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South India, also known as the Dravida in the Indian anthem, is the area encompassing Indiamarker's states of Andhra Pradeshmarker, Karnatakamarker, Keralamarker and Tamil Nadumarker as well as the union territories of Lakshadweepmarker and Pondicherrymarker, occupying 19.31% of area. South India lies in the peninsular Deccan Plateaumarker and is bounded by the Arabian Seamarker, Indian Oceanmarker and the Bay of Bengalmarker in the west, south and east respectively. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges — the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats and a plateau heartland. Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadramarker and Kaveri rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Inhabitants of South India are referred to as South Indians. A majority of South Indians speak one of the five Dravidian languagesTelugu,Tulu,Tamil,Kannada and Malayalam,. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern nation-states such as Sri Lankamarker,Singaporemarker, Philippinesmarker,Indonesiamarker, Thailandmarker and Malaysiamarker. The region was colonised by Britainmarker and gradually incorporated into the British Empire.

After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average decadal growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrices, economic disparity, illiteracy and poverty continue to affect the region much like the rest of the country. Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology (IT) is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the country. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by national political parties.

South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in areas such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.

Etymology

Apart from the English language terms South India and Peninsular India, southern India has been known by several other historic names. Adi Shankara coined the name Dravida in the 8th century as he called himself Dravida Shishu, meaning a child from South India (see etymology of Dravida). The term Deccan, an Anglicized form of the word "Dakhhin" which is a derived from the word dakshina meaning south, refers only to the area covered by the Deccan Plateaumarker, a volcanic plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas. The Carnatic is an English term derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād", meaning high country. The terms Karnād and Carnatic have long overgrown particular association with the plateau and refer to all of South India, including the coasts, the western of which is named the Carnatic coast. The name Karnātaka is derived from the same root.

History

Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with neolithic cultures in Southern India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; however, there does not appear to be a fully developed Bronze Age preceding the Iron Age in South India. South India was a crossroads of the ancient world, linking the Mediterraneanmarker and the Far East. The southern coastline from Karwarmarker to Kodungallurmarker was the most important trading shore in the Indian subcontinent resulting in intermingling between locals and traders. The South Indian coast of Malabar and the Tamil people of the Sangam age traded with the Graeco-Roman world. They were in contact with the Phoeniciansmarker, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Syrians, Jews, and Chinesemarker.

There were several significant rulers and dynasties in southern Indian history. Dynasties such as the Satavahanas of Amaravati, Kadambas of Banavasi, Western Ganga Dynasty, Chalukya dynasty of Badami, Western Chalukyas, Eastern Chalukya, Chera, Cholas, Hoysalas, Kakatiya dynasty, Pallavas, Pandyas, and Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha have ruled over South India. The late medieval period saw the rise of Muslim power in South India. The defeat of the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangalmarker by Tughlaq forces of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE heralded a new chapter in South Indian history. The struggle of the period was between the Bahmani Sultanate based in Gulbargamarker (and later, Bidarmarker) and the Vijayanagara Empiremarker with its capital in Vijayanagara in modern Hampimarker.

With the fall of Vijayanagara and the break-up of the Bahmani sultanate, the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda and Hyderabad became the dominant power in the region. Qutb Shahi dominance of the region continued until the middle of the seventeenth century, when the Mughals under Aurangzeb made determined inroads into the Deccan. Following Aurangzeb’s death, Mughal power weakened, and South Indian rulers gained autonomy from Delhi. The Wodeyar kingdom of Mysoremarker, the Asaf Jahis of Hyderabad, and Marathas all gained power.
In the middle of the eighteenth century, the Frenchmarker and the Britishmarker initiated a protracted struggle for military control of South India. Shifting alliances between the two European powers and the local powers marked the period with mercenary armies being employed by all sides causing general anarchy in South India. As the British consolidated power over much of India in the late 1850s, they allowed the French to retain their possessions over Pondicherry. The four Anglo-Mysore wars and the three Anglo-Maratha Wars saw Mysore, Pune and Hyderabad allying themselves with the British or the French. South India during the British colonial rule was divided into the Madras Presidency and Hyderabad, Mysore, Thiruvithamcoore (also known as Travancore), Kochi (also known as Cochin or Perumpadapu Swaroopam), Vizianagarammarker and a number of other minor princely states. British Residents were stationed in the capitals of the important states to supervise and report on the activities of the rulers.

