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The State Duma ( (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), common abbreviation: Госдума (Gosduma)) in the Russian Federationmarker is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (legislature), the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia. The Duma is headquartered in central Moscowmarker, a few steps from Manege Squaremarker. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of the new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved by the Russian public in a referendum.


Emblem commemorating 100 years of State Duma in Russia

The State Duma was first introduced in 1906 and was Russia's first elected parliament. The first two attempts by Tsar Nicholas II were too radical and ineffective and were subsequently dissolved after only a few months each. After the 1907 electoral reform the third Duma, elected in November 1907, was largely made up of members of the upper classes and radical influences in the Duma had almost entirely been removed. The establishment of the Duma after the 1905 Revolution was to herald significant changes to the Russian autocratic system. Furthermore the Duma was later to have a larger effect on Russia as it was one of the contributing factors in the February Revolution, which led to the abolition of the autocracy in Russia.


The State Duma has special powers enumerated by the Constitution of Russia. They are:

  • consent to the appointment of the Prime Minister of Russia;
  • hearing annual reports from the Government of the Russian Federation on the results of its work, including on issues raised by the State Duma;
  • deciding the issue of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation;
  • appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank of Russia;
  • appointment and dismissal of the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber;
  • appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for Human Rights, who shall act according to federal constitutional law;
  • announcement of amnesty;
  • bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for his impeachment (requires a two thirds majority);

The State Duma adopts decrees on issues referred to its authority by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Decrees of the State Duma are adopted by a majority of the total number of deputies of the State Duma, unless another procedure is envisaged by the Constitution.

All bills are first approved by the State Duma and are further debated and approved (or rejected) by the Federation Council.

Additionally, there are constitutionally 450 deputies of the State Duma (Article 95), each elected to a term of four years (Article 96). Russian citizens at least 21 years old are eligible to run for the Duma (Article 97). Seats are awarded on the basis of the percentage of election votes won by a party. The party then elects candidates to fill its eligible seats.

The current speaker of the State Duma is Boris Gryzlov since December 29, 2003.

Speakers of the State Duma

Latest election

Current composition

Affiliation Delegates Seats Popular vote
United Russia (Edinaya Rossiya) 315 70% 64.30%
Communist Party of the Russian Federation (Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) 57 12.67% 11.57%
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (Liberalno-demokraticheskaya Partiya Rossii) 40 8.89% 8.14%
Fair Russia (Spravedlivaya Rossiya) 38 8.44% 7.74%
Total 450 100% 100%

Presidential Envoys to the State Duma

External links

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