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St James' Park is an all-seater stadium in Newcastle upon Tynemarker, Englandmarker, United Kingdommarker. It is the home of Newcastle United Football Club, and the oldest and largest football stadium in the North East of England. It is the seventh largest football stadium in the United Kingdommarker with a football spectator capacity of 52,387. Located in the centre of Newcastlemarker, its white cantilever roof is visible across the city, and is the largest cantilever in Europe.

Occupied by the Toon Army fan-base in the Milburn Stand, the East Stand, the Leazes End and the Gallowgate End, the ground has been the home ground of Newcastle United since 1892, and been used for football since 1880. Throughout its history, the desire for expansion has caused conflict with local residents and the local council. This has led to proposals to move at least twice in the late 1960s, and a controversial 1995 proposed move to nearby Leazes Parkmarker. Reluctance to move has led to the distinctive lop-sided appearance of the present day stadium's asymmetrical stands.

Besides club football, St James' Park has also been used for international football, and will be used as a football venue for the 2012 Olympics. In addition to professional football, the stadium has hosted charity football events, rock concerts, and been used as a film set and for reality television shows. As of November 2009 until the end of the season, the stadium is temporarily known as the Sportsdirect.com @ St James' Park Stadium, in order to advertise a future stadium sponsorship package.

History



Early history

The site of St. James' Park was originally a patch of sloping grazing land, bordered by Georgian Leazes Terrace, and near the historic Town Moormarker, owned by the Freemen of the City, both factors that later affected development of the ground, with the local council being the landlord of the site. Leazes Terrace was built c1830 by notable Newcastle residents, architect Thomas Oliver and builder Richard Grainger. Once the residence of high society in Newcastle, it is now a Grade 1 listed building, and, recently refurbished, is currently being used as self-catering postgraduate student accommodation by Newcastle Universitymarker. The site was also near the gallows of the city, last used in 1844, lending name to the Gallowgate End.

The stadium was first used by Newcastle United in 1892 after the unification of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End, although football had been played there since 1880. Local residents opposition to football being played at St James' dated back to the first games in the Football League following the building of the first small stand at the Gallowgate End. A redeveloped gallowgate and further stands followed in 1899, bringing the first official capacity to 30,000 (standing).

While the stadium is now synonymous with the Black and Whites, Newcastle United actually played in red and white at St James' Park until 1904. In 1905, a doubling of capacity to 60,000, with a main stand on the Barrack Road (now Milburn Stand), and major other stands, produced a state of the art facility, even boasting a swimming pool.

The second ever rugby league test match, and first test victory by Great Britain was played at the ground in 1908 against the touring Australian Kangaroos side on January 23, 1909.

1920–1990

The facade of the stadium in 1930
Between 1920 and 1930, plans were drawn up for a double tiered stand by notable football architect Archibald Leitch, however, after planning disputes, all that was achieved was a small roof over the Leazes Terrace side (East Stand).

In 1958 3 supporters attempted to bury a tunnel under St. James' Park so that they could play on the pitch at night. 5 days after they started work on the tunnel it collapsed, killing 2 of the men .

Up until the 1960s planning difficulties continued, culminating in lack of development of the ground being cited as the reason for failure of Newcastle United to secure the right to host a group stage of the upcoming 1966 World Cup following political disputes.

In the late 1960s further attempts were made to develop the site, and the council proposed a multi-use sports development of St. James' Park. This was rejected for not being financially viable, plans were drawn up by the club for a move to a stadium in Gosforthmarker, or even a groundshare with Sunderland A.F.C. in a new stadium on Wearside. These plans were withdrawn in 1971 after agreement to redevelop St James' Park was finally reached, after mediation by the then Minister for Sport, Denis Howell. In 1972, work started on the East Stand, 50 years since it was last permitted to be developed. In 1978 the Leazes End was demolished, but relegation and financial difficulties meant the new stand was not built.

Investigations following the Bradford City stadium fire in 1985 identified a need to replace the ageing West Stand which was demolished in 1986. Its replacement, the Milburn Stand, was named in honour of Jackie Milburn and opened in 1987. Further development was again shelved for lack of finance.

