St. Louis ( or ; French:
Saint-Louis or St-Louis, ) is an independent city in the U.S. state of Missouri.
an estimated population of 354,361 in 2008, it is the third most
populous county-level division in Missouri. It is the principal
municipality of Greater St. Louis
population 2,877,126, the largest urban area in Missouri and
sixteenth largest in the United States. The city was founded
in 1764 just south of the confluence of
the Missouri and Mississippi rivers by colonial French
traders Pierre Laclède and
René Auguste Chouteau,
who named the settlement after King
Louis IX of France.
The city, as well as the future
state of Missouri, became part of the Spanish Empire
after the French were defeated
in the Seven Years' War
. In 1800
the land was secretly transferred back to France, whose leader,
sold it to the United States in 1803; the city commemorates its
multinational heritage by celebrating Three Flags Day
. On August 22, 1876 the
City of St. Louis voted to secede from St. Louis
County and become an independent city, limiting its
Once the fourth largest single city in
the United States, St. Louis's city proper population has since
slipped to 52nd. The 1904
and 1904 Olympic
, the first ever held in the Western Hemisphere, took
place at the peak of the city's influence. St. Louis has
historically had a large Italian population which is centered on
the southside community of "The
." A large number of immigrants primarily from Italy,
and Ireland flooded St.
Louis in the 19th century coloring the cuisine and architecture of
the city. Today St. Louis has a majority population of African American
, most of whom migrated to
the city during the great
to work in factories and other industries.
St Louis has been known as the "Gateway to the West" because of the
important role it played in the westward expansion of the United
1965 the Gateway Arch was constructed as part of the Jefferson
National Expansion Memorial; the arch has since become the iconic image of St.
The city is also well known for its contribution to
the musical styles of Blues
, and Jazz
. The St. Louis Cardinals, one of the most
successful Major League
Baseball teams, make their home at Busch Stadium.
Other professional teams include the
St. Louis Rams
St. Louis Blues
(hockey). A diversity of successful sports franchises has led to
St. Louis being called "North America's Best Sports City."
has also made important contributions to beer in the United States due to
the large number of breweries in St. Louis during the 19th century,
most notably Anheuser-Busch, Falstaff
Brewing Corporation, and Lemp
The vestiges French and Spanish colonization
make St. Louis one of the largest centers of Roman Catholicism in the
lies at the heart of Greater St. Louis, a metropolitan area of nearly three million
people in Missouri and Illinois.
Illinois portion is
commonly known as the Metro-East.
The region is home to some of the country's largest privately-held
corporations, including Enterprise
, Edward Jones
, and is also home to
some of the largest public corporations, including Emerson
, Anheuser-Busch InBev
Integrated Defense Systems
, Charter Communications
, Monsanto Company
, and Wells Fargo Advisers
. Unlike most
post-industrial cities there has been a major upturn in urban
revitalization in the city of St. Louis. As a testament to this the
city received the World Leadership Award for urban renewal in 2006.
In 2008, the U. S. Census Bureau
reported St. Louis had a net population gain of 6,172 from the 2000
Census, to 354,361, the first gain the city has had since
Prior to the arrival of French explorers in 1673 the area that
would become St. Louis was a major center of the Mississippian mound builders
. The presence of
numerous mounds, now almost all destroyed, earned the later city
the nickname of "Mound Cit.European exploration of the area had
begun nearly a century before the city was founded. Louis Joliet
and Jacques Marquette
, two French explorers,
traveled through the Mississippi River valley in 1673, and five
years later, La Salle
claimed the entire valley for France. He called it Louisiana
after King Louis XIV
; the French also called their
region Illinois Country
the French established a settlement at Cahokia, across the
Mississippi River from what is now St. Louis. They founded other
early settlements downriver at Kaskaskia, Prairie du Pont, and Fort de Chartres, Illinois, and Sainte Genevieve.
In 1703, Catholic priests established a
small mission at what is now St. Louis. The mission was later moved
across the Mississippi, but the small river at the site (now a
drainage channel near the southern boundary of the City of St.
Louis) still bears the name "River Des Peres" (French Rivière
, River of the Fathers).
Pierre Laclède de
Liguest, his 13-year-old stepson Auguste Chouteau, and a small
band of men traveled up the Mississippi from New Orleans to found a post to take advantage of trade coming
downstream by the Missouri
In November, they landed a few miles
downstream of the river's confluence with the Missouri River at a
site where wooded limestone bluffs rose forty feet above the river.
The men returned to Fort du Chartres for the winter, but in
February 1764, Laclède sent Chouteau and thirty men to begin
construction at the new site, laid out in a grid pattern as an
imitation of New Orleans.
The settlement began to grow quickly after word arrived that the
1763 Treaty of Paris
given Britain all the land east of the Mississippi. Frenchmen who
had earlier settled to the river's east moved across the water to
"Laclède's Village." Other early settlements were established
nearby at Saint Charles, the
independent village of Carondelet (later annexed by St. Louis and
now the southernmost part of the current City), Fleurissant
(renamed Saint Ferdinand by the Spaniards and now Florissant), and Portage des Sioux.
In 1765, St. Louis was made the capital of
From 1766 to 1768, St. Louis was governed by the French lieutenant
governor, Louis Saint Ange de Bellerive, who was appointed not by
French or Spanish authorities, but by the leading residents of St.
Louis. After 1768, St. Louis was governed by a series of governors
appointed by Spanish authorities
, whose administration
continued even after Louisiana was secretly returned to France in
1800 by the Treaty of San
. The town's population was then about a thousand.
During the period when commandants appointed by Spanish authorities
governed St. Louis, meetings of leading residents were also held
from time to time, and "syndics" were sometimes elected to carry
out certain governmental tasks. In 1780 St. Louis was attacked by
the British during the American Revolution. A combined Spanish and
French Creole force protected the city.
St. Louis was acquired from France by the United States under
President Thomas Jefferson
in 1803, as part of the
. The transfer
of power from Spain was made official in a ceremony called "Three
Flags Day." On March 8, 1804, the Spanish flag was lowered and the
French one raised. On March 10, the French flag was replaced by the
United States flag. Until the 1820s French continued to be one of
the major spoken and written languages in St. Louis, along with
English.The Lewis and Clark
left the St. Louis area in May 1804, reached the
Pacific Ocean in the summer of 1805, and returned on September 23,
1806. Both Lewis and Clark lived in St. Louis after the expedition.
Many other explorers
, and trappers
(such as Ashley's Hundred
later take a similar route to the West
Missouri became a state in 1821, St. Louis was incorporated as a
city on December 9, 1822. The city elected its first municipal
legislators (called trustees) in 1808. A U. S. arsenal was
constructed at St. Louis in 1827.
The steamboat era began in St. Louis on July 27, 1817, with the
arrival of the Zebulon M. Pike
signified significant progress in river trade, as steam power
permitted much more efficient and dependable river transportation.
