Spanish–American War was a military conflict
between Spain and the
States that took place between April and August 1898, over
the issues of the liberation of Cuba.
war began after American demands for the resolution of the Cuban
fight for independence were rejected by Spain. Strong expansionist sentiment in the United States
motivated the government to develop a plan for annexation of Spain's remaining overseas
territories including the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and
revolution in Havana prompted the
United States to send in the warship USS Maine to indicate high
Tension among the American people was
raised because of the explosion of the USS Maine
, and the
accused the Spanish of oppression in their colonies
, agitating American public opinion.
The war ended after the United States earned victories in the
Philippine Islands and Cuba.
On December 10, 1898, the signing of the Treaty of Paris
gave the United
States control of Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and
Monroe Doctrine of the 19th Century
served as the political foundation for the support of the Cuban
struggle for independence from Spain in the
Cubans had been fighting for self
determination, on and off, since the Grito de Yara
Cuban struggle for independence
In 1895, the Spanish colony of Cuba was the site of a small armed
uprising against Spanish authority. Financial support for the "Cuba
Libre" rebellion came from external organizations, some based in
the United States.
In 1896, the new Captain General for Cuba, General Valeriano Weyler
, pledged to suppress the
insurgency by isolating the rebels from the rest of the population
ensuring that the rebels would not receive supplies.
By the end of 1897, more than 300,000 Cubans had relocated into
Spanish guarded concentration camps
camps became cesspools of hunger and disease where more than one
hundred thousand died.
A propaganda war waged in the United States by Cuban émigrés
attacked Weyler's inhuman treatment of his countrymen and won the
sympathy of broad groups of the U.S. population. Weyler was
referred to as "The Butcher" by yellow
. The American newspapers began agitating for
intervention with stories of Spanish atrocities against the Cuban
1898, a riot by Cuban volunteers, most of whom were Spanish
loyalists, broke out in Havana and led to
the destruction of the printing presses of three local newspapers
that were critical of General Weyler.
These riots prompted
the presence of an American Marine force in the island: although
there had been no attack on Americans during the rioting,
This contemporary remark claims that no attacks were made on the
American consulate, etc. there were still fears for the lives of
Americans living in Havana. Concern focused on the pro-Spanish
Cubans who harbored resentment of the growing support in the United
States for Cuban independence. The U.S. Department of State
informed the Consul-General in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee
, a nephew of Robert E. Lee
that the Maine
would be sent to protect United States
interests should tensions escalate further.
The USS Maine
Havana on January 25, 1898. Her stay was uneventful until the
following month. On February 15, 1898, at 9:40 p. m. the
sank in Havana Harbor after an explosion, resulting
in the deaths of 266 men. An American inquiry reported that it was
caused by a mine but recent investigations have led people to
believe that the explosion was indeed caused by an internal
infusion of coal combustion and not a mine. At the time the Spanish
attributed the event to an internal explosion. The Spanish inquiry,
conducted by Del Peral and De Salas, collected evidence from
officers of naval artillery who had examined the remains of the
Maine. Additional observations included that 1) had a mine been the
cause of the explosion a column of water would have been observed;
2) the wind and the waters were calm on that date and hence a mine
could not have been detonated by contact but using electricity, but
no cables had been found; 3) no dead fish were found in the harbour
as would be expected following an explosion in the water; and, 4)
munition bunkers usually do not explode when mines sink ships. Del
Peral and De Salas identified the spontaneous combustion of the
coal bunker that was located adjacent to the munition stores in the
Maine as the likely cause of the explosion. The conclusions of the
report were silenced by the American press (Hugh Thomas
, Memoria del 98, p. 104). In
1976, Admiral Hyman G. Rickover
wrote a book (How the Battleship
Maine was Destroyed, Naval History Division, Department of the
Navy) arguing persuasively that the origin of the explosion that
sank the ship was indeed internal.
A total of four USS
were conducted into the causes of
the explosion, with the investigators coming to different
conclusions. The Spanish and American versions would carry on with
divergences. A 1999
commissioned by National Geographic
carried out by Advanced Marine Enterprises concluded that "it
appears more probable than was previously concluded that a mine
caused the inward bent bottom structure"
and the detonation of
the ship. However there is still much contention over what caused
In spring of 1898, the total strength of the U.S. Army was just
28,183 men. The size of the army was rapidly expanded to about
250,000 men, the majority undisciplined troops lifted from the
and the remainder untrained volunteers.
