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St Andrew's Church is the Anglican parish church of West Tarringmarker, an ancient village which is now part of the town and borough of Worthingmarker, one of seven local government districts in the Englishmarker county of West Sussexmarker. Founded in the 11th century in a formerly rural parish which had earlier been granted to the Archbishop of Canterbury, the church remained a peculier of Canterbury for many centuries thereafter. It served nearby parishes when their churches fell into disrepair, hosted John Selden's baptism, and was used as a base for smuggling. The present structure is mostly 13th-century, and its tall spire is a landmark in the area. English Heritage has listed it at Grade II* for its architectural and historical importance.

History

The parish of West Tarring has now been absorbed into the Borough of Worthing, but has ancient origins as a downlandmarker strip of land about in area. It ran for about from its northern extremity at Bost Hill, on the track leading to Findon (now the A24 road), to the English Channelmarker coast in the south, and was much narrower apart from a thin strip of land extending westwards. Many coastal parishes in Sussex were this shape: many different soils and varieties of land would be included within the boundaries, from chalky downland to marshy grassland near the coast. Two settlements developed, of which West Tarring was the larger and more central. (The name Tarring was, and still is, also used, but the "West" prefix was often used to prevent confusion with Tarring Nevillemarker near Lewesmarker.) Salvingtonmarker, the other settlement in the parish, was high on the slopes of the South Downs.

The first documented description of West Tarring was in about 939, when King Athelstan granted the manor of Tarring to Christ Churchmarker in Canterburymarker (now Canterbury Cathedral). At the time of the Domesday survey in 1086, it was still held by the archbishop and had 41 inhabitants. At that time, a church is known to have existed; it is likely to have been a wooden building.

The present flint and stone structure began to take shape in the mid-13th century. At that time, the rector, Simon of Tarring, provided sanctuary for Richard of Wych , the new Bishop of Chichester. He had been barred from his own palace there by King Henry III, who had been angered by the election of Richard as bishop in place of Robert Passelewe. While he was based at the church, Richard travelled throughout Sussex, taking services and reputedly performing miracles; he was canonised in 1262.

The dedication to Saint Andrew was first mentioned in 1372. In the 15th century, the chancel and tower were rebuilt, apparently under the influence of Canterbury. The rood screen also dates from that time. The church only had modest wealth—its internal fittings were valued at £6.13s.4d. (£ as of ) in 1561—and unusual fundraising activities were popular. Church ales—drinking sessions held in the church, at which the churchwardens sold beer to raise funds for its upkeep—were popular throughout the 16th century, and often proved to be uproarious occasions at which large quantities of luxurious food were eaten and various entertainers performed.

An organ was installed in the late 16th century, and bells were in place in the tower by 1518: there were five in 1533. These had been made at the Tapsel (or Topsell) family's bell foundry near the church; the Tapsels produced many bells in West Tarring, for churches across Sussex, for about 200 years, and also invented the Tapsel gate used in some Sussex churchyards.

The nearby parishes of Durringtonmarker and Heenemarker had been linked to West Tarring since the Middle Ages. Their tithes were combined, and they were administered for ecclesiastical purposes by the incumbents of St Andrew's: for example, burials and baptisms were carried out at West Tarring. By the 17th century, in common with many churches in the area, Durrington and Heene's churches declined and became ruined. By 1680, both were in such poor condition that their parishioners were allowed to travel to worship at St Andrew's instead, and services were no longer held in the two buildings.

The early 20th-century lychgate, with the spire of the church behind
Major changes took place in the mid-19th century. In 1845, the church ceased to be a peculier of Canterbury and instead came under the control of the Bishop of Chichester, in common with other Anglican churches in the area. Eight years later, the vicar instigated a restoration of the church; he raised most of the £2,200 (£ as of ) himself. Changes included the removal of a wooden gallery, the melting down of four of the bells and their recasting into six new ones, the addition of a vestry, the stripping of previous interior alterations and a complete overhaul of the interior (although certain fittings were retained and reinstalled), and the replacement of the organ. The work took seven months and was completed in time for Holy Week 1854. In 1885, some mosaic work designed by the Gothic Revival architect William Butterfield was installed by Italian craftsmen in the aisles and around the tower arch. The church roof partly collapsed around the same time and had to be repaired. In the 20th century, a lychgate was built at the churchyard entrance, the reredos was replaced, the organ was replaced again, the roof of the chancel was renewed and some stained glass was added.