Unlike the hand-propelled barges and keel boats that preceded the
steamboat as the choice vehicle of Mississippi River trade,
steamboats could travel upriver, and against the current, just as
easily as downriver.
Rapids north of the city made St. Louis the northernmost navigable
port for many large boats. The Pike
and her sisters soon
transformed St. Louis into a bustling boom town, commercial center,
and inland port. By the 1830s, it was common to see more than 150
steamboats at the St. Louis levee at one time. By the 1850s, St.
Louis had become the largest U. S. city west of Pittsburgh, and the
second-largest port in the country, with a commercial tonnage
exceeded only by New York.
flooded into St. Louis after
1840, particularly from Germany, Bohemia
and Ireland, the last driven by persecution from the English and
secondary a potato
. During Reconstruction, rural Southern blacks flooded
into St. Louis as well, seeking better opportunity. The population
of St. Louis grew from less than 20,000 in 1840, to 77,860 in 1850,
to more than 160,000 by 1860. At this time, public transit
developed in order to effectively transport the numbers of new
residents in the city. Omnibuses began to service St. Louis in
1843, and in 1859, St. Louis's first streetcar tracks were laid.
Later in the 19th century, Italian immigrants began to arrive in
the city and farming areas. They helped expand wine making to the
Militarily, the Civil War
touched St. Louis. The area saw only a few skirmishes, in which
important action might have been the Camp Jackson Affair.
However, the war shut down trade with the
South, as Union troops blockaded the Mississippi River from 1861
through the end of the war. Trade in St. Louis declined to about
one-third its average, as the economy of the South, one of the
markets St. Louis depended on, was devastated. Missouri was
nominally a slave state, but its economy did not depend on slavery
. It remained loyal to the Union throughout
the Civil War. The arsenal at St. Louis was used during the war to
construct ironclad ships for the Union, and shipbuilding continued
at the Port of St. Louis even into the latter half of the 20th
Eads Bridge, the first road and rail bridge to cross the
Mississippi River, was completed in 1874.
22, 1876 the City of St. Louis voted to secede from St. Louis
County and become an independent city.
At that time
the County was primarily rural and sparsely populated, and the
fast-growing City did not want to spend its tax dollars on
infrastructure and services for the inefficient county; the move
also allowed some in St. Louis government to increase their
political power. This decision later haunted the City, as the
results of that separation are still problematic today.
Washington Avenue Loft District
As St. Louis grew and prospered during the late 19th and early 20th
century, the city produced a number of notable people in the fields
of business and literature. The Ralston-Purina
company (headed by the
) was headquartered in
the city. Anheuser-Busch, the world's largest brewery, remains a fixture of
the city's economy.
The City was home to International Shoe
, the Brown Shoe Company
, and the St. Louis
Division of the Curtiss-Wright
Aircraft Company. Several important aircraft were built or first
tested at St. Louis, including the CD-25 Coupe business aircraft
(later the AT-9 Jeep in wartime service), the CW-20 twin-engine
airliner, the C-76 Caravan, and the C-46
of the Second World War.
St. Louis was also one of the cities to see a pioneering brass era automobile
company, the Success
its low price, the company did not live up to its name. St. Louis
is one of several cities claiming the world's first skyscraper
. The Wainwright Building, a 10-story structure designed by Louis Sullivan and built in 1892, still
stands at Chestnut and Seventh Streets.
Today it is used by
the State of Missouri as a government office building. By the time
of the 1900 census
, St. Louis was the
fourth-largest city in the country. In 1904, the city hosted its
second World's Fair
which led the Olympic Games
be moved from Chicago, originally selected to host the games, to
St. Louis to coincide with the Fair. With these games, the United
States became the first English-speaking country to host the
. There were several events
held in 2004 to commemorate the centennial.
Souvenir of the 1904 Louisiana
St. Louis developed a lively immigrant gang culture by the early
20th century, leading up to much bootlegging
activity and gang violence. One gang
leader, from an Irish part of the city referred to as "Kerry Patch
", was named "Jelly Roll" Hogan.
Hogan's gang is mentioned in Tennessee Williams
' The Glass Menagerie
. In the 1920s
there were shoot outs on Lindell
between Hogan's Gang and the gang known as Egan's Rats
. A priest was brought in to broker
peace between the gangs in 1923, but this truce only lasted a few
months before two more people were killed in a public shoot out. In
1923, Egan's Rats made off with $2.4 million in bonds from a mail
truck. Hogan during this time was a state representative
was elected in 1916, eventually became a state senator
, and spent forty years in
elected office. The Kerry Patch is now part of the Old North St. Louis
Although St. Louis did not segregate people on street cars like
other cities, racial discrimination in housing was commonplace, and
discrimination in employment was not uncommon before World War II.
During World War II, the NAACP
campaigned, through protests and picket lines, to persuade the
Federal government to allow African Americans to work in war
plants. Some 16,000 jobs were gained in this way. State court
rulings and local civil rights campaigns in the two decades after
the war challenged the legality of race-based restrictions on real
estate ownership and opened clerical positions in local banks, etc.
that had been more common prior to WWII.
St. Louis, as did many other Midwestern cities, experienced major
expansion in the early 20th century due to the formation of many
industrial companies and reached its peak population at the 1950
census. The Gateway Arch was built in the mid-1960s. In the postwar
era, suburbanization in conjunction with the GI
highway construction, and changes in housing preferences shifted
the population out of the city and into newly formed suburbs.
Although the overall population of the St. Louis MSA has always
been growing, the St. Louis city population itself decreased for
decades, especially after job losses due to restructuring of
railroad and other industries.
Recently, there has been revitalization in Downtown St. Louis
and along a corridor
extending to the west through Midtown and the Central West End
neighborhoods. The St. Louis Cardinals' new Busch Stadium opened in 2006. Ballpark
Village would have been built where the northern half of
the former Busch
Stadium stood, but those plans have been put on
hold. For several years, the Washington Avenue Loft
District has been gentrifying
with an expanding corridor along Washington Avenue from the
Dome westward almost two dozen blocks.
Revitalization continues, including new construction, as the
corridor extends to the west to Forest Park.
Because of the major upturn in urban revitalization, St. Louis
received the World Leadership Award for urban renewal in 2006. In
2008, the U. S. Census Bureau
St. Louis had a net population gain of 6,172 from the 2000 Census,
to 354,361, the first gain the city has had since 1950. However,
since then, the State of Missouri released census estimates
projecting the city will lose 3,000 residents by 2030.
According to the United States Census Bureau
Louis has a total area of 66.2 square miles (171.3 km²),
of which, 61.9 square miles (160.4 km²) of it is land and
11.0 km² (4.2 sq mi or 6.39%) of it is water.
is built primarily on bluffs and terraces that
rise 100–200 feet above the western banks of the Mississippi River,
just south of the Missouri-Mississippi confluence.