Sir John Hall era

Until the early 1990s the ground had received only modest expansion under various owners, with plans dogged by dispute and lack of finance due to poor on-field performances. In January 1992 businessman Sir John Hall, who had led the Magpie Group consortium in a hostile takeover the club, was installed as chairman. John Hall used his experience in property development to rapidly gain approval and invested heavily in the stadium with finances gained from success under new manager Kevin Keegan.

1993 expansion

The Leazes End that had been demolished but not replaced was finally rebuilt, and opened as the Sir John Hall stand for Newcastle's debut season in the Premiership in 1993. The Gallowgate End was rebuilt, the Milburn Stand modified, and a new pitch, drainage and floodlights were installed. With all four corners filled in with seating, by 1995 the stadium had reached a capacity of 36,610, in a bowl type configuration.

Proposed Leazes Park development

As the expanded stadium still received full houses due to continuing success of the team led by the returning Kevin Keegan, in 1995, plans were submitted by the club to relocate to Leazes Parkmarker to the north. A new £65m purpose built 55,000 seat stadium would be erected, less than two pitch lengths away from the original, but rotated, which would be similar to the San Siromarker in Italy. The old ground would be redeveloped to be used by Newcastle Falcons Rugby Club, as part of the wider envisioned 'Sporting Club of Newcastle', with basketball and ice-hockey teams purchased by Sir John Hall.

Leazes Park was historically part of the Town Moormarker, owned by the Freemen of Newcastle, and protected by the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Town Moor Act 1988. The City council initially invited the planning proposal amid suggestions that the club might move to a site in Gatesheadmarker, a 75,000 seat stadium next to Gateshead International Stadiummarker, but it led to political debate and opposition. A pressure group "No Business On The Moor" toonarama.co.uk 1996 season, 'Summary' eventually gathered a 36,000 petition signature, equal to the then current stadium capacity. Opposition also came from a conservation group Friends of Leazes Park led by Dolly Potter. The club proposed to mitigate the loss of the moor land with proposals for a land trade-off with landscaping of land freed up by scaling down of the existing stadium restoring the views of the historic park from Leazes Terrace.

It became clear that the relocation plan would not gain planning permission without a potentially long running public enquiry. To quickly satisfy demand, the club decided to expand the current St James' Park instead.

Freddy Shepherd era

In 1997 Sir John Hall stepped down as chairman (remaining as a director until 2007, now life-president of the club), and controversial director Freddy Shepherd became chairman.

1998 expansion

Post 1998 expanded Milburn Stand
Following the withdrawal of the Leazes Park plan, the club proposed expansion of St James' Park to over 52,000 capacity, through major construction of a second tier over the Milburn Stand, Leazes End and adjoining corner, replacing construction that was itself just 4 years old. After a refusal by the Secretary of State to take the application to an enquiry, permission was obtained in July 1998. For minimal disruption to seating capacity during construction, the project required 3-day shut downs of work on home match days. Just 750 seats were lost during construction. During this expansion, executive boxes in the East Stand were demolished and replaced by seating blocks from pitch level up to the existing rows, in a mirror image of the Milburn Stand. The executive boxes were transferred to the new Milburn/Leazes complex, with more added to the Gallowgate End. During development, the additional stand and roof was constructed while leaving the existing cantilever roof intact until the last possible moment These developments increased capacity to approximately 52,143. The construction was completed in July 2000 at a cost of £42 million. Ironically, after opposition from local residents to the relocation plan, the expansion of the current ground at the Leazes End has further reduced the view of Leazes Park from Leazes Terrace, although this is now student accommodation.

