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South Park is an American animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone for the Comedy Central television network. Intended for mature audiences, the show has become infamous for its crude, surreal, satirical, and dark humor that lampoons a wide range of topics. The ongoing narrative revolves around four children—Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman, and Kenny McCormick—and their bizarre adventures in and around the fictional and titular Coloradomarker town.

Parker and Stone developed the show from two animated shorts they created in 1992 and 1995. The latter became one of the first Internet viral videos, which ultimately led to its production as a series. South Park debuted on August 13, 1997 with great success, consistently earning the highest ratings of any basic cable program. Subsequent ratings have varied, but the show remains Comedy Central's highest-rated and longest-running program. A total of 195 episodes have been broadcast, and the thirteenth season concluded on November 18, 2009. Parker and Stone, who continue to do most of the writing, directing, and voice acting, are under contract to produce 14 new episodes a year through 2011. Their staff creates each episode with computer software that emulates the show's distinct cutout animation style.

Following the early success of the series, the feature-length musical film South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut had a widespread theatrical release in June 1999. South Park has also received numerous media awards, including four Primetime Emmy Awards. The show has also garnered a Peabody Award for Comedy Central.


Characters and setting

The show mostly follows a group of four boys—Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman, and Kenny McCormick—and the adventures they share in South Park, a fictional small town located within the real-life South Park basin in the Rocky Mountains of central Coloradomarker. The town, sometimes described within the show as "a pissant white-bread mountain town", is also home to an assortment of frequent characters such as students, families, elementary school staff, and other various residents. Prominent settings on the show include the local elementary school, bus stop, various neighborhoods and the surrounding snowy landscape, and the shops and businesses along the town's main street, all of which are based on the appearance of similar locations in the town of Fairplay, Coloradomarker.

Stan is portrayed as the everyman of the group, as the show's official website describes him as "a normal, average, American, mixed-up kid". Kyle is the lone Jew among the group, and his portrayal in this role is often dealt with satirically. Stan is modeled after Parker, while Kyle is modeled after Stone. Stan and Kyle are best friends, and their relationship, which is intended to reflect the real-life friendship between Parker and Stone, is a common topic throughout the series. Cartman—loud, obnoxious, racist and obese—is often portrayed as an antagonist whose anti-Semitic attitude has resulted in an ever-progressing rivalry with Kyle. Kenny, who comes from a poor family, wears his parka hood so tightly that it covers most of his face and muffles his speech. During the show's first five seasons, Kenny would die in nearly each episode before returning in the next with little or no definitive explanation given. During the show's first 58 episodes, the boys were in the third grade. In the season four episode "4th Grade" (2000), they—along with the other main child characters—entered the fourth grade, where they have remained ever since.

Plots are often set in motion by events, ranging from the fairly typical to the supernatural and extraordinary, which frequently happen upon the town. The boys often act as the voice of reason when these events cause panic or incongruous behavior among the adult populace, who are customarily depicted as irrational, gullible, and prone to vociferation. The boys are also frequently confused by the contradictory and hypocritical behavior of their parents and other adults, and often perceive them as having distorted views on morality and society.

Themes and style

Each episode opens with a tongue-in-cheek disclaimer:
All characters and events in this show—even those based on real people—are entirely fictional.
All celebrity voices are impersonated.....poorly.
The following program contains coarse language and due to its content it should not be viewed by anyone.

South Park was the first weekly program to be assigned the TV-MA rating, and is generally intended for adult audiences. The boys and most other child characters use strong profanity, with only the most taboo words being bleeped by censors during a typical broadcast. The use of such language serves as a means for Parker and Stone to display how they claim young boys really talk when they are alone.

South Park commonly makes use of carnivalesque and absurdist techniques, numerous running gags, violence, sexual content, offhand pop-cultural references, and satirical portrayal of celebrities.The early episodes tended to be shock value-oriented and featured more slapstick-style humor. While social satire had been used on the show occasionally earlier on, it became more prevalent as the series progressed, with the show retaining some of its focus on the boys' fondness of scatological humor in an attempt to remind adult viewers "what it was like to be eight years old". Parker and Stone also began further developing other characters by giving them larger roles in certain storylines, and began writing plots as parables based around religion, politics, and numerous other topics. This provided the opportunity for the show to spoof both extreme sides of contentious issues, while lampooning both liberal and conservative points of view. Parker and Stone describe themselves as "equal opportunity offenders", whose main agenda is to "be funny" and "make people laugh", while stating that no particular topic or group of people be spared the expense of being subject to mockery and satire.

The two insist that the show is still more about "kids being kids" and "what it's like to be in [elementary school] in America", stating that the introduction of a more satirical element to the series was the result of the two adding more of a "moral center" to the show so that it would rely less on simply being crude and shocking in an attempt to maintain an audience. While profane, and with a tendency to sometimes be cynical, Parker notes that there is still an "underlying sweetness" aspect to the child characters, and Time described the boys as "sometimes cruel but with a core of innocence". Usually, the boys and/or other characters ponder over what has transpired during an episode and convey the important lesson taken from it with a short monologue. During earlier seasons, this speech would commonly begin with a variation of the phrase "You know what? I've learned something today...".

Origins and creation

Soon after meeting in film class at the University of Coloradomarker in 1992, Parker and Stone created an animated short entitled "The Spirit of Christmas". The film, referred to as "Jesus vs. Frosty" by fans, was created by animating construction paper cutouts with stop motion, and features prototypes of the main characters of South Park, including a character resembling Cartman but named "Kenny", an unnamed character resembling what is today Kenny, and two near-identical unnamed characters who resemble Stan and Kyle. Brian Graden, Fox network executive and mutual friend, commissioned Parker and Stone to create a second short film as a video Christmas card. Created in 1995, the second "The Spirit of Christmas" short (referred to by fans as "Jesus vs. Santa") resembled the style of the later series more closely. Graden sent copies of the video to several of his friends, and from there it was copied and distributed, including among the Internet, where it became one of the first viral videos.

As the short became more popular, Parker and Stone began talks of developing the short into a television series. Fox refused to pick up the series, not wanting to air a show that included the character Mr. Hankey, a talking piece of feces. The two then entered negotiations with both MTV and Comedy Central. Parker preferred the show be produced by Comedy Central, fearing that MTV would turn it into a kids show. When Comedy Central executive Doug Herzog watched the short, he commissioned for it to be developed into a series.

Parker and Stone assembled a small staff and spent three months creating the pilot episode "Cartman Gets an Anal Probe". South Park was in danger of being canceled before it even aired when the show tested poorly with test audiences, particularly with women. However, the shorts were still gaining more popularity over the Internet, and Comedy Central agreed to order a run of six episodes. South Park debuted with "Cartman Gets an Anal Probe" on August 13, 1997.