Much of the area is
a fertile and gently rolling prairie that features low hills and
broad, shallow valleys. Both the Mississippi River and the Missouri
River have cut large valleys with wide flood plains.
of the Mississippian epoch
underlie the area, and parts of
the city are karst
in nature. This is
particularly true of the city south of downtown, with numerous
sinkholes and caves
. Most of the caves in the
city have been sealed shut, but many springs are visible along the
riverfront. Significant deposits of coal
, and millerite
ore were once mined in the city, and the
predominant surface rock, the St. Louis Limestone
, is used
as dimension stone and rubble for construction.
southern boundary of the City of St. Louis (separating it from
County) is the River des
Peres, virtually the only river or stream within the city
limits that is not entirely underground.
The rivers around St. Louis
Most of River des
Peres was either channelized or put underground in the 1920s and
early 1930s. The lower section of the river was the site of some of
the worst flooding of the Great
Flood of 1993
central, western boundary of the city is Forest
Park, site of the 1904 World's
fair, the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition of 1904, and the 1904 Summer Olympics, the first
Olympic Games held in North
At the time, St. Louis was the fourth most populous
city in the United States.
River forms the northern border of St. Louis
County, exclusive of a few areas where the river has
changed its course. The Meramec River forms most of its southern border.
east is the City and the Mississippi River.
St. Louis lies on the transition between humid continental climate
) and humid subtropical climate
), and has neither large mountains
nor large bodies of water to moderate its temperature. Both cold Arctic air
and hot, humid tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico affect the region.
The city has four
. Spring is the wettest
season and produces frequent severe weather with mild temperatures.
Summers are warm and humid. Fall is mild with low humidity and
little precipitation. Winters are cold and snowy with temperatures
usually below freezing. The average annual temperature for the years
1970–2000, recorded at nearby Lambert-Saint Louis International
Airport, is 56.3 °F (13.5 °C), and average precipitation is .
The normal high
temperature in July is 91 °F (33 °C), and the normal low
temperature in January is 21 °F (−6 °C), although these values have
been known to vary at times. Temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) or more
occur no more than five days a year and temperatures of 0 °F (-17.8
°C) or below occur 2 or 3 days a year on average. The official
record low is -22 °F (-30 °C) on January 5, 1884, and the record
high is 115 °F (46.1 °C) on July 14, 1954.
Winter (December through February) is the driest season, averaging
about of total precipitation. Average annual snowfall is per year.
Spring (March through May), is typically the wettest season, with
approximately of precipitation. Dry spells lasting one or two weeks
are common during the growing seasons.
St. Louis usually experiences thunderstorms
on the average 48 days a year.
Especially in the spring, these storms can often be severe, with
high winds, large hail
and tornadoes. St. Louis
has been affected on more than one occasion by particularly damaging
A period of warm weather late in autumn known as Indian summer
can occur – roses
will still be in bloom as late as November or
early December in some years.
Flora and fauna
Before the founding of the city, the area was prairie and open
forest maintained by burning by Native Americans
mainly oak, maple, and
hickory, similar to the forests of the
nearby Ozarks; common
understory trees include Eastern
Redbud, Serviceberry, and Flowering Dogwood. Riparian
areas are forested with mainly American sycamore
. Most of the residential
area of the city is planted with large native shade trees. The
largest native forest area is found in Forest Park. In Autumn, the
changing color of the trees is notable. Most species here are
typical of the Eastern Woodland, although numerous decorative
non-native species are found; the most notable invasive species is
, which is
actively removed from some parks.
found in the city include
and occasionally a stray
. Eastern Gray Squirrel
, Cottontail rabbit
, and other rodents are
abundant, as well as the nocturnal and rarely seen Virginia Opossum
. Large bird species are
abundant in parks and include Canada
, Mallard duck
, as well as
, including the Great Egret
and Great Blue Heron
are common along the Mississippi River; these species typically
traffic. Winter populations of
Bald Eagles are found by the Mississippi
River around the Chain of Rocks Bridge.
The city is on the Mississippi Flyway
, used by migrating
birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the
eastern U.S. The Eurasian Tree
, an introduced species, is limited in North America to
the counties surrounding St. Louis. Tower Grove Park is a well-known birdwatching area in the
Frogs are commonly found in the springtime, especially after
extensive wet periods. Common species include the American toad
and species of chorus frogs
commonly called spring peepers
are found in nearly every pond. Some years have outbreaks of
are common insect
nuisances; because of this, windows are nearly
universally fitted with screens
are common in homes of the
area. Invasive populations of honeybees
have sharply declined in recent
years, and numerous native species of pollinator
insects have recovered to fill their
Metropolitan statistical area
The St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical
is the largest Metropolitan Area
Missouri, and the
in the United States, and has an estimated total
population of 2,813,912 as of July 1, 2008. This area includes
the independent City of St. Louis
(354,361). and the Missouri
counties of St. Louis (991,830), St. Charles (349,407), Jefferson (217,679), Franklin (100,898), Lincoln (52,775), Warren (31,214), Washington (24,548), plus the Illinois counties of Madison (267,038), St. Clair (261,409), Macoupin (48,143), Clinton (36,470), Monroe (32,335), Jersey (22,451), Bond (18,253), and Calhoun (5,101).
Old footbridge in Forest Park
Missouri Botanical Garden
The city is divided into 79 government-designated neighborhoods.
The divisions have no legal standing, although some neighborhood
associations administer grants or hold veto power over
historic-district development. Nevertheless, the social and
political influence of neighborhood identity is profound. Some hold
avenues of massive stone edifices built as palaces for heads of
state visiting the 1904 World's
. Others offer tidy working-class bungalows or loft
districts. Many of them have endured as strong and cohesive
best-known, architecturally significant, or well-visited
neighborhoods are Downtown,
Midtown, Benton Park West, Carondelet, the Central West
End, DeBaliviere Place, Skinker/DeBaliviere, Clayton/Tamm (Dogtown), Dutchtown, Forest
Park Southeast, Grand Center, The Hill, Lafayette
Square, LaSalle Park, Old North St. Louis, Compton Heights, Princeton Heights, Shaw (home to
Botanical Garden and named after the Garden's founder, Henry Shaw), Southampton, Southwest Garden, Soulard (home of the second-largest Mardi Gras festival in the nation), Tower Grove East, Tower Grove
South, Hortense Place (one of the city's private places, home to many grand mansions),
Holly Hills, St. Louis
Hills, and Wydown/Skinker.
Parks and gardens
The city operates 105 parks that serve as gathering spots for
neighbors to meet, and contains playgrounds, areas for summer
, picnics, baseball
courts, and lakes. Forest Park, located on the western edge of the central
corridor of the City of St. Louis, is one of the largest urban
parks in the world, exceeding Central Park in New York City by 500 acres
Botanical Garden, also known as Shaw's Garden, is one of
the world's leading botanical research
It possesses a collection of flowering plants,
shrubs, and trees
, and includes the Japanese
Garden, which features gravel designs and a lake filled with
; the woodsy English Garden; the Kemper Home
Gardening Center; a rose garden; the Climatron
; a children's garden and playground;
and many other scenic gardens. Immediately south of the Missouri Botanical
Garden is Tower Grove
Park, a gift to the City by Henry Shaw.