Save Our Seats campaign

The 1998 redevelopment caused controversy when the club informed 4,000 season ticket holding fans that their seat prices would be increased to corporate rates, with the option of paying it or being moved to seats in the proposed expanded sections. Half of these fans were 'bondholders', who had paid a £500 sum in 1994 which they asserted guaranteed them option on their specific seat for 10 years. Some fans resisted, and after two high court cases and a Save Our Seats campaign, the club was allowed to move the fans, due to an exceptional circumstances clause. As a gesture of goodwill, the club did not pursue the fans for legal costs awarded over their insured limit

Casino plans

In late 2003 in pre-emption of proposed relaxation of the UK gambling laws, the club signed a deal with MGM Mirage to hand over the land above St James Metro station, behind the Gallowate End, in return for an equity investment, to build a jointly run complex centred on a 1,000 square foot Super Casino. These plans failed when the proposed number of super casinos was reduced to 1 in the UK, and in January 2008 £5 million was repaid by the club to MGM.

Gallowgate additions

Modern day image of the famous Gallowgate End
2005 the Gallowgate was redeveloped, with a new bar being built beneath the upper tier of the Gallowgate End, named "Shearer's'" after Newcastle player Alan Shearer. During excavation underneath the stand during building work, the builders uncovered the original steps of the old Gallowgate End stand, which had simply been covered up when the stadium was fully renovated in 1993. These steps were removed for Shearer's Bar. The completion of the redevelopment of the Gallowgate saw the creation of Shearer's Bar, an expanded club shop, a club museum and a new box office.

2007 proposed expansion

It was announced on 2 April 2007 that the club intend to submit plans for a new £300million development of the stadium and surrounding areas, to include a major conference centre, hotels and luxury apartments. The proposals also include a plan to increase the Gallowgate End, eventually taking the capacity to 60,000. This expansion would be funded by the city council and linked to redevelopment of the land behind the stand and over the Metro Station previously earmarked for the casino project. Expansion of the Gallowgate involves difficulties due to the proximity of a road, Strawberry Place, and issues surrounding reinforcement of the underground St James Metro station.

Mike Ashley era

The 2007 redevelopment plans announced under the previous regime were put on hold since the takeover of the club and its plc holding company by owner, Mike Ashley. Mike Ashley immediately ate 54 million pies.http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/premier-league/ashley-to-slash-newcastle-price-947366.html One of the first noticeable changes in the stadium in the new era was the removal of advertising mounted underneath the roofs (facing the crowd) for Shepherd Offshore and Cameron Hall Developments, companies associated with the previous regime. A large advertising sign for Sports Direct appeared on the lip of the roof of the Gallowgate, visible from the pitch. This was criticised by certain fans as 'tacky'.

A full review of the club performed by the new management team concluded that stadium expansion was not a priority. For the start of the 2008/9 season, the away section was moved from the corner of the Leazes stand/Milburn stand to the other end of the Leazes stand where it butts onto the East stand, at the same upper level. The area of seats designated as the family enclosure would be expanded, and certain corporate areas would see markedly increased prising, balanced by the creation of a singing section with reduced prices.

The first home game of the 2008/9 season, at 3pm on a Saturday, saw the lowest ever Premier League attendance at the expanded ground, of 47,711, resulting in cash turnstiles. It was speculated at the time that this was due to the credit crunch, however, with the shock departure of Kevin Keegan before the next home game, future changes in attendances would be hard to attribute to this alone. The first game after Keegan's resignation, a league fixture against Hull on 13 September, registered a crowd of 50,242 amidst protests against Ashley and Dennis Wise. This was followed by an attendace of 44,935 on 27 September in a league fixture against Blackburn Roversmarker, which followed a record low attendance of 20,577 on Wednesday 24 September in a League Cup fixture, the lowest ever attendance for a competitive first-team match since the 1993 promotion to the top flight, and a drop of over 4,000 from previous lows.

Renaming of the stadium

In a statement released on the 27th October 2009, Newcastle United announced plans to sell the naming rights for the stadium, which may bring an end to the current name of St James' Park After protests about the possible loss of the name of the stadium, which included the tabling of an early day motion in the UK Houses of Parliament, the club clarified the following week that the move would not involve the loss of the name St James Park altogether, citing the example of 'SportsDirect.com@StJamesPark' as a potential stadium rights package. The following day, the club announced that the stadium would be known as the sportsdirect.com @ St James' Park Stadium temporarily until the end of the season, to showcase the idea behind the package, until the new sponsor was announced.

