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Stanford White (November 9, 1853June 25, 1906) was an Americanmarker architect and partner in the architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White, the frontrunner among Beaux-Arts firms. He designed a long series of houses for the rich and the very rich, and various public, institutional, and religious buildings, some of which can be found to this day in places like Sea Gate, Brooklynmarker. His design principles embodied the "American Renaissance". In 1906, White was murdered by millionaire Harry Kendall Thaw, leading to a widely-reported trial.

Biography

Stanford White was the son of Shakespearean scholar Richard Grant White and Alexina Black Mease (1830–1921).

Stanford White's architectural career began as the principal assistant to Henry Hobson Richardson, the greatest American architect of the day, creator of a style recognized today as "Richardsonian Romanesque." In 1878, White embarked for a year and a half in Europe, and when he returned to New York in September 1879, he joined Charles Follen McKim and William Rutherford Mead to form McKim, Mead and White.

Boston Hotel Buckminster
White designed the second Madison Square Gardenmarker (1890; demolished in 1925), The Cable Building—the Broadway cable car power station (611 Broadway, 1892), Madison Square Presbyterian Church, the New York Herald Building (1894; demolished), the First Bowery Savings Bankmarker, at the Bowerymarker and Grand Street, 1894, Washington Square Archmarker (1889), Judson Memorial Churchmarker on Washington Square, and the Century Club, all in New York Citymarker. He helped develop Tesla's Wardenclyffe Towermarker (his last design). White designed the First Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore, Marylandmarker (1887), now Lovely Lane United Methodist Church. He also built Cocke, Rouss, and Old Cabell Halls at the University of Virginiamarker and rebuilt The Rotunda marker in 1898 after it burned down three years earlier (his re-creation was later reverted back to Thomas Jefferson's original design for the United States Bicentennial in 1976). He also designed the Blair Mansion at 7711 Eastern Ave. in Silver Spring Md (1880) now being used as a restaurant. He was also responsible for designing the Boston Public Librarymarker and the Boston Hotel Buckminster, both still standing today.

McKim, Mead and White also designed the American Academy in Rome, which crowns the Gianicolo hill, and looks across the city to the Villa Medici and the Borghese gardens. An imposing edifice, the American Academy is built in the style of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the north and south wings of which McKim, Mead, and White designed in 1911.

Works

Metcalfe House floorplan: the simplest Stanford White plan still provided a separate double circulation for servants, in the L-shaped Back Hall
In the division of projects within the firm, the social and gregarious White landed the majority of commissions for private houses. His fluent draftsmanship was highly convincing to clients who might not get much visceral understanding from a floorplan, and his intuition and facility caught the mood. White's Long Islandmarker houses have survived well, despite the loss of Harbor Hillmarker in 1947, originally set on in Roslynmarker. White's Long Island houses are of three types, depending on their locations: Gold Coast chateaux, neo-Colonial structures, especially those in the neighborhood of his own house at "Box Hill" in Smithtown, New Yorkmarker (White's wife was a Smith), and the South Fork houses from Southamptonmarker to Montauk Pointmarker.

Among his Newport, Rhode Islandmarker, "cottages", Rosecliffmarker (for Mrs. Hermann Oelrichs, 1898-1902) adapted Mansart's Grand Trianonmarker, but provided this house built for receptions, dinners and dances with fluent spatial planning and well-contrived dramatic internal views en filade.

In his "informal" shingled cottages, there were usually double corridors for separate circulation, (illustration, right) so that a guest never bumped into a laundress with a basket of bed linens. Bedrooms were characteristically separated from hallways by a dressing-room foyer lined with closets, so that an inner door and an outer door give superb privacy (still the mark of a really good hotel). White lived the same life as his clients, not quite so lavishly perhaps, and he knew how the house had to perform: like a first-rate hotel, theater foyer, or a theater set with appropriate historical references. White was an apt designer, who was ready to do a cover for Scribner's Magazine or design a pedestal for his friend Augustus Saint-Gaudens' sculpture. He extended the limits of architectural services to include interior decoration, dealing in art and antiques, and even planning and designing parties. He collected paintings, pottery, and tapestries. If White could not procure the right antiques for his interiors, he would sketch neo-Georgian standing electroliers or a Renaissance library table. Outgoing and social, he possessed a large circle of friends and acquaintances, many of whom became clients. White had a major influence in the "Shingle Style" of the 1880s, on Neo-Colonial style, and the Newport cottages for which he is celebrated.