Except for the pilot episode, which was produced using cutout animation, all episodes of South Park are created with the use of computer software. As opposed to the pilot, which took three months to complete, and other animated sitcoms, which are traditionally hand-drawn by companies in South Koreamarker in a process that takes roughly eight-to-nine months, individual episodes of South Park take significantly less time to produce. Using computers as an animation method, the show's production staff were able to generate an episode in about three weeks during the first seasons. Now, with a staff of about 70 people, episodes are typically completed in one week, with some in as little as three to four days. Nearly the entire production of an episode is accomplished within one set of offices, which were originally at a complex in Westwood, Californiamarker, and are now part of South Park Studios in Culver City, Californiamarker. Parker and Stone have been the show's executive producers throughout its entire history, while Anne Garefino has served as South Park's co-executive producer since the latter part of the first season.{{cite web|url= |title=The wrangler|date=Fall, 2006||accessdate=2009-06-25|last=Mantell|first=Suzanne }} [[20th Century Fox]] Senior Production Executive [[Debbie Liebling]] also served as an executive producer during the show's first five seasons, coordinating the show's production efforts between South Park Studios and Comedy Central's headquarters in [[New York City]].{{cite web |url= |title=Fox folding Atomic label|date=2009-04-19 ||accessdate=2009-08-11|last=Fleming|first=Michael}} {{cite web |url= |title=Liebling ankles her Comedy post|date=2002-04-02||accessdate=2009-06-25 |last=Grego|first=Melissa}} Scripts are not written before a season begins.{{cite news | author = Jesse McKinley | title = Norman Lear Discovers Soul Mates in 'South Park' | work = The New York Times| date = 2003-04-10| url =| accessdate = 2009-05-09}} Production of an episode begins on a Thursday, with the show's writing consultants [[brainstorming]] with Parker and Stone. Former staff writers include [[Pam Brady]], who has since written scripts for the films ''[[Hot Rod (film)|Hot Rod]]'' and ''[[Hamlet 2]]'', and [[Nancy Pimental]], who served as co-host of ''[[Win Ben Stein's Money]]'' and wrote the film ''[[The Sweetest Thing]]'' after her tenure with the show during its first three seasons.{{cite web|url=,1,3124350.story|title=Movie Review: 'Hamlet 2' - 3 stars out of 5 - Los Angeles Times|date=2008-08-20 ||accessdate=2009-06-25|last=Moore|first=Roger}}{{cite web|url= |title=A Fun Woman: Nancy Pimental|2002-06-01||accessdate=2009-06-25 |last=Sellers|first=John}} Television producer and writer [[Norman Lear]], an idol of both Parker and Stone, served as a guest writing consultant for the [[South Park (season 7)|season seven]] (2003) episodes "[[Cancelled (South Park)|Cancelled]]" and "[[I'm a Little Bit Country]]".{{cite web |url= |title=TV icon Norman Lear is goin' down to 'South Park'|date=2003-03-17 ||accessdate=2009-05-22|last=Keveney|first=Bill}}{{cite web|url= |title=South Park Boys Hit 100 Episodes; Norman Lear To Collaborate On New Season|date=2003-03-13 ||accessdate=2009-06-25}} During the last two seasons, ''[[Saturday Night Live]]'' actor and writer [[Bill Hader]] has served as a [[creative consultant]] and co-producer.{{cite news|url=|title=Hader and Harjo: Tulsa talents keep on making must-sees |last=Smith|first=Michael|date=2009-10-16|publisher=Tulsa World|accessdate=2009-10-21}}{{cite news|url=|title=Bill Hader: The EW Pop Culture Personality Test|last=Bierly|first=Mandi|date=2009-04-03|publisher=Entertainment Weekly|accessdate=2009-10-21}}{{cite news|url=|title=The 'Riffs Interview: 'SNL's' Bill Hader Embraces His Inner Nerd for 'Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs'|last=Cavna|first=Michael|date=September 2009|publisher=Washington Post|accessdate=2009-10-21}} After exchanging ideas, Parker will write a script, and from there the entire team of animators, editors, technicians, and sound engineers will each typically work 100–120 hours in the ensuing week.{{cite web |url = |title = South Park Studios: No Walk in the Park |accessdate = 2008-12-21 |author = Driver, Dustin |publisher = [[Apple Inc.]] }} Since the show's [[South Park (season 4)|fourth season]] (2000), Parker has assumed most of the show's directorial duties, while Stone relinquished his share of the directing to focus on handling the coordination and business aspects of the production.{{cite web|url= |title=South Park has a silent partner | - Culture - Entertainment|date=2007-04-23 ||accessdate=2009-06-24|last=Weinman|first=Jaime J.}} On Wednesday, a completed episode is sent to Comedy Central's headquarters via satellite uplink, sometimes in just a few hours before its air time of 10 PM [[Eastern Time Zone|Eastern Time]].{{cite web | title = 40 Questions| url =| date = 2001-10-04| publisher = South Park Studios | accessdate = 2009-01-30 }} Parker and Stone state that subjecting themselves to a one-week deadline creates more spontaneity amongst themselves in the creative process, which they feel results a funnier show. The schedule also allows ''South Park'' to both stay more topical and respond more quickly to specific current events than other satiric animated shows.{{cite web| author=Jake Trapper and Dan Morris| title=Secrets of 'South Park'| publisher=[[ABC News]]| date=2006-09-22| url=| accessdate=2009-04-18}} One of the earliest examples of this was in the [[South Park (season 4)|season four]] (2000) episode "[[Quintuplets 2000]]", which references the [[United States Border Patrol]]'s raid of a house during the [[Elian Gonzalez affair]], an event which occurred only four days before the episode originally aired.{{cite web|url=,,617720,00.html|title='South Park' Salutes Elian|author=Stephen M. Silverman|date=2000||accessdate=2009-03-26}} The [[South Park (season 9)|season nine]] (2005) episode "[[Best Friends Forever]]" references the [[Terri Schiavo case]], and originally aired in the midst of the controversy and less than 12 hours before she died.{{cite news | author = Kate Aurthur | title = 'South Park' Echoes the Schiavo Case | work = The New York Times| date = 2005-04-02| url =| accessdate = 2009-05-05}} A scene in the [[South Park (season 7)|season seven]] (2003) finale "[[It's Christmas in Canada]]" references the discovery of dictator [[Saddam Hussein]] in a "spider hole" and his subsequent [[Operation Red Dawn|capture]], which happened a mere three days prior to the episode airing.{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: December 2003 |accessdate = 2008-10-19 |date = 2003-12-19 |publisher = }} The [[South Park (season 12)|season 12]] (2008) episode "[[About Last Night... (South Park)|About Last Night...]]" revolves around [[Barack Obama]]'s victory in the [[United States presidential election, 2008|2008 presidential election]], and aired less than 24 hours after Obama was declared the winner, using segments of dialogue from Obama's real victory speech.{{cite web|url=|title= How South Park Pulled off "About Last Night..."|publisher=[[IGN]]|date=2008-11-06|author=Fickett, Travis|accessdate=2008-11-17}} ===Animation=== [[File:South Park production comparison.png|thumb|right|Montage showing the stages of an animation process: On top, a simple black and white sketch of a male child in a rocket kiddie-ride, while another young boy stands next to the ride and reluctantly holds the rider's hand. In the middle, stock animation characters reflecting the sketch shown at top, sans background characters. At bottom, a screenshot of a fully-animated frame showing the same event, complete with characters and arcade games in the background|The various stages of production (from top to bottom): the storyboard sketch, the CorelDraw props with stock character models, and a frame from the fully-rendered episode.]] The show's style of animation is inspired by the paper cut-out cartoons made by [[Terry Gilliam]] for ''[[Monty Python's Flying Circus]]'', of which Parker and Stone have been lifelong fans.