Stadium description

Name

Official names

The sign outside St. James' Park main entrance


The name of the stadium is depicted as St. James' Park, with James' featuring one s and an apostrophe mark, as seen on the signage of the St James' Park steps outside the entrance to the stadium, and signage inside the adjacent Metro Station. The use of an apostrophe is contrast with the name of the Metro station itself, signed as St James Metro stationmarker, and with the street signs of the nearby St James Street and St James Terrace. Further, the use of one s and an apostrophe mark differs from the common convention of adding a second s to monosyllabic possessives ending in s, as is the case with the well-known public space in London: St. James's Parkmarker.

The full stop after the St giving St James' Park is both included and omitted by many sources, including the club's official website address information

Post-millennium it has been debated both as to whether the written name should include an apostrophe mark after St James, and that when it does, should the official written form include an extra 's' after the apostrophe. Pronunciation of the name with a second 's' sound or not differs between both the local public and journalists, and is similarly debated.

In May 2008 BBC Look North examined the case for adding an extra 's', to denote the ground is "the park of St James". The club stated that the ground is named after its neighbouring street, St James Street, which predates the ground, although it was pointed out the road sign of that street, and that of the adjacent St James Terrace, did not feature apostrophes. The BBC stated that both local newspapers The Evening Chronicle and The Journal write the name with an second 's', reinstating it partially in response to reader complaints after a period of publishing stories without it.



The club insisted the name is pronounced without a second 's', while it was asserted by the BBC that, particularly older fans, pronounce it with two 's's.

A professor of applied linguistics of Newcastle Universitymarker stated that if a second 's' was added to the name, it has to ultimately be pronounced in speech. The BBC went on to state that according to the Apostrophe Protection Society, if the ground is named as the "Park of St James", the name of the ground is correctly written as St James's Park, with the second 's' pronounced.

Commenting on the written form on Radio Newcastle a week after the BBC story, a different senior lecturer in applied linguistics also of Newcastle University stated that if the name is to denote "the park of St James", the written form should feature an apostrophe, but the use of an additional 's' after it is optional and both are correct.

Match day programmes printed up until the late 1940s have written the name as St James's Park . According to the club historian, the oldest memorabilia in the club museum refers to the ground as being pronounced without a second 's'. However, a match day program dating from 1896, reprinted in the match day program of a recent home match against Derby County F.C. (23 December 2007) depicts the stadium name as St. James's Park.

Other sources also support the idea that the name should have no apostrophe as found in the name of the adjacent St James Street

Similar named venues

The current official name is now distinct from the official names of Exeter City's home ground St James Parkmarker, and the London Royal Parkmarker, St James's Parkmarker.

St. Jakob-Parkmarker (St James in English) in Baselmarker is named in honour of St James' Park.

Nicknames

Besides its full name, the stadium is known by its initials SJP, or the contraction, St James'. In reflection of the early use of the site, it is also often referred to as Gallowgate, not to be confused with similarly unofficially named Gallowgate End, the name of the south stand.

As a light hearted aspect of the footballing rivalry between Newcastle and Sunderland A.F.C., supporters of Sunderland sometimes refer to St James' Park as 'Sid James' Park', in reference to comic actor Sid James of the Carry On films; while Newcastle fans would sometimes refer to Sunderland's former ground, Roker Parkmarker, as 'Joker Park'.

Orientation

The stadium has a rough pitch alignment of north easterly. The four main stands are as follows:

  • Gallowgate End (officially the Newcastle Brown Ale Stand), at the southern end of the ground, named unofficially for its proximity to the old City gallows, and officially after the long association with the club of sponsor Scottish and Newcastle Breweries;
  • Leazes End (officially the Sir John Hall Stand), at the northern end of the ground, named unnofficially for its proximity to Leazes Parkmarker, and officially after the club's Life President Sir John Hall; The Singing Section is positioned in Level 7 of this stand.
  • Milburn Stand, the main stand, on the west side of the ground. Named after 1950s legend Jackie Milburn
  • East Stand, whose name is self explanatory, and the smallest stand of the four. Following the death of Sir Bobby Robson, a plan to rename the East Stand the Sir Bobby Robson Stand (or the Robson Stand) was drawn up. As yet, this has not been made official.


