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Sport Club Corinthians Paulista, a Brazilianmarker sports club, based in São Paulomarker, São Paulo Statemarker, Brazil, most known for its football team.

Corinthians was founded in 1910 by a group of labourers - mainly of Portuguese, Italian and Spanish descent - hoping to create a popular club in the city of São Paulo to play against the elite clubs that already existed. They are named after the English amateur team Corinthian F.C., that played in the country at that time.

The football team is among the most successful in Brazil, having won the first edition of the FIFA Club World Championship, the Brazilian Série A four times, the Brazilian Cup three times, the São Paulo State Championship 26 times (leader), among many other victories. Corinthians fans are widely known as "Fiel", Portuguese for "faithful" or "loyal".

History

1914-São Paulo State Champions (1st trophy)
Fúlvio, Casemiro do Amaral and Casemiro Gonzalez; Police, Biano and Cesar; Aristides, Peres, Amilcar, Dias and Neco


Corinthians' Fans

The club has the second biggest number of fans in Brazil.However, the exact number of fans is controversial. Between 2004 and 2007, three different surveys were conducted by the research firms Ibope, Data Folha and CNT/Sensus to measure which was the favorite soccer team in Brazil. According to the results , Corinthians was preferred by 10.5% to 13.2% of the Brazilian population, which represents approximately 31 to 35 million fans.

Corinthians’ fans are famous for being passionate about the team and loyal supporters. In April 2009, the club released a tribute documentary to its fans. Named Fiel, the documentary highlights the fans' support in one of the most difficult moments in the team’s history: when it was downgraded to the second division in 2007. Directed by Andrea Pasquini and written by Serginho Groisman and Marcelo Rubens Paiva, the movie shows several fans and players’ testimonials.

In 2009, another documentary about the fan’s love for the team was released. Directed by Di Morreti, 23 anos em 7 segundos – O fim do Jejum Corinthiano portrays the historical moment when, in 1977, Corinthians won the Campeonato Paulista, after 23 years without wining any Championships.

Among Corinthians’ fans there are some international celebrities such as the president of Brazil Luiz Inacio Lula Silva and the racing drivers Ayrton Senna, Emerson Fittipaldi and Rubens Barrichello.

There are also several Corinthians' organized fan clubs, among them Gaviões da Fiel, Camisa 12, Pavilhão 9 and Estopim da Fiel.

The Centennial Champion

Corinthians are known in Brazil as the "Centennial Champion", because of the coincidence in the years of some of its conquests:

  • 1922 - State Champions; Brazil's independence from Portugal was in 1822
  • 1954 - State Champions; Foundation of the city of São Paulo was in 1554
  • 1988 - State Champions; Abolition of slavery was in 1888
  • 2000 - World Champions; Discovery of Brazil was in 1500


The Champion of Champions

Corinthians is also known in Brazil as the "Campeão dos Campeões" (Champion of Champions), because in 1915 the team broke with the Paulista League and did not participate in that year's tournament, which was won by Germania. At the end of the season, Corinthians challenged Germania to a game and won 4-1. Challenged to face Palmeiras, the champion of the Apea League (another league of those times), Corinthians was again triumphant with a 3-0 victory. As a sidenote, the victorious team in those challenges was also the 1914 and 1916 undefeated São Paulo State Championship champion.

There is also another story that could explain the nickname. In 1930, even though there was yet no national championship in Brazil, there was a challenge match between the champions of the São Paulo and the Rio de Janeiro state championships. On February 16, in a match against Vasco da Gama, in Rio de Janeiro, Corinthians won 4-2, with goals scored by Filó (2), De Maria and Gambinha, bringing home the "Champion of Champions" trophy.

Today, the nickname is used in the second verse of the club's official anthem.

The Musketeer

Corinthians' official mascot is the musketeer, symbol of bravery, audacity and fighting spirit. The adoption of that character recalls the first years of the club. In 1913 most of the football leaders of the São Paulo State founded the APEA (Paulista Athletic Sports Association).

In the depleted Paulista League was left with only Americano, Germania and Internacional, known as the "three musketeers" of São Paulo football. Corinthians joined the three as D'Artagnan, being the fourth and most adored musketeer, just like Alexandre Dumas, père's novel The Three Musketeers. To be accepted in that "musketeers universe", Corinthians had to show its bravery. As there was many other teams who coveted the spot in the Liga Paulista, Corinthians participated in a selective tournament against Minas Gerais and São Paulo, two other great teams of Paulista amateur football at that time. The Corinthian team beat Minas 1-0 and São Paulo 4-0, earning acceptance into the group and acquiring the right to participate in the Special Division of the Paulista League in the following year.