{{cite news | author = Jeffrey Ressner and James Collins| title = Gross And Grosser | work = [[Time (magazine)|Time]] | date = 1998-03-23 | url =,9171,988028-3,00.html | accessdate = 2009-04-28}}{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: April 2001 |accessdate = 2008-12-21 |date = 2001-03-18 |publisher = }} [[Construction paper]] and traditional [[stop motion]] [[cutout animation]] techniques were used in the original animated shorts and in the pilot episode. Subsequent episodes have been produced by [[computer animation]], providing a similar look to the originals while requiring a fraction of the time to produce. Before computer artists begin animating an episode, a series of [[Traditional animation|animatics]] drawn with [[Adobe Photoshop]] are provided by the show's storyboard artists.{{cite web|url= |title=Part 2: Storyboard|date=Spring 2009||accessdate=2009-06-25 }}Video interview with show storyboard artist Keo Thongkham The characters and objects are composed of simple geometrical shapes and [[primary color]]s. Most child characters are the same size and shape, and are distinguished by their distinctive clothing and head wear. Characters are mostly presented two-dimensionally and from only one angle. Their movements are animated in an intentionally jerky fashion, as they are purposely not offered the same free range of motion associated with hand-drawn characters.{{cite news | author = Abbie Bernstein| title = South Park - Volume 2 | publisher =| date = 1998-10-27| url =| accessdate = 2008-04-30}} Occasionally, some non-fictional characters are depicted with photographic cutouts of their actual head and face in lieu of a face reminiscent of the show's traditional style. Canadians on the show are often portrayed in an even more minimalist fashion; they have simple beady eyes, and the top halves of their heads simply flap up and down when the characters speak. Once the show began using computers, characters began to be shown in profile. When the show began utilizing computers, the cardboard cutouts were scanned and re-drawn with [[CorelDRAW]], then imported into [[PowerAnimator]], which was used with [[Silicon Graphics|SGI]] workstations to animate the characters. The workstations were linked to a 54-processor [[render farm]] that could render 10 to 15 [[Shot (filmmaking)|shot]]s an hour. Beginning with [[South Park (season 5)|season five]], the animators began using [[Autodesk Maya|Maya]] instead of PowerAnimator.{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: May 2001 |accessdate = 2008-12-19 |date = 2001-05-14 |publisher = }} The studio now runs a 120-processor render farm that can produce 30 or more shots an hour. PowerAnimator and Maya are high-end programs mainly used for [[3D computer graphics]], while co-producer and former animation director, [[Eric Stough]], notes that PowerAnimator was initially chosen because its features helped animators retain the show's "homemade" look. PowerAnimator was also used for making some of the show's special effects, which are now created using [[Motion (software)|Motion]], a newer graphics program created by [[Apple, Inc.]] for their [[Mac OS X]] [[operating system]]. The show's visual quality has improved in recent seasons, though several other techniques are used to intentionally preserve the cheap cutout animation look.{{cite web |url = |title = It Ain't Easy Making South Park Cheesy |accessdate = 2008-12-15 |author = Tanner, Mike |date = 1997-09-03 |publisher = ''[[Wired (magazine)|Wired]]'' }}{{cite web |url = |title = The Ars Technica South Park interview: Let's talk hardware and software |accessdate = 2008-12-21 |author = Dr. Evil |date = 1999-07-26 |publisher = [[Ars Technica]] }} A few episodes feature sections of [[live-action]] footage, while others have incorporated other styles of animation. Portions of the [[South Park (season 8)|season eight]] (2004) premiere "[[Good Times with Weapons]]" are done in [[anime]] style, while the [[South Park (season 10)|season 10]] episode "[[Make Love, Not Warcraft]]" is done partly in [[machinima]].{{cite web |url = |title = "Make Love, Not Warcraft": Q&A with Frank Agnone, J.J. Franzen, and Eric Stough. |accessdate = 2008-12-19 |date = 2006-11-15 |publisher = [[]] }} The [[South Park (season 12)|season 12]] episode "[[Major Boobage]]", a homage to the 1981 animated film ''[[Heavy Metal (film)|Heavy Metal]]'', implements scenes accomplished with [[rotoscoping]].{{cite web |url = |title = Major Boobage: Behind The Scenes |accessdate = 2009-05-23 |author = |date = December 2008 |publisher = South Park Studios }} Since the beginning of [[List of South Park episodes#Season 13: 2009|season 13]] (2009) the show has been broadcast in [[High-definition video|high definition]], and [[List of South Park episodes#Season 12: 2008|season 12]] was released in high definition on [[Blu-ray Disc]] format.{{cite web|url=| title=South Park Now in HD|accessdate= 2009-03-06|last=Goldman|first=Eric|date=2009-01-13|publisher=[[IGN]]}} ===Voice cast=== Parker and Stone voice most of the male ''South Park'' characters.{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: April 2002 |accessdate = 2008-10-19 |date = 2002-04-23 |publisher = }} [[Mary Kay Bergman]] voiced the majority of the female characters until her [[suicide]] on November 11, 1999. [[Mona Marshall]] and [[Eliza Schneider]] succeeded Bergman, with Schneider leaving the show after its [[South Park (season 7)|seventh season]] (2003). She was replaced by [[April Stewart]], who, along with Marshall, continues to voice most of the female characters. Bergman was originally listed in the credits under the alias Shannen Cassidy to protect her reputation as the voice of several [[The Walt Disney Company|Disney]] and other kid-friendly characters.{{cite web|url=,,84813,00.html|title=A Voice Silenced |date=1999-11-22|work=[[Entertainment Weekly]]|accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Bonin|first=Liane}} Stewart was originally credited under the name Gracie Lazar,{{cite web|url=|title=April Stewart - ABOUT ||accessdate=2009-05-23}} while Schneider was sometimes credited under her [[rock opera]] performance [[pseudonym]] Blue Girl.{{cite web |url=|title=MY BIO:::: Eliza Jane ||accessdate=2009-05-23}} Other voice actors and members of ''South Park'''s production staff have voiced minor characters for various episodes, while a few staff members voice recurring characters; supervising producer [[Jennifer Howell]] voices student [[List of students at South Park Elementary#Bebe Stevens|Bebe Stevens]], co-producer and storyboard artist [[Adrien Beard]] voices the school's only black student, [[List of students at South Park Elementary#Token Black|Token Black]],{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: April 2001 |accessdate = 2008-10-19 |date = 2001-04-30 |publisher = }} writing consultant [[Vernon Chatman]] voices an [[anthropomorphism|anthropomorphic]] towel named [[List of other South Park residents#Towelie|Towelie]], and production supervisor [[John 'Nancy' Hansen|John Hansen]] voices [[List of staff at South Park Elementary#Mr. Slave|Mr. Slave]], the former gay lover of [[Herbert Garrison|Mr. Garrison]].{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: November 2003 |accessdate = 2008-10-13 |date = 2003-11-21 |publisher = }} Throughout the show's run, the voices for toddler and kindergarten characters have been provided by various small children of the show's production staff.{{cite web| url=| title=Ike FAQ Archives| publisher=South Park Studios| accessdate=2009-02-04}} When voicing child characters, the voice actors speak within their normal vocal range while adding a child-like inflection. The recorded audio is then edited with [[Pro Tools]], and the pitch is altered to make the voice sound more like that of a fourth grader.{{cite web | author = Stephanie Jorgl| title = South Park: Where The Sound Ain't No Joke!| publisher = Digizine | date = 2005| url= | accessdate = 2009-04-30}}{{cite web | title = South Park FAQ |url =| date = 2009-02-10 | publisher = South Park Studios | accessdate = 2009-04-30}} [[Isaac Hayes]] voiced the character of [[Chef (South Park)|Chef]], a black, [[Soul music|soul-singing]] cafeteria worker who was one of the few adults the boys consistently trusted.{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: June 2001 |accessdate = 2008-10-13 |date = 2001-06-28 |publisher = }} Hayes agreed to voice the character after being among Parker and Stone's ideal candidates which also included [[Lou Rawls]] and [[Barry White]].