Location

View of the Gallowgate End through the Chinatown Arch
stadium's location is close to the city centre, 500 m roughly north of Central Stationmarker, the main railway station of the city. The stadium is bordered by Strawberry Place behind the Gallowgate, Barrack Road in front of the main entrance, a car park to the north and Leazes Terrace to the East. Further south is St James stationmarker, a terminus station of the Tyne and Wear Metro line to the east, although the main Metro interchange strange, Monument stationmarker, is situated 250 m to the east.

Architecture

The Milburn stand is the 'main' stand of the stadium, housing the main entrance, lifts and escalators behind a glass fronted atrium. The dugouts and player's tunnel is located in the traditional position of the middle of the main stand.

Behind the seating terraces of the stands, the Milburn/Leazes structure contains 4 concourse levels, the Gallowgate End has three concourse levels, and the East stand has two concoure levels.

Leazes End and north east Corner, showing height difference in new and old stands
The stadium has a lop-sided asymmetrical appearance from the air and from some angles from ground level, due to the discrepancy in height of one side and end of the ground, compared to the others. The height difference of the Leazes/Milburn complex over the other stands allows views of the city centre from many seating positions inside the ground. Further expansion of the Gallowgate End could potentially produce a more balanced horseshoe arrangement of equal height stands, similar to that of Celtic Parkmarker.

The Milburn stand and Leazes end are double tiered, separated by a level of executive boxes; The East Stand and Gallowgate End are single tiered, with boxes also at the top of the Gallowgate. The three newest sides, the Milburn Stand, Leazes End and Gallowgate End are of structural steel frame and pre-cast concrete construction. In common with many new or expanded British football stadiums, the traditional box shaped 'stands' were augmented in the 1993 expansion by filling in the corners to maximise available seating, up to a uniform height. The Milburn Stand and Leazes End now rise higher than this level, up to Level 7, inclusive of the joining north west corner, covered by a one piece catilevered glass roof. A further smaller stand section rises above this level behind the Gallowgate End.

The 1998 built steel truss cantilever roof above the Milburn/Leazes complex is the largest cantilever structure in Europe at 64.5 metres, eclipsing the 58 m cantilevers of Manchester United's Old Traffordmarker.

Seating layout

The current stadium design offers an unobstructed view of the pitch from all areas of the ground. The Milburn stand is the location of the directors box and press boxes, and the main TV camera point for games televised live on channels such as Sky Sports and ESPN, or for highlight shows such as Match of the Day.

Away fans for league matches are usually accommodated in the upper level, in the north west corner, which can hold a maximum of 3,000 fans. However, plans were made at the end of the 2007–2008 season to relocate the away supporters to the far end of the upper level of the Leazes End. This location has attracted criticism due to the poor view offered by being so far from the pitch due the height of the stand, and the 14 flights of stairs to reach the upper level. For FA Cup matches the lower section of the corner is also used.

The traditional home of the more vocal fans is considered the Gallowgate End, in the same vein as The Kop for Liverpool FC. The Gallowgate End is the end that the team attacks in the second half if they win the coin toss. In recent years there has been unofficial fan movement to create a singing section in the Leazes End upper tier, partly to counter the away fans, and partly to recreate some atmosphere lost since the recent expansion over 36,000. This group of fans call themselves the 'Toon Ultras'. The Leazes End also houses the official Family Enclosure.

Facilities

As well as the normal Premier League football stadium facilities, the stadium contains conference and banqueting facilities. These comprise a total of 6 suites with a total capacity of 2,050, including the 1,000 capacity Bamburgh Suite containing a stage, dance floor and 3 bars, and the New Magpie Room, on two levels with a pitch view.