Path to war
Upon the destruction of the Maine
, newspaper owners such
as William Randolph Hearst
came to the conclusion that Spanish officials in Cuba were to
blame, and they widely publicized this theory as fact. They fueled
American anger by publishing sensationalistic and astonishing
accounts of "atrocities" committed by Spain in Cuba. A common myth
states that Hearst responded to the opinion of his illustrator
conditions in Cuba were not bad enough to warrant hostilities with:
"You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war."Lashed to fury,
in part by such press, the American cry of the hour became,
"Remember the Maine, To Hell with Spain!" President William McKinley
, Speaker of
the House Thomas Brackett
and the business community opposed the growing public
demand for war.
Senator Redfield Proctor's
speech, delivered on
March 17, 1898 thoroughly analyzed the situation concluding that
war was the only answer. Many in the business and religious
communities, which had heretofore opposed war, switched sides,
leaving President McKinley
almost alone in
their opposition to the war. On April 11 President McKinley asked
for authority to
send American troops to Cuba for the purpose of ending the civil war
On April 19, while Congress was considering joint resolutions
supporting Cuban independence, Senator Henry M. Teller of
Colorado proposed the Teller
amendment to ensure that the United States would not establish
permanent control over Cuba following the cessation of hostilities
amendment, disclaiming any intention to annex Cuba passed Senate 42
to 35; the House concurred the same day, 311 to 6. The amended
resolution demanded Spanish withdrawal and authorized the president
to use as much military force as he thought necessary to help Cuba
gain independence from Spain. President McKinley signed the
on April 20, 1898,
and the ultimatum was forwarded to Spain. In response, Spain broke
off diplomatic relations with the United States and declared war
on April 25. On that same
day, Congress declared that a state of war between the United
States and Spain had existed since April 20 (later changed to April
Theaters of operation
The Spanish had first landed in the Philippines on March 17, 1521,
though colonization did not start until 1565. Since then, the
islands had been a key holding for the Spanish Empire. In the 300
years of Spanish rule, the country developed from a small overseas
colony governed from the Viceroyalty of New Spain
, to a
modern partly-autonomous country, with infrastructures, schools,
hospitals and universities.
Spanish-speaking middle classes of the 19th century were mostly
educated in the liberal ideas coming from Europe. Among these
was the Filipino national hero
, who demanded larger
reforms from the Spanish authorities. This movement eventually led
to the Philippine Revolution
which the United States later backed. The first battle
between American and Spanish forces was at Manila
Bay where, on May 1, 1898, Commodore George
Dewey, commanding the United States Navy's Asiatic Squadron aboard the USS
Olympia, in a matter
of hours, defeated the Spanish squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo.
Dewey managed this
with only nine wounded.
German seizure of Tsingtao in 1897,
Dewey's Squadron had become the only naval force in the Far East
without a local base of its own, and was beset with coal and
Despite these logistical problems, the
Asiatic Squadron had not only destroyed the Spanish fleet but had
also captured the harbor of Manila.
Dewey's victory, Manila Bay was filled with the warships of the
Kingdom, Germany, France, and
Japan; all of which outgunned Dewey's force.
German fleet of eight ships, ostensibly in Philippine waters to
protect German interests (a single import firm), acted
provocatively—cutting in front of American ships, refusing to
salute the United States flag (according to customs of naval
courtesy), taking soundings of the harbor, and landing supplies for
the besieged Spanish. The Germans, with interests of their own,
were eager to take advantage of whatever opportunities the conflict
in the islands might afford. The Americans called the bluff of the
Germans, threatening conflict if the aggressive activities
continued, and the Germans backed down.
Commodore Dewey transported Emilio
to the Philippines from exile in Hong Kong in order
to rally Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government.
U.S. and Filipino forces had taken control of most of the islands,
except for the walled city of Intramuros.
On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo proclaimed the
independence of the Philippines.
On August 13, with American commanders unaware that the cease fire
had been signed between Spain and the United States on the previous
day, American forces captured the city of Manila from the Spanish.