The States Reorganisation Act (1956) created new states (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala) and reorganised modern-day Tamil Nadu along linguistic lines. Additionally, the enclaves of French India, which were ceded to India in the 1950s, were constituted into the union territory of Pondicherrymarker.

Geography

South India is a peninsula in the shape of a vast inverted triangle, bounded on the west by the Arabian Seamarker, on the east by the Bay of Bengalmarker and on the north by the Vindhyamarker and Satpuramarker ranges. The Narmadamarker flows westwards in the depression between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The Satpura ranges define the northern spur of the Deccan plateaumarker. The Western Ghats, along the western coast, mark another boundary of the plateau. The narrow strip of verdant land between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is the Konkan region. The Western Ghats continue south, forming the Malenadu (Canaramarker) region along the Karnataka coast, and terminate at the Nilgiri mountains, an inward (easterly) extension of the Western Ghats. The Nilgiris run in a crescent approximately along the borders of Tamil Nadumarker with northern Keralamarker and Karnatakamarker, encompassing the Palakkadmarker and Wayanadmarker hills, and the Satyamangalammarker ranges, and extending on to the relatively low-lying hills of the Eastern Ghats, on the western portion of the Tamil Nadumarker - Andhra Pradeshmarker border. The Tirupatimarker and Annamalai hills form part of this range. The low lying coral islands of Lakshadweepmarker are off the south-western coast of India. Sri Lankamarker lies off the south-eastern coast, separated from India by the Palk Straitmarker and the chain of low sandbars and islands known as Rama's Bridgemarker. The Andaman and Nicobarmarker islands lie far off the eastern coast of India, near the Tenasserimmarker coast of Burmamarker. The southernmost tip of mainland India is at Kanyakumarimarker (Cape Comorin) on the Indian Oceanmarker.

The Deccan plateaumarker is the vast elevated region bound by the C-shape defined by all these mountain ranges. No major elevations border the plateau to the east, and it slopes gently from the Western Ghats to the eastern coast. The plateau is watered by the east flowing Godavari and Krishna rivers. The other major rivers of the Deccan plateau are the Pennarmarker and the Tungabhadramarker, a major tributary of the Krishna. The three major river deltas of South India, the Kaveri, the Godavari and the Krishna, are located along the Bay of Bengal. These areas constitute the rice bowls of South India.

The region has a very tropical climate with the monsoons playing a major part. The South - West Monsoon accounts for most of the rainfall in the region and much of it falls from about June to October. The south-west monsoon starts from Kerala during June and moves up towards the northern parts of Indiamarker. Tamil Nadumarker and southeast Andhra Pradeshmarker receive rains from the North - East Monsoon from about November to February.Much of Andhra Pradeshmarker and Karnatakamarker has a distinct dry season from about October - May when there is not much rainfall. This region also experiences cooler nights from October to March while the days are pleasantly warm. In the northern parts of the region temperatures can fall below 10 degrees Celsius on occasions at night during this time. Days are very hot from March to June when temps can go over 40 degrees. The southern coastal region has an average minimum temperature of 20 degrees and maximum of 35 degrees.

Flora and fauna

There is a wide diversity of plants and animals in South India, resulting from its varied climates and geography. Deciduous forests are found along the Western Ghats while tropical dry forests and scrub lands Deccan thorn scrub forests are common in the interior Deccan plateau. The southern Western Ghats have high altitude rain forests called the South Western Ghats montane rain forests. The Malabar Coast moist forests are found on the coastal plains. The Western Ghats itself is a biodiversity hotspot.

Some of India's famous protected areas are found in South India. These include Project Tiger reserves Periyar National Parkmarker, Kalakad - Mundanthuraimarker and Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve. Important ecological regions of South India are the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, located at the conjunction of the borders of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the Nilgiri Hills including Mudumalai National Parkmarker, Bandipur National Parkmarker, Nagarhole National Parkmarker Silent Valley National Parkmarker, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary and Nugu Wildlife Sanctuary and the Anamalai Hillsmarker including the Eravikulam National Parkmarker, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuarymarker, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuarymarker and the adjacentThe Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Parkmarker of the Western Ghats. Important bird sanctuaries including Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuarymarker, Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary, Neelapattu Sanctuary and Pulicat Sanctuary are home to numerous migratory and local birds. Other protected ecological sites include the backwaters like the Pulicut Lake in Andhra Pradesh, Pitchavarum in Tamil Nadu and the famed backwaters of Kerala formed by the Vembanad Lakemarker, the Ashtamudi Lakemarker and the Kayamkulam Lake.