{{cite video | people=Trey Parker, Matt Stone|year=|title=Goin' Down to South Park |medium=Television documentary|publisher=Comedy Central}} Hayes, who lived and hosted a radio show in New York during his tenure with ''South Park'', would record his dialogue on a digital audio tape while a respective episode's director would give directions over the phone, then the tape would be shipped to the show's production studio in California. After Hayes left the show in early 2006, the character of Chef was [[Chef (South Park)#Death of Chef|killed off]] in the [[South Park (season 10)|season 10]] (2006) premiere "[[The Return of Chef]]". ==== Guest stars ==== Celebrities who appear on the show are usually impersonated, though some celebrities lend their voice to their characters. Celebrities who have voiced themselves include [[Michael Buffer]],{{cite web|url=|title=Buffer 'rumbles' his way to the top|date=2007-05-25 ||accessdate=2009-05-26|last=Richmond|first=Ray}}{{cite web|url=|title='SOUTH PARK' ON RELIGION: UNBELIEVABLY TASTELESS - & FUNNY|date=1998-02-04 ||accessdate=2009-08-11|last=Mink|first=Eric}} [[Brent Musburger]],{{cite web|url= |title=Lavin enjoying work with legendary broadcaster|date=2007-03-04| |accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Albee|first=Dave}} [[Jay Leno]],{{cite web |url=|title=Jay Leno profile: When Big Ears met Big Chin |date=2009-03-20||accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Leonard|first=Tom}} [[Robert Smith (musician)|Robert Smith]], and the bands [[Radiohead]] and [[Korn]].{{cite web|url= |title=Radiohead drawn into South Park|date=2001-07-05| |accessdate=2009-05-23|last=|first=}}{{cite web|url=|title=Korn To Premiere New Track During "South Park" Special|date=1999-10-11||accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Basham|first=David}} Comedy team [[Cheech & Chong]] voiced characters representing similar likenesses to themselves for the [[South Park (season 4)|season four]] (2000) episode "[[Cherokee Hair Tampons]]", which was the duo's first collaborative effort in 20 years.{{cite web |url=|title=Cheech and Chong Will Make Another Movie|date=2009-03-05||accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Cashmere |first=Paul}} [[Malcolm McDowell]] appears in live-action sequences as the narrator of the [[South Park (season 4)|season four]] episode "[[Pip (South Park)|Pip]]".{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: November 2008 |accessdate = 2008-12-19 |date = 2008-11-12 |publisher = }} [[Jennifer Aniston]],{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: April 2001 |accessdate = 2008-10-19 |date = 2001-04-20 |publisher = }} [[Richard Belzer]],{{cite web |url=|title='SOUTH PARK' RULES BUT SCHEDULE BITES |date=2000-04-05||accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Mink|first=Eric}} [[Natasha Henstridge]] (billed in the opening credits as "The chick from ''[[Species (film)|Species]]''"),{{cite web|url=|title='PARK' WON'T MESS WITH EXCESS |date=1998-01-20||accessdate=2009-05-22|last=Williams|first=Scott }} [[Norman Lear]],{{cite web|url=|title=Getting Out the Vote, Keeping Up With Youth|date=2008-08-13 ||accessdate=2009-05-24|last=Barnes|first=Brooks|last2=Cathcart |first2=Rebecca}} and [[Peter Serafinowicz]]{{cite web |url=|title=My Secret Life: Peter Serafinowicz, Actor and comedian, age 36 |date=2008-08-30||accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Philby|first=Charlotte }} have guest starred as other speaking characters. During ''South Park'''s earliest seasons, several high-profile celebrities inquired about guest-starring on the show. As a joke, Parker and Stone responded by offering low-profile, non-speaking roles, most of which were accepted; [[George Clooney]] provided the barks for Stan's dog Sparky in the [[South Park (season 1)|season one]] (1997) episode "[[Big Gay Al's Big Gay Boat Ride]]",{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: October 2001 |accessdate = 2008-10-19 |date = 2001-10-27 |publisher = }} Leno provided the meows for Cartman's cat in the season one finale "[[Cartman's Mom Is a Dirty Slut]]", and [[Henry Winkler]] voiced the various growls and grunts of a kid-eating monster in the [[South Park (season 2)|season two]] (1998) episode "[[City on the Edge of Forever]]".{{cite web|url=|title=Exclusive: Henry Winkler Talks Sit Down, Shut Up|date=2009-04-13||accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Milligan|first=Mercedes}} [[Jerry Seinfeld]] offered to lend his voice for the [[Thanksgiving]] episode "[[Starvin' Marvin (South Park)|Starvin' Marvin]]", but declined to appear when he was only offered a role as "Turkey #2".{{cite web|url=|title=Where Seinfeld's a turkey|date=1998-06-15||accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Reed|first=Jasper}} ===Music=== [[Image:Isaac hayes 1973.jpg|thumb|right|165px|alt=An adult male with sunglasses plays a piano under a spotlight on a darkened stage, 1973|[[Chef (South Park)|Chef]] would often sing in a style reminiscent of that of his voice actor, [[Isaac Hayes]]]]Parker says that the varying uses of music is of utmost importance to ''South Park''.Arp and Broman, pp. 236-249 Several characters often play or sing songs in order to change or influence a group's behavior, or to educate, motivate, or indoctrinate others. The show also frequently features scenes in which its characters have disapproving reactions to the performances of certain popular musicians. [[Adam Berry]], the show's original score composer, used [[sound synthesis]] to simulate a small orchestra, and frequently alluded to existing famous pieces of music. Berry also used signature acoustic guitar and mandolin cues as [[leitmotif]]s for the show's establishing shots.{{cite web|url=|title=Eating Cheesy Poofs with Adam Berry|date=1998-12-05||accessdate=2009-05-23|last=Goldwasser|first=Dan}} After Berry left in 2001, Jamie Dunlap and Scott Nickoley of the [[Los Angeles]]-based Mad City Production Studios provided the show's original music for the next seven seasons. Since 2008, Dunlap has been credited as the show's sole score composer.{{cite web|url=|title=Cast and Crew - South Park Studios||accessdate=2009-05-23|last=|first=}} Dunlap's contributions to the show are one of the few that are not achieved at the show's own production offices. Dunlap reads a script, creates a score using digital audio software, and then e-mails the audio file to South Park Studios, where it is edited to fit with the completed episode. In addition to singing in an effort to explain something to the children, Chef would also sing about things relevant to what had transpired in the plot. These songs were original compositions written by Parker, and performed by Hayes in the same sexually suggestive [[Rhythm and blues|R&B]] style he had utilized during his own music career. The band [[DVDA (band)|DVDA]], which consists of Parker and Stone, along with show staff members Bruce Howell and D.A. Young, would perform the music for these compositions, and, until the character's death on the show, were listed as "Chef's Band" in the closing credits. [[Rick James]], [[Elton John]], [[Meat Loaf]], [[Joe Strummer]], [[Ozzy Osbourne]], [[Primus (band)|Primus]], [[Rancid (band)|Rancid]], and [[Ween]] all guest starred and briefly performed in the [[South Park (season 2)|season two]] (1998) episode "[[Chef Aid]]". Korn debuted their single "[[Falling Away from Me]]" as guest stars on the [[South Park (season 3)|season three]] (1998) episode "[[Korn's Groovy Pirate Ghost Mystery]]". ====Title sequence==== The show's original theme song was a musical score performed by the band [[Primus (band)|Primus]], while the lyrics are alternately sung by the band's lead singer, [[Les Claypool]], and the show's four central characters. Kenny's muffled lines are altered after every few seasons.{{cite web|url=|title=South Park Studios FAQ|date=September 2001|publisher=South Park Studios|accessdate=2009-10-21}} The original composition was originally slower but was sped up for the show, while an instrumental version of the original composition is often played during the show's closing credits.{{cite web |url = |title = FAQ: March 2002 |accessdate = 2008-10-19 |date = 2002-03-27 |publisher = }} The opening theme song has been remixed three times during the course of the series, including a remix performed by [[Paul Robb]].