This battle marked an end of Filipino-American collaboration, as
Filipino forces were prevented from entering the captured city of
Manila, an action which was deeply resented by the Filipinos and
which later led to the Philippine–American
On June 20, 1898, a U.S. fleet commanded by Captain Henry Glass
, consisting of the
and three transports carrying troops to the
Philippines entered Guam's Apra Harbor, Captain Glass having opened
sealed orders instructing him to proceed to Guam and capture it
. The Charleston fired a
few cannon rounds at Fort Santa Cruz without receiving any return
fire. Two local officials, not knowing that war had been declared
and, being under the misapprehension that the firing had been a
salute, came out to the Charleston to apologize for their inability
to return the salute. Glass informed them that the United States
and Spain were at war. The following day, Glass sent Lt. William
Braunersruehter to meet the Spanish Governor to arrange the
surrender of the island and the Spanish garrison there. 54 Spanish
infantry were captured and transported to the Philippines as
prisoners of war. No U.S. forces were left on Guam, but the only
U.S. citizen on the island, Frank Portusach, told Captain Glass
that he would look after things until U.S. forces returned.
Spanish armored cruiser Cristóbal
Destroyed during the Battle of Santiago on 3 July 1898.
encouraged intervention in Cuba and, while assistant secretary of the
, placed the Navy on a war-time footing and prepared
Dewey's Asiatic Squadron for battle. He worked with Leonard Wood
in convincing the Army to raise an
all-volunteer regiment, the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry. Wood was
given command of the regiment that quickly became known as the
The Americans planned to capture the city of Santiago de Cuba in
order to destroy Linares' army and Cervera's fleet. To reach Santiago
they had to pass through concentrated Spanish defenses in the San
Juan Hills and a small town in El Caney.
The American forces were aided in Cuba by
the pro-independence rebels led by General Calixto García
Between June 22 and June 24, the U.S. V Corps
under General William R. Shafter landed at Daiquirí and Siboney, east of
Santiago, and established the American base of operations.
contingent of Spanish troops, having fought a skirmish with the
Americans near Siboney on June 23, had retired to their lightly
entrenched positions at Las
. An advance guard of U.S. forces under former Confederate
General Joseph Wheeler
ignored Cuban scouting parties
and orders to proceed with caution. They caught up with and engaged
the Spanish rear guard who effectively ambushed them, in the Battle
of Las Guasimas on June 24. The battle ended indecisively in favor
of Spain and the Spanish left Las Guasimas on their planned retreat
The U.S. army employed American Civil
at the head of the
advancing columns. All four U.S. soldiers who had volunteered to
act as skirmishers walking point at head of the American column
were killed, including Hamilton Fish
, from a
well-known patrician New York City family and Captain Alyn Capron,
whom Theodore Roosevelt would describe as one of the finest natural
leaders and soldiers he ever met. The Battle of Las Guasimas showed
the U.S. that the old linear Civil War tactics did not work
effectively against Spanish troops who had learned the art of
cover and concealment
own struggle with Cuban insurgents, and never made the error of
revealing their positions while on the defense. The Spaniards were
also aided by the then new smokeless
, which also helped them to remain concealed while
firing. American soldiers were only able to advance against the
Spaniards in what are now called "fireteam
rushes, four-to-five man groups advancing while others laid down
On July 1, a combined force of about 15,000 American troops in
regular infantry, cavalry and volunteer regiments, including
Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders
notably the 71st New York, 1st North Carolina, 23rd and 24th
Colored, and rebel Cuban forces attacked 1,270 entrenched Spaniards
in dangerous Civil War style frontal assaults at the Battle of El Caney
and Battle of San Juan Hill
Santiago. More than 200 U.S. soldiers were killed and close to
1,200 wounded in the fighting. Supporting fire by Gatling guns
was critical to the success of the
assault. Cervera decided to escape Santiago two days later.
Spanish forces at Guantánamo were so isolated by Marines and Cuban forces that
they did not know that Santiago was under siege, and their forces
in the northern part of the province could not break through Cuban
This was not true of the Escario relief column from
Manzanillo, which fought its way past determined Cuban resistance
but arrived too late to participate in the siege.
After the battles of San Juan Hill and El Caney, the American
advance ground to a halt. Spanish troops successfully defended Fort
Canosa, allowing them to stabilize their line and bar the entry to
Santiago. The Americans and Cubans forcibly began a bloody,
strangling siege of the city. During the nights, Cuban troops dug
successive series of "trenches" (actually raised parapets), toward
the Spanish positions. Once completed, these parapets were occupied
by U.S. soldiers and a new set of excavations went forward.
American troops, while suffering daily losses from Spanish fire and
sniper rifles, suffered far more casualties from heat exhaustion
-borne disease. At the western approaches
to the city, Cuban general Calixto Garcia began to encroach on the
city, causing much panic and fear of reprisals among the Spanish
forces.The Americans planned to capture the city of Santiago de
Cuba in order to destroy Linares' army and Cervera's fleet.