Banana, Musaparadisiaca and Moringa oleifera are found extensively in Lakshadweepmarker while coconut plantations provide economic support to the islands. Lashadweep has been declared a bird sanctuary by the Wildlife Institute of India. Crabs, chiefly hermit crabs, parrot fish and butterfly fish are also found on the islands.

Subdivisions

South India consists of the four southern Indian states of Andhra Pradeshmarker, Karnatakamarker, Keralamarker and Tamil Nadumarker as well as the union territories of Puducherrymarker and the Lakshadweepmarker archipelago. Together with Pondicherry, each South Indian state has an elected state government, while the Lakshadweep islands are centrally administered by the President of India. The modern states of South India were created as a result of the States Reorganisation Act (1956), which established states and union territories based on linguistic boundaries. As a result of this act:



Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968, while Mysore State was renamed Karnataka in 1973.

Each subregion is further divided into districts; the region of South India has over 100 districts. Each state is headed by a Governor, who is a direct appointee of the President of India, while the Chief Minister is the elected head of the state government and represents the states ruling party or coalition (the role of the Governor is largely ceremonial).

Demographics

The estimated population of South India is 233 million. The largest linguistic groups in South India include the Telugu, Tamils, Kannadigas, Malayalis, Tuluvas, Kodavas and Konkani. About 83% of South Indians follow Hinduism. Islam has the second-highest number of followers in the region, with 11%, while 5% follow Christianity.

The average literacy rate of South India is approximately 73%, considerably higher than the Indian national average of 60%. Kerala leads the nation with a literacy rate of 91%. The sex ratio in South India is fairly equable at 997; Kerala is the only state in India with a favourable sex ratio. The population density of the region is approximately 463. Scheduled Castes and Tribes form 18% of the population of the region. Agriculture is the major employer in the region — 47.5% of the population is involved in agrarian activities. About 60% of the population lives in permanent housing structures. 47.8% of South India has access to tap water. Well and spring are other major forms of water supply.

The languages of South India are the Dravidian represented by Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil and Telugu, besides Gondi and other minor dialects, and the Austro-Asiatic by the Munda languages. South India's predominant language family is Dravidian, a family of approximately seventy-three languages spoken in South Asia. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 divided states in India along linguistic lines and led to the creation of separate states of Andhra Pradeshmarker, Karnatakamarker, Keralamarker and Tamil Nadumarker in areas where Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil respectively were dominant.

In the 2001 Census, Telugu had the third largest base of native speakers in India (74 million), after Hindi and Bengali and was awarded the status of classical language in 2008 [69546] . Tamil was accorded the status of classical language by the Government of India in 2002 and had about 60 million native speakers. Kannada has 38 million and was awarded the status of classical language in 2008 [69547], while Malayalam had 33 million native speakers. "Abstract of speakers’ strength of languages and mother tongues –2001".Office of the Registrar General. Government of India Each of these languages is listed as an official language of India, per the Official Languages Act (1963).

Urdu is spoken by over half of the 25 million Muslims in southern India. "Socio-cultural aspects", Office of the Registrar General, Government of India South Indian Muslims in some regions of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka speak a dialect of Urdu called Dakhni, while some in the Dakshina Kannada region of Karnataka and regions in Kerala speak Beary bashe. Both Dakhni and Beary bashe are influenced by other South Indian languages. Tulu, a Dravidian language prevalent in coastal Kerala and Karnataka, is spoken by about 1.5 million people in the region, while Konkani, an Indo-Aryan language, is spoken by over half a million people in the region. English is also widely spoken in urban areas of South India.

