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For the psychiatrist born in 1942 who specializes in sexual disorders, see Stephen B. Levine.

Stephen Levine (born 17 July 1937) is an Americanmarker poet, author and teacher best known for his work on death and dying. He is one of a generation of pioneering teachers who, along with Jack Kornfield, Joseph Goldstein and Sharon Salzberg, have made the teachings of Theravada Buddhism more widely available to students in the West. Like the writings of his colleague and close friend, Ram Dass (formerly Richard Alpert), Stephen's work is also flavoured by the devotional practices and teachings (also known as Bhakti Yoga) of the Hindi Guru Neem Karoli Baba. This aspect of his teaching may be considered one way in which his work differs from that of the more purely Buddhist oriented teachers named above. Since Buddhism is largely considered a non-theistic faith, his allusions in his teachings to a creator, which he variously terms God, The Beloved, The One and 'Uugghh', further distinguish his work from that of other contemporary Buddhist writers.

Life and career

Born in Albany, New Yorkmarker, Levine attended the University of Miamimarker. He published his first work, A Resonance of Hope, in 1959. After working as an editor and writer in New York City, Levine founded the San Francisco Oracle in 1965.

He spent time helping the sick and dying, using meditation as a method of treatment; a program he shared with psychologist Richard Alpert and psychiatrist Elisabeth Kubler-Ross.

The founder of New York City's first hospice and the author of several books about dying, Levine and his wife Ondrea spent one year living as if it were their last. Levine's son Noah initially rejected his father's work, then joined him. Levine and his wife Ondrea appeared in the 2007 documentary, Meditate and Destroy, that focuses on the life of their son Noah Levine.

For many years, Stephen and Ondrea have been living in near seclusion in the mountains of Northern New Mexico. . They are both currently experiencing significant illness which prevents them from travelling and teaching.


Although drawing upon the teachings of a variety of wisdom traditions, including Native American, Sufism and mystical interpretations of Christianity, Stephen's writing is most significantly informed by the teaching of the Theravada branch of Buddhism.

Grief Work

One of the most significant aspects of Stephen's work and one for which he is perhaps best known, is his pioneering approach to working with the experience of grief. Over twenty five years, Stephen and his wife Ondrea have counselled concentration camp survivors and their children, Vietnam War veterans as well as victims of sexual abuse . Although Stephen acknowledges that our experience of grief is perhaps at its most intense when a loved one dies, he also draws our attention to grief's more subtle incarnations. "Our ordinary, everyday grief," accumulates as a response to the "burdens of disappointments and disillusionment, the loss of trust and confidence that follows the increasingly less satisfactory arch of our lives". In order to avoid feeling this grief we "armour our hearts," which leads to a gradual deadening of our experience of the world When a loved one dies, or indeed when our own death approaches, the intensity of the loss often renders our defenses ineffective and we are swept up by a deluge of griefs, both old and new.


In the acknowledgements section of his book "Who Dies: An Investigation of Conscious Living and Conscious Dying" (1986), Stephen pays tribute to a number of spiritual teachers whose work he acknowledges to have influenced his writing. As well as crediting "years of Buddhist practice and teaching", he cites the writings of Nisargadatta Maharaj, an Indian spiritual teacher and philosopher of Advaita , as well as Neem Karoli Baba and Ramana Maharshi.


  1. Branfman, Fred (June 2, 1997). suicide isn't painless.
  2. Flynn, Rochelle O'Gorman (March 9 1998). "A Year to Live" By Stephen Levine [review]. Los Angeles Times
  3. From street thug to dharma punk.
  4. See "Embracing the Beloved" (1995) p. 95
  5. YouTube interview conducted for a benefit held at Spirit Rock Meditation Centre.
  6. See "Unattended Sorrow" (2007) p. 1
  7. See "Unattended Sorrow" (2007) p. 2
  8. . This notion of a constant subterranean murmuring of dissatisfaction may be seen as analogous to the Buddha's definition of Dukkha.

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