Santiago they had to pass through concentrated Spanish defenses in
the San Juan Hills and a small town in El Caney.
Naval operations at Cuba
port of Santiago de
Cuba was the main target of naval operations during the
The U.S. fleet attacking Santiago needed shelter from
the summer hurricane
. Thus Guantánamo Bay
with its excellent harbor was chosen for this purpose. The 1898 invasion of Guantánamo
happened June 6–10, with the first
U.S. naval attack
and subsequent successful landing of U.S. Marines
with naval support.
The Battle of Santiago de
on July 3, 1898, was the largest naval engagement of the
Spanish–American War and resulted in the destruction of the Spanish
Caribbean Squadron (also known as the Flota de Ultramar). In May
1898, the fleet of Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete
, had been
spotted by American forces in Santiago Harbor where they had taken
shelter for protection from sea attack. A two month stand-off
between Spanish and American naval forces followed. When the
Spanish squadron finally attempted to leave the harbor on July 3,
the American forces destroyed or grounded five of the six ships.
Only one Spanish vessel, the speedy new armored cruiser Cristobal Colón
survived, but her captain hauled down her flag and scuttle
her when the Americans finally caught up
with her. The 1,612 Spanish sailors who were captured,
including Admiral Cervera, were sent to Seavey's Island at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery,
Maine, where they were confined at Camp
Long as prisoners of war
from July 11 until mid-September.
During the stand-off, United States Assistant Naval Constructor
Richmond Pearson Hobson
been ordered by Rear Admiral William
to sink the
in the harbor to
bottle up the Spanish fleet. The mission was a failure, and Hobson
and his crew were captured. They were exchanged on July 6, and
Hobson became a national hero; he received the Medal of Honor
in 1933 and became a
American troops withdraw
On August 7, 1898, the American invasion force started to leave
Cuba. The problem was fiebre amarilla
, yellow fever
, which had quickly spread amongst
the American occupation force, crippling it. A group of concerned
officers of the American army chose Theodore Roosevelt to draft a
request to Washington that it withdraw the Army, a request that
paralleled a similar one from General Shafter, who described his
force as an “army of convalescents”. By the time of his letter, 75%
of the force in Cuba was unfit for service.
The evacuation was not total. The Army kept the black Ninth
Infantry Regiment in Cuba to support the occupation. The logic was
that their race and the fact that many black volunteers came from
southern states would protect them; this logic led to these
soldiers being nicknamed “Immunes”. Still, by the time the Ninth
left, 73 of the 984 soldiers had contracted the disease.
1st Kentucky Volunteers in Puerto Rico, 1898.
During May 1898, Lt. Henry H. Whitney of the United States Fourth
Artillery was sent to Puerto Rico on a reconnaissance mission,
sponsored by the Army's Bureau of Military Intelligence. He
provided maps and information on the Spanish military forces to the
U.S. government prior to the invasion. On May 10, U.S. Navy
warships were sighted off the coast of Puerto Rico. On May 12, a
squadron of 12 U.S. ships commanded by Rear Adm. William T. Sampson bombarded San
During the bombardment, many government
buildings were shelled. On June 25, the Yosemite
blockaded San Juan
harbor. On July 25, General Nelson
A. Miles, with
3,300 soldiers, landed at Guánica, beginning the Puerto Rican Campaign.
troops encountered resistance early in the invasion. The first
skirmish between the American and Spanish troops occurred in
Guánica. The first organized armed opposition occurred in Yauco in
what became known as the Battle of Yauco
encounter was followed by the Battles of Fajardo
, Silva Heights
and finally by the Battle of Asomante
9, 1898, infantry and cavalry troops encountered Spanish and Puerto
Rican soldiers armed with cannons in a mountain known as Cerro
Gervasio del Asomante, while attempting to enter Aibonito.
The American commanders decided to retreat
and regroup, returning on August 12, 1898, with an artillery unit.
The Spanish and Puerto Rican units began the offensive with cannon
fire, being led by Ricardo Hernáiz. The sudden attack caused
confusion among some soldiers, who reported seeing a second Spanish
unit nearby. In the crossfire, four American troops — Sargeant John
Long, Lieutenant Harris, Captain E.T. Lee and Corporal Oscar
Sawanson — were gravely injured. Based on this and the reports of
upcoming reinforcements, Commander Landcaster ordered a retreat.