Economy

Economic and demographic indicators
Parameter South India National
Per capita net state domestic product (SDP)
Percentage share in total FDI approved (1993-2003) 5.48 NA
Average annual growth of SDP 5.6 5.6
Percentage of population below poverty line 17.41 26.10
Percentage of urban population 32.82 27.81
Percentage of households with electricity 89.32 67.9
Literacy rate 72.87 61 India. World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. March 20, 2008
India's economy after independence in 1947 conformed to a socialist framework, with strict governmental control over private sector participation, foreign trade and foreign direct investment (FDI). Through 1960-1990, South Indian economies experienced mixed economic growth. In the 1960s, Karnataka and Kerala achieved above average economic growth, while Andhra Pradesh's economy declined during this period. Similarly, Kerala experienced economic decline in the 1970s while the economies of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu consistently exceeded national average growth rates after 1970. Karnataka experienced the highest positive differential in economic growth after the liberalisation of the Indian economy in 1991, while Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka were noted by some to be more reform-oriented in terms of economic policy when compared to other Indian states.

Over 48% of South India's population is engaged in agriculture, which is largely dependent on seasonal monsoons Some of the main crops cultivated in South India include paddy, sorghum, pearl millet, pulses, sugarcane, cotton, chilli, and ragi. Areca, coffee, tea, vanilla, rubber, pepper, tapioca, and cardamom are cultivated on the hills, while coconut grows in abundance in coastal areas. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of rice in India, while Karnataka produces 70% of India's coffee. Frequent droughts in northern Karnataka, Rayalaseema and Telangana have left farmers debt-ridden, forcing them to sell their livestock and sometimes even to commit suicide. The region also suffers from water scarcity, especially during summer. Since the liberalisation of the Indian economy, South India has seen a decrease in revenue from agriculture and agriculture related services .

Traditionally, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka have been home to large, public sector industries (referred to as Public Sector Undertakings, or PSUs), with both states posting above average growth rates in this sector following economic liberalisation. Chennai, The Detroit of South Asia accounts for about 35% of India's overall automotive components while the registered headquarters of 42% of all Central PSUs in South India are located in Karnataka. Additionally, the growth of information technology (IT) hubs in the region have spurred economic growth and attracted foreign investments and job seekers from other parts of the country. Hyderabad and Bangalore the IT hubs of India are home to software giants. In fiscal 2006-2007, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka attracted the third and fourth highest total FDI approvals in India, respectively, totalling to over Software exports from South India grossed over in fiscal 2005-06.

Though Kerala lags behind many of the Indian states in terms of industrialisation, it ranks first in the country in terms of quality of life.

Politics

Politics in South India is dominated by a mix of regional parties and larger national political parties like the Congress (INC), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Communist Party of India (CPI(M)). With the exclusion of Karnatakamarker, each state has at least two parties dominating politics in that state.

Pre-independence politics in the Madras Presidency was dominated by the Justice Party and the INC. Periyar Ramasami who started the Dravidian movement was elected leader of the Justice Party in 1938 and in 1944 renamed it to Dravidar Kazhagam, with its initial aim being the secession of Dravida Nadu from the rest of India on independence. Following independence, Periyar strongly believed that the party should not participate in elections in the newly created India, something his closest followers disagreed with. In 1948, C. N. Annadurai, a follower of Periyar and a Joint Secretary of Dravidar Kazhagam parted ways with Periyar to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam political party. INC's political influence over Tamil Nadu gave way to the rise of the DMK which formed its first government in 1968 and again in 1978. The following year, a split in the DMK resulted in the formation of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), lead by M. G. Ramachandran. Together, the AIADMK and the DMK currently command a 60% share in Tamil Nadu state elections.

The main facets of state politics in Tamil Nadu included language — the distinction between Tamil and non-Tamil speakers was an important tool used by the DMK in the 1960s and caste — such as the Self-respect Movement. The imposition of Hindi on non-Hindi speaking areas of India has often been a contentious issue in Tamil Nadu. In January-February 1965, large scale anti-Hindi agitations, a cause championed by the DMK,Guha, Ramachandra.  "Hindi against India". 2006. The Hindu. The Hindu Group. 16 Jan. 2005 occurred in Tamil Nadu.

