Soviet famine of 1932–1933 affected major
grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union which included Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, South Urals, West Siberia.
The manifestation of this
famine in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist
is referred to as Holodomor
Unlike a famine
Russian SFSR in 1921, information about the famine of 1932–34 was
suppressed by the Soviet authorities until perestroika
, the political and economic reforms
which ended the Soviet Union in the beginning of 1990s.
Estimation of the loss of life
Britannica estimates that six to eight million people died from
hunger in the Soviet Union during this period, about four to five
million of whom were Ukrainians.
Conquest estimated at least 7 million peasants deaths from
hunger in the European part of the Soviet Union in 1932–33 (5
million in Ukraine; 1 million in the North Caucasus, and 1 million
elsewhere), and an additional 1 million of deaths from hunger as a
result of collectivization in
- The Black Book of
Communism estimates 6 million deaths in 1932–33.
- The 2004 book The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture,
1931–33 by R.W. Davies and S.G. Wheatcroft, gives an estimate
of 5.5–6.5 million deaths.
- Another study using data given by Davies and Wheatcroft
estimates "‘about eight and a half million’ victims of famine and
repression" combined in the period 1930–33.
Conquest (1986) The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet
Collectivization and the Terror-Famine. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-505180-7, p. 306.
- Davies and Wheatcroft, p. 401. For a review, see
- More light on the scale of repression and excess
mortality in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, by S. G.
Wheatcroft, Soviet Studies April 1990.
- The Soviet Famine of 1932–1933 Reconsidered, by
Hiroaki Kuromiya, Europe-Asia Studies, Volume 60, Issue 4
June 2008, pages 663–75.
- The Soviet Famine of 1931–33: Politically Motivated
or Ecological Disaster?, Carla Thorson, UCLA International
Institute, May 5 2003.
- Aftermath of a Soviet Famine, Washington
Post, April 27, 2008.
- Famine in the Soviet Union 1929-1934 -
collection of archive materials