Saint George

An important symbol for Corinthians is Saint George. Saint George is one of the most devoted Catholic Saint in Brazil, and still is often remembered as The Corinthians Patron, and is very devoted in São Paulo's team Headquarters, and over all country, for most of the club's fans.

Corinthians Invasion (Invasão Corinthiana)

The so-called "Corinthians Invasion" happened in 1976, when the Corinthians fans invaded the Mário Filho Stadium (Maracanã) in Rio de Janeiromarker during the semifinal of the Brasileirão Championship of 1976. In the game between Fluminense and Corinthians, around 70 thousand fans supporting Corinthians had left the State of São Paulo to see the team. Those in attendance participated in the biggest human displacement in peace time, according to the Guinness Book of Records. The game went into extra time, followed by a penalty shootout which was won by Corinthians. In November 2006, a special team jersey was released celebrating the 30th anniversary of the invasion.

Corinthians Democracy (Democracia Corinthiana)

The Corinthians Democracy was a unique ideological movement in the world, known in Brazil as one of the key moments in the struggle against the military dictatorship that governed the country at the time.

Led by Socrates and Wladimir, the players took some control of the team's management, deciding things that would affect them, and one of the decisions they took is known as one of the most important actions against the dictatorship.

In 1982, the players voted to print on the back of their shirts an announcement, "Vote on the 15th", to motivate people to vote on November 15, in the elections that would help Brazil to end its dictatorship.

Corinthians World Champion

The first edition of the FIFA Club World Championship took place in Brazil in 2000. Eight clubs, representing every corner of the planet, converged on Rio de Janeiromarker and São Paulo. It was the two Brazilian participants, Rio's Vasco da Gama and Corinthians from São Paulo that met the star-studded local final. The São Paulo side just managed to defeat their rivals 4-3 in a penalty shootout after 120 minutes of tactical, goalless football. After drawing with Real Madrid and disposing of Saudi Arabia's Al Nassr and Morocco's Raja Casablanca in the first round, Corinthians and their stable of thoroughbreds - Vampeta, Freddy Rincon, Edu, Dida and Edilson - ran out worthy champions in front of a crowd of 73,000 in Rio's fabled Maracana Stadiummarker. Corinthians played the final match with Dida, Índio, Fábio Luciano, Adílson, Kléber, Vampeta (replaced for Gilmar), Rincón, Marcelinho Carioca, Ricardinho (replaced for Edu), Edílson (replaced for Fernando Baiano) and Luizão. Coach: Oswaldo de Oliveira.

Rivalries

  • Palmeiras: Palestra Itália (now known as Palmeiras) was founded in 1914 for a group of Italian originally members of Corinthians, including the player Bianco, they left the club to create a new "whole Italian" club and were labeled as traitors. Since that the match has being called simply "O Derby" (THE Derby) and remains the fiercest rivalry in São Paulo and the most important derby in Brazil.




Colours

Even though the club has been recognized by the colours black and white for most of its history, the first Corinthians' kit originally consisted of cream shirts and black shorts. But when the shirts were washed, the cream colour gradually became white. After that, early in the club's history, the official colours were changed, so the club would not waste much money on buying new kits. In 1954 was introduced the black with thin white stripes uniform which became the alternative uniform.



















Crests

1913
Corinthians' shirt had no crest before 1913, when the club joined the Liga Paulista and became able to play official matches in the São Paulo State Championship. The club then debuted its first symbol, with the letters "C" and "P", which stand for Corinthians Paulista.

1940-present
The first crest was created by the lithographer Hermógenes Barbuy, brother of Corinthians' player Amílcar, in 1914. But the crest changed often before 1919, when a new crest (part of the present crest) debuted on Corinthians' shirts in 1919. Presenting a São Paulo State flag in a circle and the club's name, S.C. Corinthians Paulista, written around it, where S.C. stand for Sport Club.

The crest changed yet again in 1940 when the modernist painter and former member of Corinthians' reserve squad Francisco Rebolo González created the club's definitive crest, with the anchor and two oars (a reference to the aquatic sports practiced in the club), making it unique. The definitive crest has been revised a few times.