In 1982, the establishment of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh by former Telugu actor Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (NTR) broke the dominance of the INC in Andhra Pradesh politics. NTR successfully challenged the INC's supremacy in the state and his party was voted into power a total of four times. In 1996, a year after winning the state assembly election by a landslide, a dispute between NTR, his wife Lakshmi Parvati and his immediate family resulted in a split in the TDP. Concerned over undue influence over NTR and his policies, the bulk of the party favoured the family under the leadership of NTR's son-in-law, N Chandrababu Naidu, who later became Chief Minister of the state. Naidu was regarded as a visionary who promoted the growth of information technology in the state. On August 26, 2008 Chiranjeevi, the leading actor of the Telugu film industry launched a new party at Tirupathi, called Prajarajyam. He said he would be constesting for the elections scheduled in the next year.

The Janata Dal has been far more successful in Karnataka than it has been in national politics. National political parties such as the BJP and INC have experienced more comparative success in Karnataka than they have in other states of South India. Karnataka's political environment is dominated by two rival caste groups — the Vokkaligas and the Lingayats.Price, Pamela. "Ideological Elements in Political Instability in Karnataka...". University of Oslo Ramakrishna Hegde played an integral part in the ascent of the Janata Dal into the national foray in the late 1980s. However, it was his political rival H. D. Deve Gowda, then the Chief Minister of Karnataka, who later went on to become the Prime Minister of India.

Kerala hosts two major political alliances: the United Democratic Front (UDF, led by the Indian National Congress) and the Left Democratic Front (LDF, led by the Communist Party of India ). Kerala numbers among India's most left-wing states. An interesting phenomenon of Kerala politics is the alternate election of Congress and the Communists to power.

Culture and heritage

According to some experts, the weltanschauung of South Indians is essentially the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body, and motherhood, which is exemplified through their dance, clothing, and sculptures. South Indian women traditionally wear the Saree while the men wear a type of sarong, which could be either a white pancha or a colourful lungi with typical batik patterns.

Rice is the staple diet, while fish is an integral component of coastal South Indian meals. Coconut is an important ingredient in Kerala whereas Andhra Pradesh cuisine is characterized by pickles and spicy curries. Hyderabadi cuisine a legacy of the past, is popular for its Biryani. Dosa, Idli, Uttapam are popular throughout the region. There are large coffee estates in southern Karnataka and parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

The traditional music of South India is known as Carnatic music, which includes rhythmic and structured music by composers like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Tyagaraja, Annamacharya, Muthuswami Dikshitar, Shyama Shastri,Kshetrayya, Subbaraya Shastri, Mysore Vasudevachar and Swathi Thirunal. The contemporary singer Dr. K. J. Yesudas is a cultural ambassador of Carnatic music.Thiruvarur Bakthavathsalam is a cultural ambassador of carnatic instrumentals. The motion picture industry has emerged as an important platform in South India, over the years portraying the cultural changes, trends, aspirations and developments experienced by its people. Some movie classics like Nammukku paarkkaan munthiri thoppukal (1986) by Padmarajan, Adi Shankara (1984) by director G V Iyer, and Perumthachan (1990) by Ajayan have gained worldwide acclaim. South India is home to several distinct dance forms — the Koodiyattam, Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Yakshagana, Theyyam, Ottamthullal, Oppana, Kerala Natanam and Mohiniaattam.

South India has an independent literary tradition going back over 2500 years. The first known literature of South India are the poetic Sangams, which were written in Tamil between 2500 to 2100 years ago. The 850 CE Kannada classic Kavirajamarga written by King Amoghavarsha I makes references to Kannada literature of King Durvinita in the early sixth century CE. Tamil Buddhist commentators of the tenth century CE Nemrinatham make references to Kannada literature of the fourth century CE. Distinct Malayalam and Telugu literary traditions developed in the following centuries.

South India has two distinct styles of rock architecture, the pure dravida style of Tamil Nadu and the Vesara style (also called Karnata dravida style) present in Karnataka. The inspirational temple sculptures of Hampimarker, Badamimarker, Bhattiprolumarker,Simhachalammarker, Sri Kalahastimarker, Pattadakalmarker, Aiholemarker, Belurmarker, Halebidumarker, Lakkundimarker, Shravanabelagolamarker, Mahabalipurammarker, Tanjoremarker, Maduraimarker and the mural paintings of Travancore and Lepakshimarker temples, also stand as a testament to South Indian culture. The paintings of Raja Ravi Varma are considered classic renditions of many a scenes of South Indian life and mythology.Murudeshwaramarker, a town in Uttar Kannadamarker district is known for the world's tallest Shiva statue.