{{cite news|url=|title=Paul Robb: Leading a Double Life|last=Ohanesian|first=Liz|date=March 2008|publisher=Santa Monica Mirror|accessdate=2009-11-10}} In 2006, the theme music was changed to "Whamola" by [[Colonel Les Claypool's Fearless Flying Frog Brigade]], from the album ''[[Purple Onion]]''.{{cite web|url=|title=South Park Studios FAQ|date=2008-08-18|publisher=South Park Studios|accessdate=2009-11-10}} ==Distribution== {{See also|South Park DVDs}} {{wikinews|South Park episodes available free online}} Internationally, ''South Park'' is broadcast in [[India]], [[New Zealand]], and several countries throughout [[Europe]] and [[Latin America]] on channels that are divisions of Comedy Central and [[MTV Networks]], both subsidiaries of Viacom.{{cite web|url=|title=Comedy, censored|date=2009-05-12||accessdate=2009-05-27|last=Pillai|first=Pooja }} In distribution deals with Comedy Central, other independent networks also broadcast the series in other international markets. In Australia, the show is broadcast on [[The Comedy Channel]], [[Go! (Australian TV channel)|GO!]] and [[Special Broadcasting Service|SBS]].{{cite web|url=|title=SBS Special Broadcasting Service||accessdate=2009-05-27}} The series is broadcast in Canada on [[Télétoon]], [[TQS]] {{cite news | url= | title=South Park to air in French this fall | publisher=[[CBC News]] | date=2009-08-14 | accessdate=2009-08-15}}{{cite news | url= | language=French | title=Les voix de South Park: Karine Vanasse, Xavier Dolan et Alex Perron | date=2009-08-13 | accessdate=2009-08-15 }} (both are french network but the first broadcast the French European version and the second broadcast the French Canadian version) and [[The Comedy Network]]{{cite web|url= |title=Only in Canada, You Say? |date=2007-09-12 ||accessdate=2009-05-27}} (All three broadcast the uncensored version of the cartoon). ''South Park'' also airs on [[TG4]] in [[Ireland]],{{cite web|url=|title=TG4 gives South Park early evening slot:|date=2007-10-07||accessdate=2009-05-27|last= O’Mahony|first=Catherine|last2= Larragy|first2=Simon}} [[Bip (channel)|Bip]] in [[Israel]],{{cite web|url=,20812,667899,00.html |title=Comedy Central to Launch One Hour Nightly Programming Block in Israel in Association With Mega TV|date=2000-10-02||accessdate=2009-05-27}} [[SIC Radical]] in [[Portugal]],{{cite web|url=|title=South Park | SIC Radical||accessdate=2009-08-01}} [[2×2 (TV channel)|2×2]] in [[Russia]],{{cite web|url= |title="South Park" banned in Russia? - New York Post|date=2008-09-11||accessdate=2009-05-27 }} [[STV]] in [[Scotland]],{{cite web |url= |title=Brace yourself Scotland: STV has some depressingly cliched programme ideas ||accessdate=2009-07-02|last=Graham|first=Jane}} and [[B92]] in [[Serbia]].{{cite web|url=|title=South Park heads north|date=2009-04-28||accessdate=2009-05-27|last=Waller|first=Ed}} [[Broadcast syndication]] rights to ''South Park'' were acquired by [[Debmar-Mercury]] and [[Tribune Entertainment]] in 2003 and 2004 respectively.{{cite web|url=|title=Debmar Studios Acquires Broadcast Syndication Rights To Comedy Central's(R) 'South Park'||accessdate=2009-05-27}}{{cite web|url=|title=Oh My God! "South Park" Syndicated |date=2004-07-30||accessdate=2009-05-27|last=Grossberg|first=Josh}} Episodes further edited for content began running in syndication on September 19, 2005, and are aired in the United States with the [[Television content rating systems#United States|TV-14]] rating.{{cite web|url=|title=Sanitized 'Sex,' 'South Park' all set|date=2005-08-28||accessdate=2009-05-27|last=Frankel|first=Daniel}} [[20th Television]] replaced Tribune as co-distributor in early 2008. The series is currently aired in syndication in 90 percent of the television markets across the US and Canada, where it generates an estimated US$25 million a year in advertising revenue.{{cite web|url=|title=SNTA - South Park||accessdate=2009-05-27}}{{cite web|url=|date=2009-02-25|title=Cash for Trash||accessdate=2009-05-27|last=Rose|first=Lacey|last2=Streib|first2=Lauren}} The first twelve seasons of ''South Park'' are available in their entirety on DVD. Several other themed DVD compilations have been released by [[Rhino Entertainment]] and Comedy Central,{{cite web|url=|title=Videos|date=1999-05-20|publisher=''[[The Seattle Times]]''|accessdate=2009-08-11|last=Hart|first=John|last2=McFadden |first2=Kay |last3=Simanton |first3=Keith }} while the three-episode ''[[Imaginationland Episode I#Imaginationland: The Movie|Imaginationland]]'' [[story arc]] was reissued [[direct-to-video|straight-to-DVD]] as a full-length feature in 2008.{{cite web|url=,14216/|date=2008-03-19 |title=Trey Parker & Matt Stone | TV | A.V. Club||accessdate=2009-08-14|last=Robinson|first=Tasha}} {{cite web|url= |title=South Park: Imaginationland Will Bring the Laughs on DVD on March 11th|date=2008-01-17||accessdate=2009-08-14}}{{cite web |url= |title=DVD Roundup: 3.11.08 Blu-ray and DVD Review -|date=2008-03-11| |accessdate=2009-08-14|last=Chitwood|first=Scott}} In March 2008, Comedy Central made all ''South Park'' episodes available for [[streaming media|legal streaming]] on the South Park Studios website.{{cite web|url=|title="South Park" Creators Trey Parker And Matt Stone And Comedy Central Launch The All-New|accessdate=2008-10-19|date=2008-03-25|}} Within a week, the site served more than a million streams of full episodes, and the number grew to 55 million by October 2008.{{cite web|url=|title=BB Exclusive: Sneak Peek At South Park's Sweet, Yet-Unreleased iPhone App|accessdate=2008-10-19|last=Jardin|first=Xeni|date=2008-10-08|publisher=[[Boing Boing]] }} However, legal issues prevent episodes from being accessible outside the US. In Canada, episodes are available for streaming from The Comedy Network's website,{{cite web|url=|title=South Park: Now streaming|date=2008-03-27| |accessdate=2009-08-01|last=Boshra|first=Basem}} and in September 2009, a South Park Studios website with streaming episodes was launched in the UK.{{cite web|| Has Arrived |accessdate=2009-10-06|date=2009-09-26|}} ==Reception== ===Ratings=== When ''South Park'' debuted, it was a huge ratings success for [[Comedy Central]] and is seen as being largely responsible for the success of the channel, with Herzog crediting it for putting the network "on the map".Johnson-Woods, pp. 6-8 The show's first episode, "[[Cartman Gets an Anal Probe]]", earned a [[Nielsen Ratings|Nielsen]] rating of 1.3 (980,000 viewers), considered high for a [[Cable television in the United States|cable program]]. The show instantly generated buzz among television viewers, and mass viewing parties began assembling on college campuses. By the time the eighth episode "[[Starvin' Marvin (South Park)|Starvin' Marvin]]" aired three months after the show debuted, ratings and viewership had tripled, and ''South Park'' was already the most successful show in Comedy Central's history. When the tenth episode "[[Damien (South Park)|Damien]]" aired the following February, viewership increased another 33 percent. The episode earned a 6.4 rating, which at the time was over 10 times the average rating earned by a cable show aired in [[prime time]]. The ratings peaked with the second episode of [[South Park (season 2)|season two]], "[[Cartman's Mom Is Still a Dirty Slut]]", which aired on April 22, 1998. The episode earned an 8.2 rating (6.2 million viewers) and, at the time, set a record as the highest-rated non-sports show in basic cable history. During the spring of 1998, eight of the ten highest-rated shows on basic cable were ''South Park'' episodes. The success of ''South Park'' prompted more cable companies to carry Comedy Central and led it to its becoming one of the fastest-growing cable channels. The number of households that had Comedy Central jumped from 9.1 million in 1997 to 50 million in June 1998. When the show debuted, the most Comedy Central had earned for a 30-second commercial was US$7,500. Within a year, advertisers were paying an average of US$40,000 for 30 seconds of advertising time during airings of ''South Park'' in its second season, while some paid as much as US$80,000.{{cite news| author = David Horowitz | title= Why Gore would censor "South Park"| publisher =| date= 1999-07-19|url =| accessdate = 2009-05-12}} By the third season ([[1999 in television|1999]]), the series' ratings began to decrease.