Tower Grove Park is
one of the oldest "walking" parks in the United States, and hosts
annual outdoor concerts free to the public.
Jefferson National Expansion
Memorial is a national park located on the downtown
riverfront where the city was first founded in 1764.
commemorates the westward growth of the United States between 1803
and 1890. The centerpiece of the park is the stainless steel
Gateway Arch, which is the most recognizable structure in the city.
It was designed by noted architect Eero
and completed on October 28, 1965. At 630 feet (192
m), it is the tallest manmade monument in the United States.
Located below the Arch is the Museum of Westward Expansion, which
contains an extensive collection of artifacts. It tells the details
of the story of the thousands of people who lived in and settled
the American West during the nineteenth century. Nearby and also
part of the memorial is the historic Old
, one of the oldest standing buildings in St. Louis.
Begun in 1839, it was here that the first two trials of the
Dred Scott case
were held in 1847
and 1850. This park is also the location of the annual
July 4 festival,
is a two-block ( ) urban sculpture park,
located in Downtown St. Louis
Citygarden is a joint project between the city and the Gateway
Foundation, with the former paying for landscaping, water, and
electricity, and the latter paying for construction and the art in
the park. The landscaping includes plants native to Missouri and
water fountains; featured art at the garden include those from
artists such as Fernand Leger
, Julian Opie
, Niki de Saint
, and Mark di Suvero
park is also divided into three sections, each of which represent a
different theme: river bluffs; flood plains; and urban gardens. The
park also has a restaurant - The Terrace View.
Image:City Museum19.jpg|City Museum
Image:Raddampfer Tom Sawyer.jpg|Steamboat Tom
SawyerImage:A02 6003 427x640.JPG|Gateway ArchImage:Stlouis-waters.jpg|St. Louis
There are many museums and attractions in the city. The St. Louis
Art Museum, located in the City's premier park, Forest
Park, and dating from the 1904 World's Fair, houses an
impressive array of modern art and ancient artifacts, with an
extensive collection of master works of several centuries,
including paintings by Rembrandt, Van Gogh, Pissarro,
Picasso, and many others.
Park is bigger than New York's Central Park, and it also is home to the St. Louis Zoo, the
Muny, and many other attractions. The privately owned
Museum offers a variety of interesting exhibits, including
several large faux caves and a huge outdoor
It also serves as a meeting point for St.
Louis's young arts scene.
Foundation for the Arts, located in Grand
Center, is an arts institution in a world-renowned building
designed by the Pritzker Prize-winning architect, Tadao Ando. Also located in Grand
Center is the Contemporary Art Museum St.
Louis, this non-collecting museum is recognized
nationally for the quality of its exhibitions and education
The Eugene Field
House, located in downtown St. Louis, is a museum dedicated to the
distinguished children's author. The Missouri History Museum presents exhibits and programs on a variety of
topics including the 1904 World's Fair, and a comprehensive exhibit
on Lewis and Clark's voyage exploring the Louisiana
Purchase. The Fox Theatre, originally one of many movie theatres along
Grand Boulevard is now a
newly restored theater featuring a Byzantine facade and Oriental
The Fox Theatre presents a Broadway Series in
addition to concerts. The St. Louis Union Station is a popular tourist attraction with retail
shops and a luxury hotel.
several notable churches in the city, including the Cathedral
Basilica of St. Louis (more commonly known as "the New Cathedral"), a
large Roman Catholic cathedral designed in the Byzantine and Romanesque styles.
Lewis and Clark sculpture on the
interior is decorated with mosaics
largest mosaic collection in the world.In January 1999, Pope John Paul II
spoke in the Cathedral
Basilica as part of a two day visit to St. Louis.The Cathedral
Basilica is the mother church and seat of the Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Saint
, the principal diocese of Missouri; Robert Carlson
is the current bishop,
following Raymond Burke's
as Prefect of the Apostolic
Basilica of St. Louis, King of
France (1834) (more commonly known as the "Old Cathedral")
is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral west of the Mississippi
River. The Old Cathedral is located adjacent to the
Jefferson National Expansion
Memorial. Also notable is the abbey church of Saint Louis
Abbey, whose distinctive architectural style garnered
multiple awards at the time of its completion.
notable churches is St. Francis de
, a neo-Gothic church completed in 1908 and the
largest church in the city aside from the cathedral.
Arch, part of the Memorial, is arguably the city's
best-known landmark, as well as a popular tourist site.
Memorial commemorates the acquisition and settlement by the
citizens of the United States of America of all of the lands west
of the Mississippi River that are part of the nation today. The
Arch, and the entire of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
park, occupy the exact location of the original French village of
St. Louis (1764–1804). Unfortunately, no buildings from that era
is an historically
Italian neighborhood where many of the area's best Italian
restaurants can be found. The Hill was the home of Yogi Berra
, and many other noted athletes.
Park offers many of St. Louis's most popular attractions: the
Zoological Park; the Municipal
Theater (also known as The Muny, the largest and
oldest outdoor musical theater in the United States); the St. Louis
Science Center (with its architecturally distinctive McDonnell
Planetarium); the Saint Louis Art Museum; the Missouri History Museum; several lakes, and scenic open areas.
Forest Park completed a multi-million dollar renovation in 2004 for
the centennial of the St.
Louis World's Fair
. The Zoo, Art Museum, and Science Center are
all world-class institutions. The Zoo-Museum Tax District provides
operating funds, so admission is free to them and the History
Zoological Park, one of the oldest and largest free-admission zoos
in the country, is home to an Insectarium, River's Edge, Fragile
Forest and more.
The St. Louis Zoo has been named #1 zoo by
Zagat Survey's U.S. Family Travel Guide
association with Parenting
magazine. It boasts many
exhibits with animal-friendly habitats. The zoo is located in
Forest Park, adjacent to the St. Louis Art Museum.
St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame
Museum is located near Busch Stadium in downtown St.
Louis. Laclede's Landing, located on the Mississippi River front directly north of
the historic Eads
Bridge, is popular for its restaurants and
possesses several distinct examples of 18th and 19th century
architecture, such as the Soulard Market District (1779–1842), the
Chatillon-de-Menil House (1848), the Bellefontaine Cemetery (1850), the Robert G. Campbell House
(1852), the Old Courthouse (1845-62), the original Anheuser-Busch
Brewery (1860), and two of Louis
Sullivan's early skyscrapers, the Wainwright
Building (1890-91) and the Union Trust
On the Riverfront two sculptural groups have been designated a
National Lewis and Clark site by the National Park Service
. This includes a
twice life-sized grouping of Lewis and Clark on the St. Louis
Riverfront which commemorated the final celebration of the
bicentennial of the expedition. These sculptures were done by Harry
Mansion, home of the ill-fated Lemp family, brewers of
Falstaff Beer and others, is
considered one of the most haunted places in the nation.
is open to the public as a restaurant, murder-mystery dinner
theater, and bed and breakfast.