He designed and decorated Fifth Avenuemarker mansions for the Astors, the Vanderbilts (in 1905), and other high society families. His Washington Square Archmarker still stands in Washington Square Parkmarker, and so do many of his clubs, which were focal points of New York society: the Century, Metropolitan, Players, Lambs, Colony and Harmony clubs. His clubhouse for the Atlantic Yacht Club, built in 1894 overlooking Gravesend Baymarker, burned down in 1934. Sons of society families also resided in White's St. Anthony Hall Chapter House at Williams College (now occupied by college offices). [31786][31787] Pictured at: [31788]

Murder

During the suggestive chorus song, "I Could Love a Million Girls," at the premiere performance of the musical revue Mam'zelle Champagne at the Madison Square Roof Garden (on the roof of a building that he had designed 15 years previously), White was shot point blank in the face and killed by Harry Kendall Thaw. Thaw was the jealous millionaire husband of Evelyn Nesbit, a popular actress and artist's model, with whom White had had a manipulative and sexual relationship when she was 16 (to his 47). The initial reaction was one of good cheer as elaborate party tricks amongst the upper echelon of New York Society were common at the time. However, when it became apparent that White was dead, hysteria ensued. William Randolph Hearst's newspapers sensationalized the murder, and it became known as the Trial of the Century. Years later, White's son, Lawrence Grant White would write bitterly, "On the night of June 25th, 1906, while attending a performance at Madison Square Garden, Stanford White was shot from behind [by] a crazed profligate whose great wealth was used to besmirch his victim's memory during the series of notorious trials that ensued." White was buried in St. James, New Yorkmarker.

White was noted for his womanizing; he had a red velvet swing installed in an apartment where Nesbit and other girls "in varying degrees of undress" would entertain him, which became a focal point of press coverage of the trial. There are conflicting accounts of whether this swing was in the "Giraldamarker" tower at the old Madison Square Garden, or in a nearby building on 24th Street.

Primary sources

White's extensive professional correspondence and a small body of personal correspondence, photographs, and architectural drawings by White are held by the Department of Drawings & Archives of Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Librarymarker at Columbia University. His letters to his family have been edited by Claire Nicolas White, Stanford White: Letters to His Family 1997. The major archive for his firm, McKim, Mead, and White, is held by the New-York Historical Societymarker.

Photo gallery

File:Farragut sculpture.JPG|Sculpture in Madison Squaremarker.File:Plaque Farragut Sculpture.JPG|Plaque at the base of the sculpture in Madison Squaremarker,White was also the architect for monuments such as the one to David Farragut in Madison Square]] in New York City and the Adams Memorialmarker in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington D.C.File:Stanford White 33.jpg|New York American on June 26th, 1906.File:New york times front page 1906-06-26.jpg|The New York Times on June 26th, 1906.

Fictional portrayals

A fictionalized Thaw also appears in Jed Rubenfeld's 2006 novel The Interpretation of Murder.

See also



Notes

References

  • Baker, Paul R., Stanny: The Gilded Life of Stanford White, The Free Press, NY 1989
  • Collins, Frederick L., Glamorous Sinners
  • Lessard, Suzannah, The Architect of Desire: Beauty and Danger in the Stanford White Family, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London 1997 (written by White's great-granddaughter, a Whiting Award-winning writer for The New Yorker)
  • Langford, Gerald, The Murder of Stanford White
  • Mooney, Michael, Evelyn Nesbit and Stanford White: Love and Death in the Gilded Age
  • Roth, Leland M., McKim, Mead & White, Architects, Harper & Row, Publishers, NY 1983
  • Samuels, Charles, The Girl in the Red Velvet Swing
  • Thaw, Evelyn Nesbit, The Story of My Life 1914
  • Thaw, Evelyn Nesbit, Prodigal Days 1934
  • Thaw, Harry, The Traitor
  • Uruburu, Paula, American Eve: Evelyn Nesbit, Stanford White, The Birth of the "It" Girl and the Crime of the Century Riverhead 2008
  • Samuel G. White, with Jonathan Wallen (photographer), The Houses of McKim, Mead and White 1998. Lavish illustrations.
  • Wayne Craven, Stanford White: Decorator in Opulence and Dealer in Antiquities, 2005. Stanford White as an interior decorator and a dealer in the fine and decorative arts


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