{{cite web|url=|title=Cartman Goin' South? |date=1999-04-27||accessdate=2009-05-27}} The third season premiere episode drew only 3.4 million viewers, a dramatic drop from the 5.5 million of the previous season's premiere. Stone and Parker attributed this drop in the show's ratings to the media hype that surrounded the show in the previous year, adding that the third season ratings reflected the show's "true" fan base. The show's ratings dropped further in its fourth season ([[2000 in television|2000]]), with episodes averaging just above 1.5 million viewers. The ratings eventually increased, and seasons five through nine consistently averaged about 3 million viewers per episode. Though its viewership is lower than it was at the height of its popularity in its earliest seasons, ''South Park'' remains the highest-rated series on Comedy Central. ===Recognitions and awards=== In 2007, ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' magazine included the show on its list of the "100 Best TV Shows of All Time", proclaiming it as "America's best source of rapid-fire satire for [the past] decade".{{cite web |url =,28804,1651341_1659196_1652729,00.html |title = South Park — The 100 Best TV Shows Of All-Time |accessdate = 2008-10-19 |author = Poniewozik, James |date = 2007-08-14 |publisher = ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]''}} The same year, ''[[Rolling Stone]]'' declared it to be the funniest show on television since its debut 10 years prior.{{cite web|url=|title=Still Sick, Still Wrong|date=2007-03-22||accessdate=2009-05-27 |last=Grigoriadis|first=Vanessa}} In 2008, ''South Park'' was named the 12th-greatest TV show of the past 25 years by ''[[Entertainment Weekly]]'',{{cite web |url =,,20207076_20207387_20207339,00.html |title = The New Classics: TV |accessdate = 2008-10-19 |date = 2008-06-17 |publisher = ''[[Entertainment Weekly]]'' }} while [[AOL]] declared it as having the "most astute" characters of any show in history when naming it the 16th-best television comedy series of all time.{{cite web|url=|title=50 Best TV Comedies – Ever - Inside TV Blog|date=April 2008||accessdate=2009-05-27}} The character of Cartman ranked 10th on [[TV Guide]]'s 2002 list of the "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters",{{cite news|url=|title=TV Guide's 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time |accessdate=2007-08-25|date=2002-07-30|publisher=[[CNN]]}} 198th on [[VH1]]'s "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons",Mansour, p. 144 19th on [[Bravo (US TV network)|Bravo]]'s "100 Greatest TV Characters" television special in 2004,{{cite web|url=|title=The 100 Greatest TV Characters|publisher=[[Bravo (US TV network)|Bravo]]|accessdate=2007-08-25}} and second on [[MSNBC]]'s 2005 list of TV's scariest characters.{{cite news| author = Brian Bellmont| title = TV’s top 10 scariest characters| work = [[MSNBC]]| date = 2005-11-01| url =| accessdate = 2009-05-09}} In 2006, Comedy Central received a [[Peabody Award]] for ''South Park'''s "stringent social commentary" and "undeniably fearless lampooning of all that is self-important and hypocritical in American life". ''South Park'' won the [[CableACE Award]] for Best Animated Series in 1997, the last year the awards were given out.Basile, Nancy. [ South Park Awards]. [[]]. Last accessed August 15, 2007. In 1998, ''South Park'' was nominated for the [[Annie Award]] for Outstanding Achievement in an Animated Primetime or Late Night Television Program. It was also nominated for the 1998 [[GLAAD Media Awards|GLAAD Award]] for Outstanding TV – Individual Episode for "[[Big Gay Al's Big Gay Boat Ride]]". ''South Park'' has been nominated for the [[Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program (for Programming Less Than One Hour)|Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program]] eight times (1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, [[58th Primetime Emmy Awards#Outstanding Animated Program (Less Than One Hour)|2006]], [[59th Primetime Emmy Awards#Outstanding Animated Program (for programming less than one hour)|2007]] and 2009.) The show has won the award for Outstanding Animated Program (For Programming Less Than One Hour) three times, for the 2005 episode "[[Best Friends Forever]]",{{cite web|url=|title=South Park Awards|accessdate=2008-12-25|}} the 2006 episode "[[Make Love, Not Warcraft]]",{{cite web |url = |title = 59th Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards Nominees/Winners |accessdate = 2008-10-19 |year = 2007 |publisher = [[Academy of Television Arts & Sciences]] }} and the 2009 episode "[[Margaritaville (South Park)|Margaritaville]]". The [[Imaginationland Episode I|Imaginationland]] trilogy of episodes won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program (For Programming One Hour Or More) in 2008.{{cite web |url = |format=PDF|title = 2008 Creative Arts Emmy winners |accessdate = 2008-09-13 |date = 2008-09-13 |publisher = [[Academy of Television Arts & Sciences]] }} ===Criticism and controversy=== {{main|South Park controversies}} {{Wikinewspar2|Isaac Hayes quits South Park over Scientology episode|35 South Park complaints not upheld, New Zealand}} The show's frequent depiction of taboo subject matter, general toilet humor, accessibility to children viewers, disregard of decency standards, and portrayal of religion for comic effect have been the main sources for generating controversy and debate over the course of its run. As the series first became popular, several schools barred its students from wearing ''South Park''-related T-shirts, while several parent councils in the United Kingdom expressed concern when eight and nine-year-old children voted the ''South Park'' character Cartman as their favorite personality in a 1999 poll.{{cite news | title = Cartman top with kids| publisher = [[BBC]] | date = 1999-08-26 | url = | accessdate = 2009-05-09}} Parker and Stone, who are not opposed to allowing older children and teenagers watch the show, assert however that the show is not meant to be viewed by young children, and the show is certified with TV ratings that indicate its intention for mature audiences.{{cite news | author = Lawrie Mifflin | title = TV Stretches Limits of Taste, to Little Outcry| work = The New York Times | date = 1998-04-06 | url = | accessdate = 2009-05-09}} [[Parents Television Council]] founder [[L. Brent Bozell III]] and [[Action for Children's Television]] founder [[Peggy Charren]] have both condemned the show, with the latter claiming it is "dangerous to the democracy".{{cite web| last = Bozell | first = L. Brent III| authorlink = L. Brent Bozell III| title = 'South Park' Reconsidered, Sort Of| work = [[Media Research Center|]]| publisher = [[Creators Syndicate]]| date = 1998-02-11| url =| accessdate = 2007-07-14 }}{{cite news | author = Frank Rich | title = Conservatives ♥ 'South Park' | work = The New York Times | date = 2005-05-01 | url=| accessdate = 2009-05-03}} Several other activist groups have protested the show's parodies of [[Christianity]] and portrayal of [[Jesus|Jesus Christ]].{{cite web|url=|title=ChildCare Action Project (CAP) Media Analysis Report |date=1999||accessdate=2009-05-22|last=Carder|first=Thomas}} Stone claims that parents who disapprove of ''South Park'' for its portrayal of how kids behave are upset because they "have an idyllic vision of what kids are like", adding "[kids] don't have any kind of social tact or etiquette, they're just complete little raging bastards". The show further lampooned the controversy surrounding its use of profanity, as well as the media attention surrounding the network show ''[[Chicago Hope]]'''s singular use of the word "shit", with the season five premiere "It Hits the Fan", in which the word "shit" is said 162 times without being bleeped for censorship purposes, while also appearing uncensored in written form. In the days following the show's original airing, 5,000 disapproving e-mails were sent to Comedy Central. Despite its 43 uncensored uses of the racial slur "nigger", the season 11 episode "With Apologies to Jesse Jackson" generated relatively little controversy, as most in the black community and the NAACP praised the episode for its context and its comedic way of conveying other races' perceptions of how black people must feel when hearing the word.