Entertainment and performing arts
St. Louis is home to the world-renowned Saint Louis Symphony
which was founded in 1880 and is the second oldest
orchestra in the nation. The orchestra has received six Grammy Awards
and fifty-six nominations.
Symphony Hall on North Grand Boulevard has been the permanent
home of the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra since 1968.
, largely credited
with building the orchestra's international prominence during his
17-year tenure as Music Director, is Conductor Laureate. The
current Music Director of the orchestra is David Robertson
The Opera Theatre of Saint
is an annual summer festival of opera performed in
English, originally co-founded by Richard
in 1976. Union Avenue
, formed in the early 1990s, is a smaller company that
performs opera in their original languages. A $74 million
renovation of the Kiel Opera House was approved in June
2009.Other classical music groups of note include
the Arianna String Quartet, the quartet-in-residence at the
University of Missouri–St.
Louis, the Saint Louis Chamber Chorus, and the Young Catholic Musicians, a group
for young choir and band members made up of kids from over 60
parishes all over Saint Louis.
St. Louis has long been associated with great ragtime
music. Early rock and
singer/guitarist Chuck Berry
a native St. Louisan and continues to perform there several times a
year. Soul music artists
Ike Turner and Tina Turner and jazz
innovator Miles Davis began their
careers in nearby East St. Louis, Illinois.
St. Louis has also been a popular stop
along the infamous Chitlin'
. It is because of this musical tradition that the
city's National Hockey League team, added in the 1967 NHL expansion
, was named the
St. Louis Blues
Popular music and entertainment in St. Louis peaked in the 1950s
and 60s due to the popularity of Gaslight Square
, a thriving local
nightclub district that attracted nationally known musicians and
performers. This area was all but extinct by the early 1970s and
today is the site of a new housing development.
St. Louis is also the home to successful modern musical artists,
including Living Things
, Barbara Carr
, Story of the Year
Modern Day Zero
7 Shot Screamers
and The Urge
1990s, the metro area produced several prominent alt-country artists, including Uncle Tupelo — a Belleville,
Illinois trio often considered the originators of the style,
whose members went on to found Wilco and
Son Volt in 1994 — and The Bottle Rockets.
As of 2007 the
scene has celebrated a
resurgence, producing a burgeoning St. Louis Twang Scene
, consisting of
bands, burlesque dancers and roller derby queens. Rap
, The Saint Lunatics
, Murphy Lee
The theater district of St. Louis is in midtown, which is
undergoing a major redevelopment and building boom. This district
of the city is known as Grand
Center, St. Louis
. The phrase can refer to the district itself
(which is located within Midtown), or to the not-for-profit agency,
Grand Center, Inc. (GCI), which possesses certain
quasi-governmental powers and administers arts and urban-renewal
programs in the area. The district includes the Fox
Theatre, one of the largest live Broadway theaters in
the United States, the Powell Symphony Hall, home of the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra,
the Saint Louis University Museum of Art, the Museum of Contemporary
Religious Art, The Sun Theater (under redevelopment), The St
Louis Black Repertory Theater Company, the Contemporary Art Museum
Saint Louis, the Pulitzer Foundation for the
Arts, the Sheldon Concert Hall, the Grandel Theatre and many others.
The Muny (short for The Municipal Opera Association of St.
Louis) is located in Forest Park.
Seating capacity for every performance is
over 13,000 people with 1500 free seats. The Muny has completed its
eighty-ninth annual season for the summer of 2007 with the
production of Les Misérables
The theater is influential with Actors' Equity Association
St. Louis is home to over 81 theatre and dance companies and one of
the largest theatrical production companies in the U.S.A. known as
The Fox Associates. Fox Associates, L.L.C., was formed in 1981 to
purchase, renovate and operate the 4,500-seat Fox Theatre in St.
Louis, Missouri. The Fox, which had once been at the center of the
St. Louis "movie" theater district, had been closed since 1978 and
was in need of both a major restoration and new entertainment
programming to elevate it once again to its rightful position as
the major venue for entertainment in St. Louis. The restoration was
completed and in 1982 the Fox reopened as a major entertainment
venue for Broadway productions, country stars and rock, pop and
jazz artists. It has since become one of the highest grossing
theatres in the country. Today, The Fox Associates group has helped
produce some of Broadway's biggest hit musicals and has been
influential in St. Louis's theater productions. Other theaters in
St. Louis include The Pageant
, The Repertory
and The Roberts
The St. Louis
is the region's major daily newspaper
. Founded by Joseph Pulitzer
in the 1800s, the paper was
owned by Pulitzer, Inc.
when the company was acquired by Lee
. The company also owns the Suburban Journals
, a collection of
community newspapers that serve many St. Louis neighborhoods in
addition to numerous suburban cities.
In 1900, St. Louis had at least five daily newspapers: the
and the St. Louis Republic
in the morning,
and the Post-Dispatch
afternoon, as well as the German-language Westliche Post
One by one, these papers, already consolidated as evidenced by the
hyphenated names, folded or further consolidated. The
bought out its last remaining afternoon
competitor, the Star-Times
, in 1951. Until the mid-1980s,
the morning Globe-Democrat
, which was editorially more
conservative than the Post-Dispatch
, served as the
's main rival. Although the Post-Dispatch
began a joint operating agreement
late 1970s, the Globe-Democrat
folded shortly after the
switched from afternoon to morning
publication. An attempt to revive the Globe-Democrat
independent paper went bankrupt, and a separate attempt to start a
new evening paper in 1989, the St. Louis Sun
, failed in
less than a year.
The city's main weekly newspapers are the various neighborhood
papers which together form the "Suburban Journals" and the primary
alternative weekly publication is the Riverfront Times
weeklies – the St. Louis
(est. 1912), St.
(est. 1928), and St. Louis Sentinel
1968) – serve the African-American community. A variety of
glossy monthly and quarterly publications, including St. Louis Magazine
, cover topics
such as local history, cuisine, and lifestyles. The St. Louis Business Journal
published weekly on Fridays, covers the region's business news.
Additionally, St. Louis is also home to the
nation's last remaining metropolitan journalism review, the
Journalism Review, based at Webster University in the suburb of Webster
Additionally, a group of veteran
reporters, many of whom used to work for the Post-Dispatch, started
an online-only news publication in 2007 called the St. Louis
. The Beacon, according to its website, seeks to
deliver "news that matters" by focusing on in-depth, regional
reporting. The Beacon operates in partnership with
KETC 9 and shares buildings with the TV
The St. Louis metro area is served by a wide variety of local
television stations, and is the 21st largest designated market area
(DMA) in the
U. S., with 1,522,380 homes (1.51% of the total U.S.). The major network
television affiliates are KTVI 2
(Fox), KMOV 4
(CBS), KSDK 5
(NBC), KETC 9
(PBS), KPLR-TV 11 (CW),
KDNL 30 (ABC), WRBU 46
(MNTV), and WPXS 51
The region's radio airwaves offer a variety of locally produced
(1120 AM), which pioneered
the call-in talk radio format in 1960, retains significant regional
influence due to its 50,000-watt
signal and an unusually
active newsroom operation. Public radio
station KWMU (90.7
FM), an NPR affiliate, also
provides extensive, locally produced programming treating social
issues, politics, and the arts.