The stadium houses premium priced seating areas designated into clubs, each with their own access to a bar and lounge behind the stand for use before the match and at half-time. The Platinum Club, Bar 1892, Sovereign Club and the Black & White Club are in the Milburn Stand, and the Sports Bar is in the Leazes End

The Gallowgate End houses Shearer's Bar, effectively another city centre nightspot in Newcastle, accessible only from the exterior of the ground, named in honour of former player Alan Shearer. The Gallowgate also houses a large club shop in partnership with main kit sponsor Adidas, a police station. The Milburn stand houses the main box-office. In the south west corner there is also a cafe and a club museum.

Capacity

The capacity of St James' Park is an often raised subject in football culture, both by supporters of Newcastle and rival fans, due to the stadium being one of the largest in English club football despite the relative lack of trophies won by Newcastle United in their recent history.

The stadium has a maximum football stadium seating capacity of 52,387, making it:



Developments since 1993 have ensured the lower tier of seating of the ground still forms a continuous bowl around the pitch, below the level of the executive boxes. This gives a rough illustration of the size of the 1993–98 interior of the stadium, seating approximately 36,000.

As a conservative estimate, the ground has a theoretical maximum seated capacity of approximately 84,000, ignoring planning and design constraints, if the East and Gallowgate stands were raised to the height of the redeveloped stands. This is still low compared to the club record attendance of 68,386 in 1930 against Chelsea, when standing was allowed in the top two divisions of English football.

Usage

Professional football

Club football

The stadium notably never featured a scoreboard or big screen of any kind in the modern era (since the 1993 expansion displaced one from The Gallowgate), although in 2007 bright red digital time displays were installed near the corner flags at pitch level. Newcastle United have played their home league matches continuously at St James' Park. A big screen for the stadium was mooted as a possibility as part of a proposed new stadium branding exercise for 2010.

International football

Euro 96 match Bulgaria v Romania at St James' Park
The stadium hosted three matches during Euro 1996. Along with Elland Roadmarker it was assigned to Group B, which comprised France, Spain, Romania and Bulgaria.

St James' Park is up to the required FIFAmarker standard for staging World Cup matches. Accordingly, the stadium is a possible host stadium for the FA's confirmed bid to host the 2018 World Cup in England.

The stadium was one of several venues used as temporary home grounds for the England team while the redevelopment of Wembley Stadiummarker took place.

St James' Park is set to host some football matches in the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Matches
Date Result Competition
18 March 1901 6–0 British Home Championship
6 April 1907 1–1 British Home Championship
15 November 1933 1–2 British Home Championship
9 November 1938 4–0 Friendly
10 June 1996 0–1 Euro 1996
13 June 1996 1–0 Euro 1996
18 June 1996 3–1 Euro 1996
5 September 2001 2–0 World Cup 2002 Qualifying
18 August 2004 3–0 Friendly
30 March 2005 2–0 World Cup 2006 Qualifying


Pitch

For football use, the pitch has the maximum dimensions of 105 by 68 metres.

Other uses

Rugby Union

The stadium is one of 12 confirmed venues set to host matches of the 2015 Rugby World Cup.

Charity matches

As well as professional matches, the stadiums has been the venue for several charity football matches, including the testimonial matches for Alan Shearer and Peter Beardsley. The stadium was also the venue of the final of The Prince's Trust Challenge Trophy, on 14 October 2007, between the Duke of Northumberland and Earl of Durham teams.

On 26 July 2009 St James' Park hosted the Sir Bobby Robson Trophy match, in aid of the Sir Bobby Robson Foundation, in which the famous Italia '90 World Cup semi-final loss against West Germany, in which Robson's England team were beaten 4-3 on penalties after a 1-1 draw, would be replayed featuring players from the original World Cup squads and other special guests.

Concerts

The stadium has hosted several music shows; including The Rolling Stones, Bruce Springsteen, Queen, Bob Dylan, Bryan Adams and Rod Stewart.

