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St. Marys River on mid-winter's day
The St. Marys River ( ), sometimes written as the St. Mary's River, drains Lake Superiormarker, starting at the end of Whitefish Bay and flowing 120 km (74.5 miles) southeast into Lake Huronmarker, with a fall of 23 feet.

For its entire length it is an international border, separating Michiganmarker in the United Statesmarker from Ontariomarker, Canadamarker.

The most important area along the river are the rapids and the twin cities of Sault Ste.marker Marie, Ontariomarker and Sault Ste.marker Marie, Michiganmarker, with the most famous man-made feature being the Soo Locksmarker.The rapids of the St. Marys (Sault Sainte Marie in French) are just below the river's exit from Lake Superior.

Two of the Ontario tributaries of this river are the Garden River and the Bar Rivermarker. Other Canadian tributaries include: Fort Creek, Root River, Little Carp River, Big Carp River, Lower Echo River, Desbarats River, and the Two Tree River. The American tributaries to the St. Mary River are: Gogomain River, Munuscong River, Little Munuscong River, Brimley River, and the Charlotte River.

History

Before Europeans arrived, native Americans fished, traded, and maintained a portage around the rapids. Frenchmarker explorer Étienne Brûlé was the first European to travel up the rapids in about 1621. In 1641 Jesuit priests Isaac Jogues and Charles Raymbault ventured the same route as Brûlé finding many Ojibwa at the rapids and named it Sault Ste. Marie (sault meaning "rapids" in Old French).

Fort St. Josephmarker was built on the Canadian shore in 1796 to protect a trading post, and ensure continued Britishmarker control of the area. The fort fulfilled its role in the War of 1812.

The first modern lock was completed in May 1855 by Erastus Corning's St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal Company, and was known as the American Lock. Today, there are four parallel locks on the American side of the river, although only two are in regular use. The Soo Locksmarker were made a part of the Great Lakes Waterway system in 1959 .

Competitive pressure led to the construction of a Canadian Lock in 1895; the current Canadian Lock is used for recreational boats.

Islands



Works

Bridges

The Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge, a steel truss arch bridge takes road traffic across the river. Directly to the west is the Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge which carries rail traffic on a single set of tracks.

Power Plants

The Edison Sault Electric Hydroelectric Plant, located at the eastern end of the Saulte Ste. Marie Power Canal which runs between Lake Superior and Lake Huron through the city south of the American locks, is the longest hydroelectric plant in the world at 1,340 ft (408.4 m) in length. The plant consists of 74 three-phase generators capable of generating 25 to 30 MW. It was completed in 1902. The hydro plant is faced with stone quarried during the excavation of the Sault Ste. Marie Power Canal.

The United States Army Corps of Engineers owns and operates a hydroelectric generating plant directly north of the American locks.

Finally, the Francis H. Clergue Generating Station, owned and operated by Brookfield Renewable Energy, Inc., is a hydroelectric generating plant located directly north of the Canadian lock with a generating capacity of 52 MW. It was completed in 1981.

Canal

The Edison Sault Power Canal is used to power the Edison Sault Electric Hydroelectric Plant at its eastern end. The canal separated downtown Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan from its mainland making it an island. It was begun in September 1898 as the Michigan Lake Superior Power Company Canal, but completed by Edison Sault Electric Company in June 1902. Measured from its headgates to its end at the power plant, it is 2.25 mi (3.6 km) in length, between 200 ft (61 m) and 220 ft (67 m) wide, and 24 ft (7.3 m) deep. The water runs down the canal at speeds upwards of 7 MPH.

Locks

The Soo Locksmarker are located on the north and south sides of the river.

Other Works

A set of compensating works are located at the mouth of the rapids, which are used to control the outflow of water from Lake Superior. The works consists of 16 gates, half of which are on the American side, and the other half on the Canadian side of the river. They were completed between 1901 and 1921. This flow is controlled by the International Joint Commission.

A concrete berm was constructed along the north side of the rapids as remedial works to protect fish spawning habitat from lower outflow through the rapids. This was due, in part, by an increase of water outflow from the Francis H. Clergue Generating Station.

Pollution

The Saint Marys River is listed as a Great Lakes Areas of Concern in The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada.

See also



References

External links




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