St. Louis is one of only a
handful of U. S. cities to have its own independent community radio
(88.1 FM), which features a wide range of music
and talk from local residents.
Many well-known U.S. corporations make St. Louis their home. St.
Louis has over 20 Fortune
1000 companies and
lists as the fourth largest Fortune 500 company based city in the
commercials have made the city well known as the home of Anheuser-Busch Breweries, however Anheuser-Busch was acquired by the Belgium based beer company
Inbev in the summer of 2008.
legislation has even proposed making Budweiser the official beer of
the State of Missouri.) Local brokerages Stifel Nicolaus
and Edward Jones
, as well as online
brokerage firm Scottrade
plus Wachovia Securities
Edwards, merged into Wachovia
) are major players on the national financial
landscape. It is also the site for the world headquarters of
, the battery and
flashlight company as well as parent company of Playtex
Neighboring suburbs host Monsanto
, formerly a chemical company and now a leader in
genetically modified crops
, and Solutia
former Monsanto chemical division that was spun off as a separate
company in 1997. Express
Scripts, a pharmaceutical benefits management firm, has its
corporate headquarters in the suburbs of St. Louis and recently
announced plans to construct its new headquarters near the campus
of the University of Missouri–St.
headquarters lies in the metro area. Enterprise Rent-A-Car is headquartered
in Clayton. Emerson
is headquartered in the north side of St. Louis.
nation's fourth largest broadband communications company, is also
headquartered in suburban St. Louis. The corporate headquarters of
Medicine Shoppe International a subsidiary Katz Group of Companies
home in the western suburbs. In addition, early in the 20th
Century, St. Louis was home to brass era
In recent years the corporate landscape has evolved, with several
corporate pillars leaving the city. Mallinckrodt,
headquartered in the St. Louis region for more than 130 years, was
purchased by Tyco International
(now Covidien) in 2000, though most of the former Mallinckrodt
facilities remain in operation as the new Tyco Mallinckrodt in the St. Louis suburb
Missouri. In the Retail industry The May Department Stores
Company, which owned Famous-Barr as
well as the legendary Marshall Field's, was purchased by Federated Department Stores in
Federated now maintains its Midwest headquarters in
St. Louis, known as "Macy’s Midwest" it operates 110 stores in nine
states. Southwestern Bell Corporation (SBC), now AT&T, relocated to San Antonio, TX(1993) then to Dallas (2008), maintaining their AT&T Advertising
Solutions Directory/Yellow Pages
headquarters in St. Louis as well as its Southwest operations
center in St. Louis. Ralston
, was acquired by the animal human-food maker Nestle
, 2001 to make the world's largest food company
and renamed the new subsidiary Purina. Many of the Ralston Purina
divested business still remain in headquartered St. Louis including
the aforementioned Energizer
, Protein Technologies Inc.
The Solae Company
remains home to railway car plants; two DaimlerChrysler plants in the nearby suburb
of Fenton, where minivans and
pickup trucks are built; a General Motors plant in suburban
Wentzville. In 1997, Berkeley, Missouri-based McDonnell-Douglas merged with Boeing.
With the new corporate world
headquarters in Chicago, St. Louis became the divisional
headquarters for Boeing
billion-per-year Boeing Integrated Defense
unit and home for the company-wide R&D unit,
manufactures the F/A-18
Eagle, and JDAM
bombs in St. Louis region, and has developed — at times
secretly — several unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs
As is the trend across the country, most St. Louis banks
have been purchased by out-of-town banks, but
this has created the establishment of many newly formed banks
headquartered in St. Louis. The city retains a Federal Reserve Bank
downtown St. Louis. It expanded its facilities and buildings in
The region has built up a formidable health care industry.
dominated by BJC HealthCare, which
Hospital and St. Louis Children's
Hospital, plus eleven others. BJC benefits from a
symbiotic relationship with Washington University School of
Medicine, which is a major center of medical
Other major players include SSM Health Care
, St. John's Mercy
, and the Tenet Healthcare Corporation
addition there is Saint Louis University
School of Medicine which is a leader in several areas of
medical research and works with hospitals including Cardinal
Glennon Children's Hospital and Saint Louis University
St. Louis is also home to two companies
that produce radiation therapy planning software, CMS, Inc.
and Multidata Systems
St. Louis housing costs ($150,500) are significantly (30.7%) below
the national average ($217,200). From the mid-1990s onward, the
City of St. Louis itself has seen a major surge in housing
rehabilitation as well as new construction on cleared sites. As a
rule, other costs of living also are at or slightly below the
national average. Wages tend to reflect these facts, likewise being
at or slightly below the average.
Due to its colleges, hospitals, and companies like Monsanto, St.
Louis is recognized as a world class center for medicine and
. Barnes-Jewish Hospital, in
conjunction with the Washington University School of Medicine, is the fifth largest in the
world. In addition, the School
of Medicine consistently ranks in the top five
nationally. Washington University School of
Medicine and Barnes-Jewish Hospital also operate the new and
well-respected Siteman Cancer Center.
The Genome Sequencing
, also part of the Washington University School of
Medicine, played a major role in the Human Genome Project
, the world's largest pharmaceutical company,
operates one of its three major US research sites in western St.
Louis County where it is completing work on an additional building.
Additional biotechs include the Danforth Center
.Saint Louis University Medical School awarded the first medical degree
west of the Mississippi River; it operates the Saint
Louis University Hospital as well as a cancer center and a bioethics
institute, and is affiliated with SSM Cardinal
Glennon Children's Hospital.
Like other large American cities, St. Louis experienced a large
population shift to the suburbs
twentieth century; first because of increased demand for new
housing following the Second World
, and later in response to demographic changes, namely
, in existing
neighborhoods. The long standing population decline of the city has
begun to reverse itself in recent years. Although recent census
reports show population growth, St. Louis has had a long history of
population decline. Between 1950 and 2000, the city has lost people
at a rate faster than any other major American city, losing more
than half its population: in 1950, it had a population of 856,796;
in 2000, the population was 348,189. As of July 1, 2008, the
population of St. Louis has shown a small increase to
At the 2005–2007 American Community Survey Estimates, the city's
population was 47.2% White (44.2% non-Hispanic White alone), 50.4%
Black or African American, 0.9% American Indian and Alaska Native,
2.4% Asian, 0.8% from some other race and 1.6% from two or more
races. 2.6% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any
According to the 2000 United
, there were 348,189 people, 147,076 households,
and 76,920 families residing in the city. The population density
was 5,622.9 people per
square mile (2,171.2/km²). There were 176,354 housing units at an
average density of 2,847.9/sq mi (1,099.7/km²). The racial
makeup of the city of St. Louis (as separate and distinct from St.