All military action in Puerto Rico was suspended later that night,
after the signing of the Treaty of Paris was made public.
With defeats in Cuba and the Philippines, and both of its fleets
incapacitated, Spain sued for peace.
Hostilities were halted on August 12, 1898, with the signing in
Washington of a Protocol of Peace between the United States and
Spain. The formal peace
treaty was signed in Paris on December
10, 1898, and was ratified by the United States Senate on February 6,
It came into force on April 11, 1899. Cubans
participated only as observers.
The United States gained almost all of Spain's colonies, including
the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Cuba, having been occupied
as of July 17, 1898, and thus under the jurisdiction of the United
States Military Government (USMG), formed its own civil government
and attained independence on May 20, 1902, with the announced end
of USMG jurisdiction over the island. However, the United States
imposed various restrictions on the new government, including
prohibiting alliances with other countries, and reserved for itself
the right of intervention. The US also established a perpetual lease of
On August 14, 1898, 11,000 ground troops were sent to occupy the
Philippines. When U.S. troops began to take the place of the
Spanish in control of the country, warfare broke out between U.S.
forces and the Filipinos resulting in the Philippine-American
The war lasted only four months. Ambassador (and later United States Secretary of
) John Hay
, writing from London to
his friend Theodore Roosevelt declared that from start to finish it
had been "a splendid little war."
This source provides a more complete quote:
It has been a splendid little war; begun with the
highest motives, carried on with magnificent intelligence and
spirit, favored by the fortune which loves the brave.
It is now to be concluded, I hope, with that firm good
nature which is after all the distinguishing trait of our American
The press showed Northerners and Southerners, blacks and whites
fighting against a common foe , helping to ease the scars left from
the American Civil War.
The war marked American entry into world affairs. Ever since, the
United States has had a significant hand in various conflicts
around the world, and entered into many treaties and agreements.
The Panic of 1893
was over by this
point, and the United States entered a lengthy and prosperous
period of economic and population growth, and technological
innovation that lasted through the 1920s.
The war also effectively ended the Spanish Empire
. Spain had been declining as
an Imperial power since the early 19th century as a result of
. The loss of Cuba
caused a national trauma
the affinity of peninsular Spaniards with Cuba, which was seen as
another province of Spain rather than as a colony. Spain retained only a
handful of overseas holdings: Spanish West Africa, Spanish
Guinea, Spanish Sahara,
Spanish Morocco, and the Canary
The Spanish soldier Julio Cervera
, who served in the Puerto Rican Campaign
, published a
pamphlet in which he blamed the natives of that colony for its
occupation by the Americans, saying: "I have never seen such a
servile, ungrateful country [i.e. Puerto Rico]... In twenty-four
hours, the people of Puerto Rico went from being fervently Spanish
to enthusiastically American... They humiliated themselves, giving
in to the invader as the slave bows to the powerful lord." He was
challenged to a duel
by a group of young Puerto
Ricans for writing this pamphlet.
Culturally a new wave called the Generation of '98
originated as a response
to this trauma, marking a renaissance in Spanish culture.
Economically, the war actually benefited Spain, because after the
war, large sums of capital held by Spaniards not only in Cuba but
also all over America were brought back to the peninsula and
invested in Spain. This massive flow of capital (equivalent to 25%
of the gross domestic product
of one year) helped to develop the large modern firms in Spain in
industrial sectors (steel, chemical, mechanical, textiles and
shipyards among others), in the electrical power industry and in
the financial sector. However, the political consequences were
serious. The defeat in the war began the weakening of the fragile
political stability that had been established earlier by the rule
of Alfonso XII
Congress had passed the Teller
prior to the war, promising Cuban independence.
However, the Senate passed the Platt
as a rider to an Army appropriations bill
, forcing a peace
treaty on Cuba which prohibited it from signing treaties with other
nations or contracting a public debt. The Platt Amendment was
pushed by imperialists who wanted to project U.S. power abroad
(this was in contrast to the Teller Amendment which was pushed by
anti-imperialists who called for a restraint on U.S. hegemony). The
amendment granted the United States the right to stabilize Cuba
militarily as needed. The Platt Amendment also provided for the
establishment of a permanent American naval base in Cuba.
Bay was established after the signing of treaties between Cuba and the
US beginning in 1903.