Manufacturer and Sponsors

Manufacturer:

Topper (1982-1987)

Finta (1988-1993)

Penalty (1993-1998)

Topper (1999-2002)

Nikemarker (2003-)


Sponsors:

Bombril (1982) - back

Cofap (1983)

Citizen (1984) - back

Bic (1984)

Corona (1984)

Kalunga (1985-1994)

Suvinil (1995-1996)

Excel-Econômico (1997-1998)

Embratel (1998)

Batavo (1999-2000)

Pepsi (2000-2004)

Kolumbus (2003) - sleeves

Samsung (2005-2007)

Medial Saúde (2008-2009)

Ford (2009) - one game only

Locaweb (2009) - one game only - sleeves

Vivo (2009) - one game only - sholders

Aacd (2009) - one game only

Visa (2009) - one game only

Panasonic (2009) - one game only - sleeves

Lupo (2009) - one game only - shorts

Batavo/Perdigão/Brasil Food (2009-)

Bozzano (2009-) - sleeves

Grupo Silvio Santos/Banco Panamericano (2009-) - shoulders/lower back

Avanço (2009-) - under sleeves

Stadiums

As soon as founded Corinthians needed somewhere to host its matches. The team initially played on a field owned by a wood seller, and henceforth was known as Campo do Lenheiro (Portuguese for wood seller's field). The field's conditions were not ideal as the players and fans had to clean the place before every match.

Four years after being included to play the São Paulo State Championship, in 1918, a more appropriate stadium was required, as the fame and number of fans increased after winning two state championships. Associates, players and fans managed to build another stadium, known as Bom Retiro Stadium which would be Corinthians home ground for nine years.

In 1928, club chairman Alfredo Schürig purchased the terrain where the social club now stands, known as Parque São Jorgemarker. Inside the social club a stadium (named after Schürig) was built. Most known as Fazendinha (Portuguese for small farm) or Parque São Jorge Stadium' this stadium would host Corinthians matches for a long time.

Municipal Prefecture Stadium Paulo Machado de Carvalho (known as Pacaembu) was inaugurated in 1940. As the team with the biggest fanbase in the city, Corinthians would play its bigger matches in the public stadium for a bigger attendance. Eventually every Corinthians home match would be played there.

As the capacity of Pacaembu decreased with time, to 37,000 spectators as of its last improvement in 2008, Corinthians is forced to play sometimes in rival's São Paulo FC ground (Morumbi Stadiummarker) when the expected attendance is superior to Pacaembu's capacity.

Several projects of a new stadium were presented to the public since the 1960s. The club owns property in Itaquera conceded for the building of its new stadium by the Municipal Prefecture in 1970s. In the 1990s Corinthians inaugurated its first training centre there, known as CT de Itaquera.

Former partner group HTMF bought land in the Raposo Tavares Highway in late 1990s for the stadium construction but the partnership ended soon after that.

In late 2006 a NGO called Cooperfiel established a fund drive for a new stadium.

Former Chairman Alberto Dualib had conversations with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (an ardent supporter of the club) to ask him for financial assistance to build a new stadium for the team. In that meeting, the president demanded to talk to former coach Emerson Leão and tell him he trusted on him to "fix" the team, which has been having problems with greedy players and jealousy amongst them. It is also said that the real purpose of that meeting was that Dualib could talk to Lula about Boris Berezovsky's arrival.

Corinthians' practice field is home to Brazil's first FIFA certified artificial turf pitch. This synthetic turf pitch, called Xtreme Turf, was manufactured by ACT Global Sports.

As of 2009, there are some conjectures that the government of São Paulo might make a deal for a 30-year allotment of Pacaembu. Besides that, Fazendinha is being improved to host some matches and shows starting 2010.

Anthem

The Corinthians anthem was written in 1952 by Lauro D'Avila, called "Campeão dos Campeões" (Champion of the Champions).

Salve o Corinthians,
O campeão dos campeões.
Eternamente,
Dentro dos nossos corações.

Salve o Corinthians,
De tradições e glórias mil.
Tu és o orgulho,
Dos esportistas do Brasil

Teu passado é uma bandeira,
Teu presente, uma lição.
Figuras entre os primeiros
Do nosso esporte bretão.

Corinthians grande,
Sempre altaneiro.
És do Brasil,
O clube mais brasileiro!

Hail Corinthians,
The champion of the champions.
Eternally,
Within our hearts.

Hail Corinthians,
Of tradition and thousand glories.
You are the pride,
Of the sportsmen of Brazil

Your past is a flag,
Your present, a lesson.
Takes its place among the firsts
Of our Breton sport.

Great Corinthians,
Always soaring.
You are from Brazil,
The most Brazilian club!


Squad

Squad 2009, November 11th, 2009.