Louis County and the rest of the MSA) was 51.20% African American
, 43.85% White
, 1.98% Asian
, 0.27% Native American
0.80% from other ethnic groups, and 1.88% of two or more
of any ethnic group were
2.02% of the population. Historically, North St. Louis City has
been primarily African American and South St. Louis City has been
primarily European American
, an estimated 50,000 -
immigrants have settled in
and around in the Bevo neighborhood of south St. Louis, making St.
Louis one of the largest Bosnian diaspora communities in the
country. The largest ancestries include German
(3.6%), and French
There are 147,076 households, out of which 25.4% have children
younger than 18 living with them, 26.2% were married couples
living together, 21.3% had a female
householder with no husband present, and 47.7% were non-families.
40.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had
someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average
household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.7% younger than
18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64,
and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34
years. For every 100 females there were 88.6 males. For every 100
females age 18 and older, there were 84.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,156, and the
median income for a family was $32,585. Males had a median income
of $31,106 versus $26,987 for females. The per capita income
for the city was
Law and government
The City of St. Louis has a mayor-council
type government, with the
legislative authority vested in a Board of Aldermen
and the mayor
executive authority. The Board of Aldermen is made up of 28 members
(one elected from each of the city's wards) plus a board president
who is elected city-wide. Unlike many other cities, the mayor
shares some executive authority with 9 other independent citywide
elected officials, including a treasurer, comptroller, and
collector of revenue. These officials have significant influence.
By custom and tradition the individual aldermen have a great deal
of influence over decisions impacting the ward they represent on
matters ranging from zoning changes, to street resurfacing.
Municipal elections in St. Louis city are held in odd numbered
years, with the primary elections in March and the general election
in April. The mayor is elected in odd numbered years following the
United States Presidential Election, as are the aldermen
representing odd-numbered wards. The President of the Board of
Aldermen and the aldermen from even-numbered wards are elected in
the off-years. The Democratic Party
dominated St. Louis city politics for decades. The city has not had
since 1949 and the last time a Republican was elected to another
city-wide office was in the 1970s. As of 2006, 27 of the city's 28
Aldermen are Democrats.
Although St. Louis City and County separated in 1876, some
mechanisms have been put in place for joint funding management and
funding of regional assets. The St. Louis Zoo-Museum district collects
property taxes from residents of both St. Louis City and County and
the funds are used to support cultural institutions including the
Zoo, St. Louis Art Museum and the Missouri Botanical Gardens.
Similarly, the Metropolitan Sewer District
provides sanitary and storm sewer service to the city and much of
St. Louis County. The Bi-State Development Agency (now known
as Metro) runs the region's MetroLink light rail system and bus system.
The City of St. Louis is split roughly in half north to south by
Missouri's 1st and 3rd U.S. Congressional districts
. The 1st is
represented by Lacy Clay
and the 3rd by
. Both are Democrats; a
Republican has not represented a significant portion of St. Louis
in the U.S. House since 1949. Each district also includes a
significant portion of St. Louis County.
of St. Louis includes all of 9 Missouri
House of Representatives districts and a portion of two others.
Missouri State Senate
districts are entirely within the city's boundaries and a third
district is split between St. Louis City and County.
There are 257,442 registered voters.
Crime and social issues
County reported an average drop of 19% in crime for the
first half of 2009 compared to the same time frame in 2008.
Categories include: murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault,
burglary, larceny, vehicle theft, and arson. Burglaries had the
sharpest drop: down 35%, with arson down 33%, vehicle theft down
17%, robbery down 15%, and larceny down 15%. There were only two
murders, compared to the six in 2008
According to CQ Press
's "Cities Crime
Rankings 2008–2009", the St. Louis metropolitan area ranks 127th,
and the city of St. Louis (1/12 of the metro area by poplulation)
ranks 4th. In the year between 2006 and 2007, overall crime in the
city dropped 15.6%, reaching a 35-year low, but homicides increased
by seven to total 138 in 2007, and 167 in 2008. In the 2009 Forbes
list of America's Most Dangerous Cities, St. Louis is not listed in
the 15 worst metro areas for crime.
past 25 years, St. Louis has a number of successful integrated
neighborhoods in the "central corridor" stretching from Soulard, home of the nation's second largest annual
Mardi Gras Festival and Parade, to
Square near the Mississippi River and the Central
West End near Forest Park.
Overall, however, the city's African American
population is concentrated
in north St. Louis city. Although some northern St. Louis
neighborhoods, such as Baden
are stable and
have a large number of middle-class residents, many isolated
northside neighborhoods suffer from poverty, unemployment, crime
and dilapidated housing. More recently, a number of near southside
neighborhoods, especially around Tower Grove Park, have also successfully integrated.
areas have seen an influx of residents of various ethnicities,
including Vietnamese and other immigrant groups. Since the
upheavals in the Balkans, many Bosnian refugees have been settled
in south St. Louis City, particularly in the Bevo
neighborhood. They have been
responsible for an upturn in the economic situation there as they
have opened stores, restaurants, and other businesses.
The St. Louis area has made tremendous strides in remedying
compared to other MSAs. The
state of Missouri requires gasoline stations in the metro area to
sell special, reformulated gasoline. Most cars owned by residents
of St. Louis and the counties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Jefferson,
and Franklin must pass an automobile pollution test every other
year. St. Louis recently became one of the first cities in the
country (prior to New York, Chicago, and San Francisco) to be
recognized by the United States Green Building Council as having a
LEED for Homes Platinum residence. The regional Realtor multiple
listing service was just the 3rd system in the country to add green
home attributes and certifications (LEED-H, HBA-GBI, and Energy
Star) as search criteria. This is evidence of "green building" in
the metro area.
The United States Postal
operates post offices in St. Louis. The St. Louis Main
Post Office is located at 1720 Market Street in Downtown St. Louis
. The United
States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit and the
United States District Court for the Eastern District of
Missouri are based in the Thomas
F. Eagleton Courthouse - the largest single courthouse in the United
States - in St. Louis.
The city is also represented by two
Congressmen in Washington, DC: Russ
and William Lacy
maintains a regional bank
in St. Louis.
County, outside the city proper, is the National Personnel Records
Center, but its Civilian Personnel Records
Center is in the city itself.
For a complete list of high schools in the St. Louis
Metropolitan area, see
Within the city proper, the 168-year-old St. Louis Public School
controls the 92 schools in the public school system.
With more than 38,000 students, the district is the largest in the
state of Missouri and the 108th largest in the nation. Many smaller
public districts are defined throughout the wider St. Louis
St. Louis has an abundance of private high schools, both secular
and religiously affiliated, including a multitude of Catholic
high schools. The St. Louis Metropolitan
area has the most Catholic high schools in the nation, and a host
of other denominational secondary private schools.
For a complete list of colleges and universities in the St.