The United States annexed
the former Spanish
colonies of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam. The notion of
the United States as an imperial power, with colonies, was hotly
debated domestically with President McKinley and the
Pro-Imperialists winning their way over vocal opposition led by
Democrat William Jennings Bryan
, who had
supported the war. The American public largely supported the
possession of colonies, but there were many outspoken critics such
as Mark Twain
, who wrote The War Prayer
Roosevelt returned to the United States a war hero, and he was soon
1900 Campaign poster.
The war served to further cement relations between the American
North and South. The war gave both sides a common enemy for the
first time since the end of the Civil War in 1865, and many
friendships were formed between soldiers of both northern and
southern states during their tours of duty. This was an important
development since many soldiers in this war were the children of
Civil War veterans on both sides.
Segregation in the U.S.
The African-American community strongly supported the rebels in
Cuba, supported entry into the war, and gained prestige from their
wartime performance in the Army. Spokesmen noted that 33
African-American seamen had died in the Maine
The most influential Black leader, Booker T. Washington
, argued that his race was
ready to fight. War offered them a chance "to render service to our
country that no other race can", because, unlike Whites, they were
"accustomed" to the "peculiar and dangerous climate" of Cuba. One
of the Black units that served in the war was the 9th Cavalry Regiment
In March 1898, Washington promised the Secretary of the Navy that
war would be answered by "at least ten thousand loyal, brave,
strong Black men in the south who crave an opportunity to show
their loyalty to our land, and would gladly take this method of
showing their gratitude for the lives laid down, and the sacrifices
made, that Blacks might have their freedom and rights."
In 1904, the United Spanish
was created from smaller groups of the veterans of
the Spanish American War. Today, that organization is defunct, but
it left an heir in the form of the Sons of Spanish–American War
Veterans, created in 1937 at the 39th National Encampment of the
United Spanish War Veterans. According to data from the United States Department of Veterans
Affairs, the last surviving U.S. veteran
of the conflict, Nathan E.
, died on September 10, 1992, at
age 106. (If the data are to be believed, Cook, born October 10,
1885, would have been only 12 years old when he served in the
Finally, in an effort to pay the costs of the war, Congress passed
tax on long-distance phone service.
At the time, it affected only wealthy Americans who owned
telephones. However, the Congress neglected to repeal
the tax after the war ended four months later, and the tax remained
in place for over 100 years until, on August 1, 2006, it was
announced that the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the IRS
would no longer collect the tax.
There is, however, an alternative view to the mainstream analysis
of the origins of the war which is extremely skeptical of the
sincerity of US action. Several American historians, for example
Charles A. Beard
and Richard Hofstadter
claim that US expansionism led to a contrived Spanish–American War.
They posit that it was sponsored and promoted by US business
interests and corporations who needed overseas markets for their
goods. Detailed evidence for this claim is outlined by Philip Foner
in his ten-volume The
History Of The Labor Movement In The United States
Daniel B. Schirmer
Or Empire: American Resistance To The Philippine War
was founded specifically to express
at the invasion of the
The war was condemned by Mark Twain
was vice-president of the league from 1901 until his death in 1910.
He described the war as "a mess, a quagmire from which each fresh
step renders the difficulty of extrication immensely greater" and
in 1901 published the anti-war essay "To The Person Sitting In
Darkness". Explaining his views in an article published in the New
York Herald on October 15, 1900, Twain wrote that the United States
had gone to the Philippines "to conquer, not to
. Other notable members were Henry James
, his brother William James
, Andrew Carnegie
, Grover Cleveland
, Ambrose Bierce
and Jane Addams
Spanish-American War in film and television
- The Spanish American War, the first war film in
- The Rough Riders, a
1927 silent film
- Rough Riders, a
1997 television miniseries directed by
John Milius, and featuring Tom Berenger (Theodore Roosevelt), Gary Busey (Joseph
Wheeler), Sam Elliott (Buckey O'Neill), Dale
Dye (Leonard Wood), Brian Keith (William
Hamilton (William Randolph
Hearst), and R. Lee Ermey (John
- The Spanish–American War: First Intervention, a 2007
docudrama from The History Channel
Army "War with Spain" campaign streamer.
United States awards and decorations of the Spanish–American War
were as follows:
- Wartime service and honors:
- Postwar occupation service:
The governments of Spain and Cuba also issued a wide variety of
military awards to honor Spanish, Cuban, and Philippine soldiers
who had served in the conflict.
- , ISBN 0824056248, ISBN 9780824056247. An encyclopedia.
- , ISBN 8484325024, ISBN 9788484325024.