Specific controversies regarding the show have included an April Fools' Day prank played on its viewers in 1998, its depiction of the Virgin Mary in the season nine (2005) finale "Bloody Mary" which angered several Roman Catholic, its depiction of Steve Irwin with a stingray barb stuck in his chest in an episode that originally aired only three weeks after Irwin was killed in the same fashion, and Comedy Central's censorship of the depiction of Muhammad in the season 10 episode "Cartoon Wars Part II" in the wake of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy.

The season nine (2005) episode "Trapped in the Closet" denounces Scientology as nothing more than "a big fat global scam", while freely divulging church information that Scientology normally only reveals to members who make significant monetary contributions to the church. The episode also ambiguously parodies the rumors involving the sexual orientation of Scientologist Tom Cruise, who allegedly demanded any further reruns of the episode be canceled. Hayes, a Scientologist, defended the episode shortly after it aired, only to allegedly quit South Park due to his objection to the episode a few months later, while some news sources suggest he was pressured to leave the production involuntarily by fellow Scientologists.



Commentary made in episodes have been interpreted as statements Parker and Stone are attempting to make to the viewing public, and these opinions have been subject to much critical analysis in the media and literary world within the framework of popular philosophical, theological, social, and political concepts. Since South Park debuted, college students have written term papers and doctoral theses analyzing the show, while Brooklyn Collegemarker offers a course called "South Park and Political Correctness".