Louis Metropolitan area, see Colleges
and Universities in Greater St. Louis
According to the U.S. Census
American Community Survey 21.4 percent of the adult
population in St. Louis holds a bachelors degree compared with the
national average of 27 percent. Almost 209,000 students are
enrolled in the area's nearly 40 colleges universities and
technical schools.According to the Carnegie
Classification of Institutions of Higher Education St. Louis
area has three national research universities, Washington University in St.
Louis being the largest followed by, Saint
Louis University and University of Missouri–St.
Louis. Most of Washington University is in
County, and UMSL is located in the city's northern
suburbs. St. Louis is also home to Concordia Seminary, the oldest and largest Lutheran seminary in the United
In 2006 approximately 5,287 associates degrees were granted, almost
a third of these from the St. Louis Community Colleges
the largest Community college system in the state of Missouri, more
than half of the households in St. Louis have at least one member
who attended or attends the college.
Roads and highways
St. Louis is serviced by many interstate
, and I-270)
, as well as
numerous state and county roadways.
The city in 2006 was listed as having the ninth worst traffic
commutes in the country. However, the city has a new traffic
monitoring system: The Gateway Guide. This system informs commuters
of drive times and accident/road construction via message boards
throughout the metropolitan freeways. Most media outlets use the
systems' hundreds of traffic cameras to monitor traffic conditions
St. Louis' Largest Airports:
Lambert-St. Louis International Airport
in suburban northwest St. Louis County, but is owned and operated
by the city of St. Louis. American
Airlines and Southwest Airlines have the greatest number of flights serving the
In 2003, the number of flights operated at the
airport was sharply reduced with the acquisition by American Airlines
and the reduction of service by the combined
Airlines retains Lambert-St. Louis International
Airport as its fourth largest hub worldwide.
2007, many of the reduction in flights and non-stop services have
been added again by American
and new carriers to STL. Today, non-stop service to
over 80 cities throughout the country and world are available from
Lambert. Southwest Airlines and Great Lakes
Airlines also use St. Louis as focus hubs today.
According to a report by the St. Louis Beacon
on June 17,
2008, "A tentative agreement announced Monday marks a step toward
making Lambert St. Louis International Airport a cargo and
passenger hub for Air China
state-owned carrier. Political and business leaders hope it will
eventually result in a big economic boost for the region. As a
first stage of making the tentative agreement final, feasibility
studies will be conducted to decide what needs to be done at and
around the airport... ."
MidAmerica St. Louis
Airport is located east of the city in Illinois adjacent
Air Force Base.
Constructed as a reliever airport to
Lambert, it has failed to attract any major airlines, primarily due
to its distance from downtown and low population in its immediate
vicinity in spite of free parking and proximity to the light rail
system. Shortly after its opening, it was used by some smaller
airlines, including Pan Am, an airline operating a few Boeing 727s
and not related to the original Pan American World Airways
St. Louis Downtown Airport
is located across the
St. Louis and the Central Business District. It provides service
for business commercial and non-commercial air traffic.
St. Louis has a metropolitan public transit network which includes
inner city and regional buses, rail, and taxi services.
Local and regional bus transit
Public bus transportation serving the St. Louis City and
metropolitan area is predominantly provided by Metro (formerly
known as the Bi-State
). Metro is a bi-state agency that operates
most of the region's bus system and MetroLink, the region's light-rail
County Transit also provides bus service to downtown from
St. Louis light rail consists of two
lines, both running through the city center with 73.3 kilometers
(46 miles) of system. All of the system is in independent right of
way, mostly at surface level, but includes several miles of subways
and elevated track as well. St. Louis's light rail system has no
street or traffic running trains. The system runs more similarly to
a heavy rail
rail system than most
light rail systems in North America. All stations are independent
entry and platforms are all flush level with trains providing
passengers easy access on/off. In downtown, the system uses
historic railway subway tunnels built in the 19th century. The
downtown subway stations have an ancient appearance with rough-hewn
rock walls. The Blue Line also has a few portions in subway
tunnels, which are large and of modern concrete construction. Since
it opened expansion has continued, and the transit agency has
future lines in planning stages. Ridership, at more than 16 million
yearly, has always exceeded expectations. St. Louis's rail system
has been lauded one of the finest light rail systems built in North
America and is one of the largest
light rail systems in the United States in terms of
Red Line has direct rail connections to two stations at Lambert-St. Louis International
Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
Gateway Multimodal Transportation
Center is the new hub station in St. Louis, serving the
city's rail system, regional bus system, Greyhound Buses, Amtrak,
and city taxi services.The transportation center is in downtown
St. Louis, two blocks east of the St. Louis
Union Station complex.
It is the largest rail
transportation station in the St. Louis metropolitan area and the
State of Missouri. St. Louis Union Station is easily accessible by foot or Metro rail from
the transportation terminal station.
It is open 24 hours a
Amtrak rail lines
offers many daily trains to/from St. Louis, at the Gateway
Multimodal Transportation Center downtown:
also offers daily Amtrak
Thruway Motorcoach service to Carbondale, Illinois, connecting with the City of New
Orleans. Amtrak train service is also available in
the suburbs of Kirkwood, Missouri, west-southwest of downtown; and Alton,
Illinois northeast of downtown.
Greyhound Bus Lines
Navigable rivers near St. Louis
Bus Lines offers more than
six national routes from St. Louis.
Though long-since abandoned as a means of transporting people, the
rivers of St. Louis continue to play a large role in moving good,
especially bulk commodities such as grain
, and certain
chemicals and petroleum
products. The Port
of St. Louis in 2004 was reported to be the third-largest inland
port by tonnage in the country, and the 21st-largest of any
St. Louis has fourteen sister cities
as designated by Sister
- Missouri QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau.
- U.S. Bureau of the Census - Table 13.
Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1900.
- Hoffhaus. (1984). Chez Les Canses: Three Centuries at
Kawsmouth, Kansas City: Lowell Press. ISBN 0-913504-91-2.
- http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mo/county/stlouis/attack.htm Attack
On St. Louis: May 26, 1780.
- Centennial of Flight, Curtiss-Wright
- Centennial of Flight, Curtiss-Wright
- Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles,
1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p. 32.
- St. Louis - News - A Sewer Runs Through
- St. Louis weather records at NOAA.
- Tim Bryant, " Citygarden an immediate hit with visitors." St.
Louis Post-Dispatch. Jul. 01, 2009.
- David Bonetti, " Spectacular Citygarden is opening on schedule in
St. Louis." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Jun. 28, 2009.
- Joe Bonwich, " Eatery will round out sculpture garden." St.
Louis Post-Dispatch. Jun. 12, 2009.
- Saint Louis Symphony History.
- Arianna String Quartet.
Louis Chamber Chorus.
- Gas Light Square history.
Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts.
- The Fabulous Fox Theatre - St. Louis - The Fox
- Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles,
1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p. 178.
- " St. Louis, Missouri," Sperling's Best
- Exhibit details Bosnia ethnic cleansing,
January 18, 2008.
- Registered Voters in Missouri 2008
- " Post Office Location - SAINT LOUIS."
United States Postal
Service. Retrieved on May 5, 2009.