The main spiritual traditions of South India include both Shaivite and Vaishnavite branches of Hinduism, although Buddhist and Jain philosophies had been influential several centuries earlier. Shravanabelagolamarker in Karnataka is a popular pilgrimage center for Jains. Ayyavazhi is spread significantly across the southernmost parts of South India. Its followers are more densely populated in South Tamil Nadumarker and Keralamarker. There is a large Muslim community in South India, particularly in the Malabar coast, which can trace its roots to the ancient maritime trade between Kerala and Omanismarker and other Arabs. Christianity has flourished in coastal South India from the times of St. Thomas the Apostle who is believed to have come to Kerala and established the Syrian Christian tradition today called as Saint Thomas Christians or Nasrani. Kerala is also home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world who are supposed to have arrived in the Malabar coast during the time of King Solomon. The oldest surviving Jewish synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations is the Paradesi Synagoguemarker in Kochimarker, Kerala.

See also



Notes

  1. John McLeod., "A History of India", Greenwood Press, 2002
  2. The Better Half. Outlook India. July 16, 2007
  3. Also A Head for Numbers. Outlook India. July 16, 2007
  4. National Family Health Survey
  5. Agarwal, D.P. "Urban Origins in India", 2006. Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala Universitet
  6. T. K. Velu Pillai, 1940; Wilfred Schoff 1912 "Periplus Maris Erythraei" (trans) 1912, Menachery, G 1998; James Hough 1893; K.V. Krishna Iyer 1971
  7. (Bjorn Landstrom, 1964; Miller, J. Innes. 1969; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; & Koder S. 1973; Leslie Brown, 1956
  8. List of Proposed Wildlife Sanctuaries in India. Wildlife Institute of India.
  9. States Reorganisation Act, 1956. Government of India.
  10. K.A. Nilakanta Sastri., "A History of South India"7th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  11. Language Family Trees - Dravidian. Ethnologue.
  12. Robert Caldwell., "A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages" 3rd ed. rev. and edited by J.L. Wyatt, T. Ramakrishna Pillai. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1998. ISBN 81-206-0117-3
  13. Upadhyaya, U. Padmanabha. Coastal Karnataka: Studies in Folkloristic and Linguistic Traditions of Dakshina Kannada Region of the Western Coast of India. Udupi: Rashtrakavi Govind Pai Samshodhana Kendra, 1996. P- ix, ISBN 81-86668-06-3, First All India Conference of Dravidian Linguistics, Thiruvananthapuram, 1973
  14. Also A Head For Numbers. Outlook India. July 16, 2007
  15. "PATTERNS AND DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN INDIAN STATES", Indian Council For Research On International Economic Relations. September 2004
  16. Growth in India’s State Economies Before and With Reforms: Shares and Determinants. Shand, Bhide. November 2001
  17. "Madras, the Detroit of South Asia". rediff.com. Oct 25, 2000
  18. "List of Central Public Sector Enterprises Under Different States" (Appendix III). Department of Public Enterprises. Government of India. March 31, 2006
  19. "Foreign Direct Investment". Government of India.
  20. A state of disparity
  21. Beck, Brenda. 1976; Bharata, 1967; Boulanger, Chantal; 1997; Dehejia, Vidya, Richard H. Davis, R. Nagaswamy, Karen Pechilis Prentiss, 2002; Wadley, Susan, ed. 1980
  22. Dr. R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, 2000, Page 100, "At present thousands of Pathis (Nizhal Thangals) are seen throughout South India."
  23. Dina Thanthi (Tamil Daily), Nagercoil Edition, 4-3-2007, Page 23: "The Ayyavazhi followers are highly populated in the districts of Chennai, Virudunagar, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari."
  24. Tha. Krishna Nathan's, Ayyaa vaikundarin vaazvum sinthanaiyum (Tamil), (Thesis in Madurai Kamaraj University), Thinai Veliyeettagam, Chapter - 4, page 83.
  25. Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Mundalan, A. M; 1984; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956
  26. David de Beth Hillel, 1832; Lord, James Henry, 1977; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; Koder S. 1973


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