The font also had to be replaced with a Victorian-era design: the main section of its medieval predecessor was removed and taken to Australia by the Henty family when they emigrated. The Hentys were successful farmers, especially of merino sheep, and lived in one of West Tarring's largest houses. Thomas Henty, the patriarch, sent three of his sons and 150 sheep to Western Australiamarker in 1829. Eventually, the whole family moved to Australia: the pioneers settled in Tasmaniamarker, while Edward Henty, another son, became the first settler in Victoriamarker and was instrumental in developing the sheep-rearing industry there. They gave the font they had taken with them to a cathedral in Melbourne, which some sources state is St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbournemarker while the Sussex Parish Churches website states this was at St Paul's Cathedral, Melbournemarker, the architect of which, William Butterfield had previously worked at St Andrew's Church.

Smuggling was popular in the Worthing area between the early 18th and early 19th centuries—sometimes out of necessity, such as during a period of economic hardship in the 1820s which caused the developing town to stagnate. One of the leading smugglers at that time, William Cowerson, was employed at St Andrew's Church to do restoration work; he regularly used the table tombsmarker in the churchyard to store smuggled alcohol and other contraband.

Architecture

St Andrew's Church is an Early English Gothic building with some Perpendicular Gothic elements. It is a knapped flint structure with stone dressings, and is relatively large in comparison with others in the area—probably because of the influence of Canterbury.

The nave survives in its entirety from the 13th century. It has five bays with aisles, a clerestory, a vestry on the south side and porches on the north and south sides. The aisles and clerestory have lancet windows, and the whole composition is in the Early English style. The chancel and tower were rebuilt in the 15th century in the Perpendicular style, and the tall octagonal shingled spire was added in the 16th century. The chancel has Perpendicular-style windows with two lights; some of the tower windows more closely resemble the earlier Decorated Gothic style. The east window of the chancel is more ornate than usual: paired shorter lights flank a much taller central light which is surrounded at the top by sexfoils (six-lobed circular openings). The tower and chancel have buttresses with quoins and dressings of ashlar. The tower also has an interior stair-turret in one corner. Its west door, in the Perpendicular style with a hood mould, is not original: it was inserted in the late 15th century. The windows above it have elaborate tracery.

Inside, there are five pointed arches on each side of the nave, with round columns topped by capitals. The mosaic decoration, depicting the Twelve Apostles, runs between and above them, and extends to the tower arch with its octagonal columns. The chancel arch was restored in the mid-19th century, but the 15th-century chancel screen was retained during the renovations of 1853. Also in the chancel are six misericords, two with carved heads.

There are several memorials in the church. The Henty family is commemorated by a tablet and a 19th-century window near the altar; there is also a window for Robert Southey, the poet, who was the father-in-law of the vicar (Reverend J. Warter) who had restored the church in the mid-19th century. The most famous man associated with St Andrew's Church, John Selden, was baptised here in 1584 and has a memorial and a plaque.

The church today

St Andrew's Church was listed at Grade II* by English Heritage on 11 October 1949. Such buildings are defined as being "particularly important" and "of more than special interest". As of February 2001, it was one of eight Grade II* listed buildings, and 208 listed buildings of all grades, in the borough of Worthing.

In its present form, the ecclesiastical parish is smaller than the ancient parish, but the northward extension to Salvington is retained. The other boundaries are the railway line to the south, The Boulevard in the west and a line west of Loxwood Avenue to the east.

See also



References

Notes

  1. http://www.sussexparishchurches.org/content/view/594/33/


Bibliography




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