- , ISBN 0195327225, ISBN 9780195327229.
- , ISBN 0313316627, ISBN 9780313316623. short summary
- , ISBN 0814758185, ISBN 9780814758182.
- , ISBN 1404381376, ISBN 9781404381377. Full text at Authorama.
- ISBN 0824816781, ISBN 780824816780.
- , ISBN 0974420239, ISBN 9780974420233. Excerpts from The National
Museum of American history.
- (Introduction, Decolonizing the History of the
Philippine-American War, by Paul A. Kramer dated December 8,
Diplomacy and causes of the war
- James C. Bradford, ed., Crucible of Empire: The
Spanish–American War and Its Aftermath (1993), essays on
diplomacy, naval and military operations, and historiography.
- Lewis Gould, The
Spanish–American War and President McKinley (1982)
- Philip Foner, The
Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism,
- Richard Hamilton, President McKinley, War, and Empire
- Kristin Hoganson, Fighting For American Manhood: How Gender
Politics Provoked the Spanish-American and Philippine-American
- Paul S. Holbo, "Presidential Leadership in Foreign Affairs:
William McKinley and the Turpie-Foraker Amendment," The
American Historical Review 1967 72(4): 1321-1335.
- Walter LaFeber, The New
Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1865-1898
- Ernest May, Imperial Democracy: The Emergence of America as
a Great Power (1961)
- Paul T. McCartney, American National Identity, the War of
1898, and the Rise of American Imperialism (2006)
- Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) The United States in Panamanian
Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Daville,Ill.:Interstate
Publishers. OCLC 138568.
- Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999).
Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico:
Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1563281554. OCLC 42970390.
- Richard H. Miller, ed., American Imperialism in 1898: The Quest
for National Fulfillment (1970)
- Walter Millis, The Martial Spirit: A Study of Our War with
- H. Wayne Morgan, America's Road to Empire: The War with
Spain and Overseas Expansion (1965)
- John L. Offner, An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the
United States and Spain over Cuba, 1895–1898 (1992).
- John L. Offner, "McKinley and the Spanish-American War"
Presidential Studies Quarterly 2004 34(1): 50–61. ISSN
- Louis A. Perez, Jr., "The Meaning of the Maine: Causation and
the Historiography of the Spanish-American War," The Pacific
Historical Review 1989 58(3): 293-322.
- Julius W. Pratt, The Expansionists of 1898 (1936)
- Thomas Schoonover, Uncle Sam's War of 1898 and the Origins
of Globalization. (2003)
- John Lawrence Tone, War and Genocide in Cuba,
- David F. Trask, The War with Spain in 1898 (1996)
- Fareed Zakaria, From Wealth
to Power: The Unusual Origins of America’s World Role
- Donald Barr Chidsey, The Spanish American War (New York,
- Cirillo, Vincent J. Bullets and Bacilli: The
Spanish–American War and Military Medicine (2004)
- Graham A. Cosmas, An Army for Empire: The United States
Army and the Spanish–American War (1971)
- Philip Sheldon Foner, The Spanish-Cuban-American war and the
birth of American imperialism (1972)
- Frank Freidel, The Splendid Little War (1958), well
illustrated narrative by scholar
- Allan Keller, The Spanish–American War: A Compact
- Gerald F. Linderman, The Mirror of War: American Society
and the Spanish–American War (1974), domestic aspects
- Joseph Smith, The Spanish–American War: Conflict in the
Caribbean and the Pacific (1994)
- G. J. A. O'Toole, The Spanish War: An American
- John Tebbel, America's Great Patriotic War with Spain
- Duvon C. Corbitt, "Cuban Revisionist Interpretations of Cuba's
Struggle for Independence," Hispanic American Historical
Review 32 (August 1963): 395-404.