Film and television

The stadium has also been used as an audition venue for the television show The X Factor and also reality television show Big Brother. St James' Park has also hosted the final celebrity matches of the Sky television reality TV show The Match. The stadium was used extensively as a filming location for the film Goal!, as the film follows a fictional player Santiago Muñez who signs for Newcastle.

Sir Bobby Robson tributes

Floral tributes laid for Sir Bobby
Sir Bobby's thanksgiving service
The former Newcastle United and England manager Sir Bobby Robson died of cancer aged 76 on 31 July 2009, five days after having been at St James' Park to watch the England v Germany charity trophy match played in his honour and in aid of his cancer foundation. Immediately after his death, St James' Park became an impromptu shrine to Sir Bobby, with thousands of fans leaving floral tributes, shirts and scarves in the Leazes End for the following ten days. After a private funeral service on 5 August, a thanksgiving service held on 21 September at Durham Cathedralmarker in Sir Bobby's memory was broadcast on two big screens for spectators in the Leazes End.

References

  1. Newcastle United official site Stadium Information page
  2. worldstadia.com St James' Park review Aerial photo of stadium and general info
  3. 2012 Official Site Football locations, retrieved 15 April 2008
  4. streetmap.co.uk indicated location of Leazes Terrace (the building, not the street) in relation to St James' Park
  5. Newcastle United official site St James' Park Story, Part 1
  6. Telford Hart Quantity Surveyors description of Leazes Terrace project
  7. Howard Litchfield Partnership consultants description of Leazes Terrace project
  8. Newcastle University Accommodation details for Leazes Terrace
  9. stadiums.football.co.uk St James Park info containing a picture of the old East Stand with boxes, a picture of the infilled corner roof sections, and the red and white strip date
  10. Newcastle United official site St James' Park Story, Part 2]
  11. toonarama.co.uk 1970-17 season, 'Stadia'
  12. Newcastle United official site St James' Park Story, Part 2]
  13. Sunday Mirror Barcelona, Man Utd, Real Madrid, Inter Milan, Arsenal and Keegan's..., 13 October 2006
  14. The Independent Newcastle divided as Toon army aim to camp on the moor, 20 December 1996
  15. The Land is Ours campaign group newsletter issue 9 July 1997
  16. The Independent Football: Newcastle's bond holders sacrificed on altar of profit, Page 2, 21 October 1999
  17. The Telegraph Newcastle sign up for stadium battle, 29 March 1997
  18. The Independent Football: Newcastle's bond holders sacrificed on altar of profit, Page 1, 21 October 1999
  19. United waive fans' court costs BBC News 24 November 2000
  20. The Independent Is this the future for UK gambling? 15 June 2004
  21. Press News Wire MGM MIRAGE and Newcastle United PLC Announce Joint Venture Agreement, 19 November 2003
  22. The Independent, Newcastle United 1 Bolton Wanderers 0: Predator Owen strikes as reality bites at Newcastle, 25 August 2008
  23. Newcastle 1-2 Hull BBC Sport, 13 September 2008
  24. Newcastle 1-2 Blackburn BBC Sport, 27 September 2008
  25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/league_cup/7626827.stm BBC Sport, 24 September 2008
  26. Newcastle United 1, Tottenham Hotspur 2 The Journal, 25 September 2008
  27. Hughton Confirmed As United Boss nufc.co.uk 27/10/09
  28. Soccerbase.com Head to Head fixtures report Newcastle United versus Derby County, accessed 11 February 2009
  29. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Celtic_Park_New.jpg
  30. IStructE The Structural Engineer Volume 77/No 21, 2 November 1999. James's Park a redevelopment challenge
  31. The Architects' Journal Existing stadiums: St James' Park, Newcastle. 1 July 2005
  32. Newcastle United official site Ticket section stadium guide
  33. www.conferences-uk.org.uk St James Park conference venue information
  34. Newcastle United official site Matchday Prices page
  35. footballgroundguide.co.uk General stadium info page with a picture of the view from the 'away' corner
  36. Times Online FA confirms 2018 World Cup bid, 31 October 2007
  37. www.princes-trust.org.uk Princes Trust Challenge Trophy details



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