Soon after one of Kenny's trademark deaths on the show, other characters would typically shout "Oh my God, they killed Kenny!". The exclamation quickly became a popular catchphrase, while the running gag of Kenny's recurring deaths are one of the more recognized hallmarks among viewers of modern television. Cartman's exclamations of "Respect my authori-tah!" and "Screw you guys ...I'm going home!" became catchphrases as well, and during the show's earlier seasons, were highly popular in the lexicon of viewers. Cartman's eccentric annunciation of "Hey!" was included in the 2002 edition of The Oxford Dictionary of Catchphrases.

In the season two episode "Chef Aid", attorney Johnnie Cochran uses what's called within the show as the Chewbacca defense, which is a legal strategy that involves addressing plot holes related to Chewbacca in the film Return of the Jedi rather than discussing the trial at hand during a closing argument in a deliberate attempt to confuse jurors into thinking there is reasonable doubt. The term "Chewbacca defense" has been documented as being used by criminologists, forensic scientists, and political commentators in their various discussions of similar methods used in legal cases and public forums.

Another season two episode, "Gnomes", revolves around a group of "underpants gnomes" who, as their name suggests, run a corporation stealing people's underpants. When asked about their business model, various gnomes reply that theirs is a three-step process: Phase 1 is "collect underpants". Phase 3 is "profit". However, the gnomes are unable to explain what is to occur between the first and final steps, and "Phase 2" is accompanied by a large question mark on their corporate flow chart. Especially in the context of politics and economics, "underpants gnomes" has been used by some commentators to characterize a conspicuous gap of logic or planning.

When Sophie Rutschmann of the University of Strasbourg discovered a mutated gene that causes an adult fruit fly to die within two days after if it is infected with certain bacteria, she named the gene "Kenny" in honor of the character.


While many conservatives have condemned the show for its vulgarity, a growing population of people who hold center-right political beliefs, including teenagers and young adults, have embraced the show for its tendency to mock liberal viewpoints and lampoon liberal celebrities and icons. Political commentator Andrew Sullivan dubbed the group as South Park Republican, or South Park conservatives. Sullivan classified the group as "extremely skeptical of political correctness but also are socially liberal on many issues", though he says the phrase applied to them is meant to be more of a casual indication of beliefs than a strong partisan label. Brian C. Anderson describes the group as "generally characterized by holding strong libertarian beliefs and rejecting more conservative social policy", and notes that although the show makes "wicked fun of conservatives", it is "at the forefront of a conservative revolt against liberal media".

Parker and Stone downplay the show's alignment with any particular political affiliation, and deny having a political agenda when creating an episode.The two claim the show's higher ratio of instances lampooning liberal orthodoxies stems simply from their preference to make fun of liberals more than conservatives. The duo explains that they perceive liberals as having both delusions of entitlement to remain free from satire, and a propensity to enforce political correctness while patronizing the citizens of middle America. Parker and Stone are uncomfortable with the idea of themselves or South Park being applied with any kind of partisan classification, and both reject the "South Park Republican" and "South Park conservative" labels as a serious notion, feeling that either tag implies that one only adheres to strictly conservative or libertarian viewpoints. Canadian columnist Jaime J. Weinman observes that the most die-hard conservatives who identified themselves as South Park Republicans began turning away from the political movement when the show ridiculed Republicans in the season nine (2005) episode "Best Friends Forever".


In 1999, less than two years after the series first aired, a feature-length film was released. The film, a comedy/musical, was directed by Parker, who co-wrote the script with Stone and Pam Brady. The film was generally well-received by critics, and earned a combined US$83.1 million at the domestic and foreign box office. The film satirizes the controversy surrounding the show itself and gained a spot in the 2001 edition of Guinness World Records for "Most Swearing in an Animated Film". The song "Blame Canada" from the film's soundtrack earned song co-writers Parker and Marc Shaiman an Academy Award nomination for Best Music, Original Song.

Media and merchandise

As a tribute to the Dead Parrot sketch, a short that features Cartman attempting to return a dead Kenny to a shop run by Kyle aired during a 1999 BBC television special commemorating the 30th anniversary of Monty Python's Flying Circus. South Park parodied Scientology in a short that aired as part of the 2000 MTV Movie Awards. The short was entitled "The Gauntlet" and also poked fun at John Travolta, a Scientologist. The four main characters were featured in the documentary film The Aristocrats, listening to Cartman tell his version of the film's titular joke. Short clips of Cartman introducing the starting lineup for the University of Colorado football team were featured during ABC's coverage of the 2007 match up between the University of Colorado and the University of Nebraska. In 2008, Parker, as Cartman, gave answers to a Proust Questionnaire conducted by Julie Rovner of NPR.

Chef Aid: The South Park Album, a compilation of original songs from the show, characters performing cover songs, and tracks performed by guest artists was released in 1998, while Mr. Hankey's Christmas Classics, a compilation of songs performed by the characters in the episode of the same name as well as other Christmas-themed songs was released in 1999, as was the soundtrack to the feature film. The song "Chocolate Salty Balls" (performed by Hayes as Chef) was released as a single in the UK in 1998 to support the Chef Aid: The South Park Album and became a number one hit.

Several video games based on the series have been released. South Park, a first-person shooter, was released in by Acclaim for the PC, Nintendo 64, and PlayStation. This was followed in 1999 by South Park: Chef's Luv Shack, a party video game featuring quizzes and mini-games, on the Dreamcast, PlayStation, Nintendo 64, and PC. In 2000, South Park Rally, a racing game, was released on the Dreamcast, PlayStation, Nintendo 64, and PC. Parker and Stone, who had little to do with the development of these games, publicly criticized Acclaim and the quality of each South Park game they produced. South Park Let's Go Tower Defense Play!, a video game for the Xbox Live Arcade on the Xbox 360, was developed by Doublesix Games and was released on October 7, 2009.

Merchandising related to the show is an industry which generates several million dollars a year. A South Park pinball machine was released in 1999 by Sega Pinball. The companies Fun 4 All, Mezco Toyz, and Mirage have all produced various South Park action figures, collectibles, and plush dolls. In 1998, the top-selling specialty T-shirt in the United States was based on South Park, and US$30 million in T-shirt sales was reached during the show's first season.


  1. Johnson-Woods, pp. 89-103
  2. Arp and Jacoby, p. 58
  3. Interview with Jay Leno
  4. Fallows and Weinstock, p. 227
  5. Transcript of "Paula Zahn Now" from March 8, 2007. CNN. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
  6. Isaac Hayes Quits 'South Park,'
  7. Fallows and Weinstock, p. 165
  8. Short that aired during the 2000 MTV Movie Awards


Further reading

External links

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