First team squad

 (vice-captain)
 (captain)


On loan

Notable Players

Technical Staff

Current Technical Staff

  • Mano Menezes — Head coach
  • Toninho Oliveira — Fitness coach
  • Carlos Alberto Pimentel — Assistant fitness coach
  • Marcos Antonio Romando — Goalkeeping coach
  • Dr. Fábio Luiz Novi — Club doctor
  • Dr. Paulo Antonio de Faria — Club doctor
  • Dr. Joaquim Grava — Head of Medical Department
  • Dr. Renato Fraga Moreira Lotufo — Physiologist
  • José Alberto Fregnani Gonçalves — Physiotherapist
  • Paulo Rogério Vieira — Physiotherapist
  • Christine Fernanda Machado Neves — Nutritionist
  • Alexandro Gonçalves Dias — Masseur
  • José Lazaro do Nascimento — Masseur
  • Cleber Costa de Souza — Masseur


Notable managers

Corinthians first official manager was Uruguayan Pedro Mazzulo appointed in 1933. Before that, usually the leader player (captain) accumulated also the head coach function. Former player Neco was the first appointed manager to win a championship with the club, in 1937.

Nelsinho Baptista in 1990, Wanderley Luxemburgo in 1998, Oswaldo de Oliveira in 1999 and Antônio Lopes in 2005 are the four managers that succeeded to win the Brazilian championship trophy with the club.Osvaldo Brandão is known as one of the most important managers in the club's history for leading the group to win the São Paulo State Championship in 1977, after 23 years without a trophy.

Current manager Mano Menezes wrote his name in the club's history after leading Corinthians back to first division in 2008, after Corinthians was relegated for the first time ever in 2007. Mano also lead Corinthians to a Runner-Up campaign in Brazilian Cup 2008, an unbeaten title in São Paulo State Championship 2009 and a first place victory in Brazilian Cup 2009.

Honours of professional football (66)

Official honours (41)

International Competitions (FIFA): (1)

Final match players: Dida, Indio, Fabio Luciano, Adilson, Kleber, Vampeta (replaced by Gilmar), Rincon, Marcelinho Carioca, Ricardinho (replaced by Edu), Edilson (replaced by Fernando Baiano) and Luizao. Coach: Oswaldo de Oliveira.

National competitions (CBF): (9)

Final/Last match players:

1990: Ronaldo, Giba, Marcelo Dijan, Guinei, Jacenir, Marcio, Wilson Mano, Neto (replaced by Ezequiel), Fabinho, Tupazinho and Mauro (replaced by Paulo Sergio). Coach: Nelsinho Baptista.

1998: Nei, Indio, Batata (replaced by Cris), Gamarra, Silvinho, Vampeta, Rincon, Ricardinho (replaced by Amaral), Marcelinho Carioca, Mirandinha (replaced by Dinei) and Edilson. Coach: Wanderley Luxemburgo.

1999: Dida, Indio, Joao Carlos, Marcio Costa, Kleber, Vampeta (replaced by Marcos Sena), Ricon, Gilmar (replaced by Edu), Ricardinho, Marcelinho Carioca (replaced by Dinei) and Edilson. Coach: Oswaldo de Oliveira.

2005: Fabio Costa, Coelho (replaced by Edson), Marinho, Wendel, Gustavo Nery, Marcelo Mattos, Rosinei, Bruno Octavio, Carlos Alberto (replaced by Wescley), Nilmar (replaced by Jo) and Tevez. Coach: Antonio Lopez.

Final/Last match players:

1976: Tobias, Ze Maria, Moises, Ze Eduardo, Wladimir, Givanildo, Russo, Neca, Vaguinho, Geraldao and Romeu. Coach: Duque.

1994: Ronaldo, Paulo Roberto Costa, Henrique, Gralak, Branco, Luizinho, Marcelinho Paulista, Souza (replaced by Tupazinho), Marcelinho Carioca, Viola and Marques. Coach: Jair Pereira.

2002: Doni, Rogerio, Fabio Luciano, Scheidt, Kleber, Vampeta, Fabinho (replaced by Fabricio), Renato (replaced by Marcinho), Deivid, Guilherme (replaced by Leandro) and Gil. Coach: Carlos Alberto Parreira.



Final match players:

1995: Ronaldo, Andre Santos, Celio Silva, Henrique, Silvinho, Ze Elias, Bernardo, Souza, Marcelinho Carioca, Viola and Marques (replaced by Tupazinho). Coach: Eduardo Amorim.

2002: Dida, Rogerio, Fabio Luciano, Anderson, Kleber, Vampeta (replaced by Fabinho), Fabricio, Ricardinho, Gil, Leandro (replaced by Renato) and Deivid. Coach: Carlos Alberto Parreira.

