of Notre Dame. The university is located to the north of
South Bend in Notre
The University of Notre Dame was founded by
Father Edward Sorin
, a French priest,
in 1842 before South Bend was incorporated as a city in 1865, and
has been an intrinsic part of the South Bend area with great effect
on its culture and economy. Saint Mary's College and Holy Cross College are both located near Notre Dame just north of
University South Bend is the third largest campus in the Indiana University system.
Enrollment in Fall 2008 was 7,712. Early reports for the Fall 2009
enrollment is estimated at over 8,200 students. Other universities
with campuses in South Bend include Brown Mackie College, Ivy Tech Community College
of Indiana, Purdue
University and the Graduate Theological
Public schools in South Bend are operated by the South Bend Community
. The corporation runs 17 primary centers
(grades K-4), nine intermediate centers (grades 5-8), and four high
schools, serving over 22,000 students as of 2006.
The Diocese of Fort
operates eleven private Catholic schools in
South Bend is also home to Indiana's First Charter School, Veritas
Academy, as well as private high school Trinity School at
Greenlawn, recipient of three Blue Ribbon Awards from the U.S.
Department of Education.
One major daily newspaper serves the South Bend Metro area, the
South Bend Tribune
is distributed throughout the Michiana region and publishes five
editions including a Metro edition, Mishawaka edition, Michigan
edition, Penn-Harris-Madison East edition and a Marshall
South Bend has a wide variety of local radio broadcast available in
the area. Stations' programming content contains a wide variety
including public radio
, classical music
, country, and urban contemporary
among others. For more
information, see List of Radio
Stations in South Bend, Indiana
As of 2008, the South Bend-Elkhart designated market area
is the 89th
largest in the United States, with 334,370 (0.3% of the US
population)homes. Most of the major television networks have
affiliates in the Michiana area.
Bend located stations include WNDU-TV (NBC), WNIT-TV (PBS) and WHME-TV (LeSEA).Stations located in
IN include WSBT-TV (CBS), WBND-LP (ABC), WCWW-LP (CW) and WMYS-LP (My Network
TV).WSJV (Fox) also broadcasts in the
Michiana area from Elkhart,
South Bend's location around the St. Joseph River
influenced the development of its streets. While it mainly follows
a grid layout, development around the river led to roads adapted to
follow the river. South Bend is connected to state and national
highway systems by Indiana 2
and by Interstate 80
, the Indiana
. Original routes of both the Lincoln Highway
and the Dixie Highway
also pass through South Bend.
The Headquarters for the Lincoln Highway Association are in South
For transportation around the South Bend metro area, the St. Joseph Valley Parkway
constructed between 1960 and 1990. The road connects Benton
Harbor, Michigan, South Bend, Mishawaka, and Elkhart.
While segments are designated as US 20, US
31 and Indiana 331
, it is
simply referred to locally as "The bypass
". The Indiana Toll Road/Interstate
80/90 passes through northern South Bend.
Public transportation in South Bend is controlled by Transpo
Public Transportation Corporation
). Transpo operates bus
routes between South Bend and suburbs Mishawaka and Roseland Monday through Saturday.
2006, the Transpo fleet switched to Bio-diesel
South Bend serves as the transportation hub for Michiana
. The South Bend Regional Airport lies off of US 31 and the Indiana Toll Road in the
Northwest corner of South Bend. The airport connects
South Bend to larger hubs including Atlanta, Chicago O'Hare, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Las Vegas, Minneapolis, Newark, Orlando, and St. Petersburg, Florida.
Over 1,000,000 passengers are served
annually making it the second busiest airport in Indiana. As of
2006, land acquisition is underway for of development.
electric commuter railroad South Shore Line connects South
Bend's South Bend Regional Airport to Millennium Station in downtown Chicago.
Due to increased
ridership since 2005 between Chicago and South Bend, more cars are
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides
service to South Bend via two trains, the Lake Shore Limited to Chicago, New York
City and Boston and the
Capitol Limited, to Chicago
A bus line connects from Notre Dame and the
airport to Chicago O'Hare and Midway Airports, with several
northwest Indiana stops.
Electricity in South Bend is provided by
Indiana Michigan Power, a subsidiary of American
Electric Power. Natural gas
supplied by the Northern Indiana Public Service Company
The South Bend Water Works delivers water to residents of South
Bend. The water is collected from 32 deep wells and runs through
545 miles of water main to be distributed to South Bend
South Bend has two sister
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Retrieved on 2006-08-31.
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Retrieved on 2006-08-31.
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Parishes.". Retrieved on January 2, 2008.
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Spirit News". Retrieved on January 2, 2008.
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Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
for History website
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Location". Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
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- South Bend Symphony Orchestra Maestro " "
- "Fischoff National Chamber Music Association Website ". Retrieved on
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Retrieved on 2008-03-02.
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(1869-1873)".Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
- Hall moving from South Bend to Atlanta,
Associated Press, September 23, 2009, Accessed September 23,
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Parks". Retrieved on 2008-01-16
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Waterway." Retrieved on 2008-01-16.
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a Catholic School
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Retrieved on July 21, 2008.
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