- Edward P. Crapol, "Coming to Terms with Empire: The
Historiography of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign
Relations," Diplomatic History 16 (Fall 1992):
- Hugh DeSantis, "The Imperialist Impulse and American Innocence,
1865–1900," in Gerald K. Haines and J. Samuel Walker, eds.,
American Foreign Relations: A Historiographical Review
(1981), pp. 65–90
- James A. Field Jr., "American Imperialism: The Worst Chapter in
Almost Any Book," American Historical Review 83 (June
1978): 644-68, past of the "AHR Forum," with responses
- Joseph A. Fry, "William McKinley and the Coming of the Spanish
American War: A Study of the Besmirching and Redemption of an
Historical Image," Diplomatic History 3 (Winter 1979):
- Joseph A. Fry, "From Open Door to World Systems: Economic
Interpretations of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign
Relations," Pacific Historical Review 65 (May 1996):
- Thomas G. Paterson, "United States Intervention in Cuba, 1898:
Interpretations of the Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War,"
History Teacher 29 (May 1996): 341-61;
- Louis A. Pérez Jr.; The War of 1898: The United States and
Cuba in History and Historiography University of North
Carolina Press, 1998
- Ephraim K. Smith, "William McKinley's Enduring Legacy: The
Historiographical Debate on the Taking of the Philippine Islands,"
in James C. Bradford, ed., Crucible of Empire: The
Spanish–American War and Its Aftermath (1993),
- Richard W. Stewart, General Editor, Ch. 16, Transition, Change, and the Road to war, 1902-1917",
in "American Military History, Volume I: The United States
Army and the Forging of a Nation, 1775-1917", Center of
Military History, United States Army, ISBN 0-16-072362-0
- Funston, Frederick. Memoirs of Two Wars, Cuba and Philippine
Experiences. New York: Charles Schribner's Sons, 1911
- U.S. War Dept. Military Notes on Cuba. 2 vols. Washington, DC:
- Wheeler, Joseph. The Santiago Campaign, 1898. Lamson, Wolffe,
- kaylaMagazine. The perils of Evangelina. Feb. 1968.
- Cull, N. J., Culbert, D., Welch, D. Propaganda and Mass
Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present.
Spanish–American War. Denver: ABC-CLIO. 2003. 378-379.
- Ensayos sobre la Guerra Hispano-Cubana-Estadounidense.
- Davis, R. H. New York Journal. Does our flag shield women? 13
- Duval, C. New York Journal. Evengelina Cisneros rescued by The
Journal. 10 October 1897.
- Kendrick M. New York Journal. Better she died then reach Ceuta.
18 August 1897.
- Kendrick, M. New York Journal. The Cuban girl martyr. 17
- Kendrick, M. New York Journal. Spanish auction off Cuban girls.
12 February 1897.
- Muller y Tejeiro, Jose. Combates y Capitulacion de Santiago de
Cuba. Marques, Madrid:1898. 208 p. English translation by US Navy
General's Office Statistical Exhibit of Strength of Volunteer
Forces Called Into Service During the War With Spain; with
Losses From All Causes. Washington: Government Printing Office,
- Harrington, Peter, and Frederic A. Sharf. "A Splendid Little
War." The Spanish–American War, 1898. The Artists' Perspective.
London: Greenhill, 1998.
- Operations of the US Signal Corps Cutting and
Diverting Undersea Telegraph Cables from Cuba
- Library of Congress Guide to the Spanish-American
- Spain to Use Privateers; An Official Decree
Declares that She is Determined to Reserve This Right
(Headline, NY Times, April 24, 1898)
- Emergence to World Power, 1898–1902 (an extract from
Matloff's American Military History)
- Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Army
- Emergence to World Power, 1898–1902 (an extract from
American Military History — revised 2005)
- Buffalo Soldiers at San Juan Hill
- Impact on the Spanish Army by Charles Hendricks
- Black Jack in Cuba—General John J. Pershing’s
service in the Spanish–American War, by Kevin Hymel
- Centennial of the Spanish-American War 1898–1998 by
- The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War —
Library of Congress Hispanic Division
- William Glackens prints at the Library of
- Spanish-American War Centennial
- Points of Confusion over the Cuba Question and Cuba
- Images of Florida and the War for Cuban
Independence, 1898 from the state archives of Florida
- Individual state's contributions to the Spanish–American War:
- Sons of Spanish
American War Veterans
- From 'Dagoes' to 'Nervy Spaniards,' American
Soldiers' Views of their Opponents, 1898 by Albert Nofi
- History of Negro soldiers in the
Spanish-American War, and other items of interest, by
Edward Augustus Johnston, published 1899, hosted by the Portal to Texas
- Los ultimos de Filipinas
- The War of 98 (The Spanish-American War) The
Spanish–American War from a Spanish perspective (in English).
- Army Nurse Corps in the war
- Art and images
- Name Index to New York in the Spanish-American War
- 1898: El Ocaso de un Imperio Article in Spanish about
naval operations during the Spanish-American war.
- Spanish-American War photographic collections,
via Calisphere, California Digital Library
- Spanish-American War Service Summary Cards from the