2009: Felipe, Alessandro, Chicao, William, Andre Santos (replaced by Diego), Cristian (replaced by Boquita), Elias, Douglas, Jorge Henrique, Ronaldo, Dentinho (replaced by Jean). Coach: Mano Menezes.

Final match players:

2001: Mauricio, Rogerio, Joao Carlos, Scheidt, Kleber, Octacilio, Andre Luis (replaced by Gil), Marcelinho (replaced by Pereira), Ricardinho, Muller (replaced by Marcos Senna) and Ewerthon. Coach: Wanderley Luxemburgo.

2008: Felipe, Carlos Alberto (replaced by Lulinha), Wiliam, Chicao, Andre Santos, Fabinho, Eduardo Ramos, Alessandro, Diogo Ricon (replaced by Acosta), Dentinho (replaced by Wellington Saci) and Herrera. Coach: Mano Menezes.

Final match players: Ronaldo, Giba, Marcelo, Guinei, Jacenir, Marcio, Tupazinho (replaced by Edson Pezinho), Neto, Fabinho, Paulo Sergio, Mauro Van Basten (replaced by Ezequiel). Coach: Nelsinho Baptista.

Inter-state Competitions (FPF and FFERJ): (5)



State competitions (FPF): (26)

  • São Paulo State Championship: 1914*, 1916*, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1928, 1929*, 1930, 1937, 1938*, 1939, 1941, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1977, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1988, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2009*
Unbeaten champion in 1914, 1916, 1929, 1938 and 2009

Friendly tournaments (25)

International tournaments (10)

  • Pequeña Copa del Mundo (VENmarker) (1):1953
  • Charles Miller International Tournament (BRAmarker) (1): 1954
  • City of Turin Tournament (ITAmarker) (1): 1966
  • Apollo V Cup (USAmarker) (1): 1969
  • Costa del Sol Tornament (ESPmarker): 1969
  • Independence of Mexico Cup (MEXmarker) (1): 1981
  • Nations Cup (USAmarker) (1): 1985
  • Ramón de Carranza Trophy (ESPmarker) (1): 1996
  • Santos City Internacional Summer Tournament (BRAmarker) (2): 1986, 1987


National tournaments (15)

  • São Paulo City Cup: 1942, 1943, 1947
  • Mayor of São Paulo Cup: 1953
  • Gold Quinela: 1942
  • Missões Tournament: 1953
  • Charles Miller Tournament: 1955
  • Brasília Tournament: 1958
  • São Paulo Cup: 1962, 1975
  • Recife Cup: 1965
  • People's Tournament: 1971
  • Laudo Natel Cup: 1973
  • Porto Alegre City Cup: 1983
  • Bandeirantes Cup: 1994


Amateur football (13)

Youth Competitions (13)

Further information:Corinthians Youth Team

PS: Copa São Paulo de Juniores is the most important 'Youth Competition' in Brazil, being considered nowadays the 7th most important tournement there. (in order, FIFA Club World Cup, Copa Libertadores, Campeonato Brasileiro Serie A, Brazilian Cup, Copa Sudamericana and the State Championships).

See also




Torcidas Organizadas (Ultras)

-Gaviões da Fiel-Estopim da Fiel-Torcida Jovem Camisa 12-C.D. Pavilhão 9-Coringão Chopp-Fiel Macabra

References

  1. Globo Esporte website, Retrieved November 25th 2009
  2. The NGO's stated goal is to raise R$300 million (approximately $140 million USD) within a 36-month time frame for the construction of a 60,000 seat venue that will be ceded to the club under an as yet undetermined arrangement. (Reference: )
  3. According to , CBF's BID and match reports
  4. FIFA website, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  5. Bola na area website: Brasileirao 1990, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  6. Bola na area website: Brasileirao 1998, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  7. Bola na area website: Brasileirao 1999, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  8. Bola na area website: Brasileirao 2005, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  9. Bola na area website: Brasileirao 1976, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  10. Bola na area website: Brasileirao 1994, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  11. Bola na area website: Brasileirao 2002, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  12. Bola na area website: Copa do Brasil 1995, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  13. Bola na area website: Copa do Brasil 2002, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  14. Bola na area website: Copa do Brasil 2009, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  15. Bola na area website: Copa do Brasil 2001, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  16. Bola na area website: Copa do Brasil 2008, Retrieved November 25th, 2009
  17. [ http://terceirotempo.ig.com.br/noticia/Especial_Marcelinho_Carioca_x_Corinthians-6388 Terceiro Tempo website, Retrieved November 25th, 2009]


External links

Official websites



Corinthians related websites




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