Steven Paul "Steve" Jobs
(born February 24, 1955) is an American businessman, and the co-founder and chief executive officer of Apple Inc.
Jobs previously served as CEO of Pixar Animation Studios
In the late 1970s, Jobs, with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak
, created one of the first
commercially successful personal computers. In the early 1980s,
Jobs was among the first to see the commercial
potential of the mouse
-driven graphical user interface
losing a power struggle with the board of directors in 1985, Jobs
resigned from Apple and founded NeXT
company specializing in the higher education and business markets.
subsequent 1997 buyout by Apple Computer
Inc. brought Jobs back to the company he co-founded, and
he has served as its CEO
Steve Jobs was listed as Fortune Magazine
's Most Powerful
Businessman of 2007.In 2009 he is ranked #57 on Forbes
:The World's Most Powerful People.
In 1986, he acquired the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd
which was spun off as Pixar Animation Studios
. He remained CEO
and majority shareholder until its acquisition by
the Walt Disney Company
2006. Jobs is currently a member of Walt Disney Company's Board of Directors
history in business has contributed greatly to the myths of the
idiosyncratic, individualistic Silicon Valley entrepreneur,
emphasizing the importance of design and
understanding the crucial role aesthetics play in public
His work driving forward the development of products
that are both functional and elegant has earned him a devoted
In mid-January 2009, Jobs took a 5 month leave of absence
from Apple to undergo a
born in San Francisco and was adopted by
Paul and Clara (née Hagopian) Jobs of
Mountain View, Santa Clara County, California who named him Steven Paul.
Steve Jobs at the WWDC 07
Paul and Clara
later adopted a daughter, who they named Patty. Jobs' biological
parents, Joanne Carole Schieble and Abdulfattah Jandali — a
graduate student from Syria who became a
political science professor — later married and gave birth to
Job's sister, the novelist Mona Simpson.
attended Cupertino Junior High School and Homestead High
School in Cupertino, California, and frequented after-school lectures at the
Hewlett-Packard Company in
He was soon hired there and worked with
as a summer employee.
Jobs graduated from high school and enrolled in Reed College in Portland, Oregon.
Although he dropped
after only one semester, he continued auditing
classes at Reed, such as one in
. "If I had never dropped in
on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had
or proportionally spaced
fonts", he said.
In the autumn of 1974, Jobs returned to California and began
attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club
with Steve Wozniak
. He took a job as a technician
, a manufacturer of popular video games
, with the primary
intent of saving money for a spiritual retreat to India.
traveled to India with a Reed
College friend (and, later, the first Apple employee), Daniel Kottke, in search of spiritual
He came back a Buddhist
with his head shaved and wearing
traditional Indian clothing. During this time, Jobs experimented
, calling his
experiences "one of the two or three most
important things [he had] done in [his] life." He has stated that
people around him who did not share his countercultural roots could
not fully relate to his thinking.
He returned to his previous job at Atari and was given the task of
creating a circuit board
for the game
. According to Atari
founder Nolan Bushnell
, Atari had
100 for each chip
that was reduced in the machine. Jobs had little interest or
knowledge in circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to
split the bonus evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the
number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari, Wozniak reduced
the number of chips by 50, a design so tight that it was impossible
to reproduce on an assembly line. At the time, Jobs told Wozniak
that Atari had only given them $600 (instead of the actual $5000)
and that Wozniak's share was thus $300.
Beginnings of Apple Computer
In 1976, Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, with funding from
multimillionaire A.C. "Mike" Markkula
, founded Apple. Prior to
co-founding Apple, Wozniak was an electronics hacker. Jobs and
Wozniak had been friends for several years, having met in 1971,
when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old
Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Steve Jobs managed to interest Wozniak
in assembling a computer and selling it. As Apple continued to
expand, the company began looking for an experienced executive to
help manage its expansion. In 1983, Steve Jobs lured John Sculley
away from Pepsi-Cola
to serve as Apple's CEO, asking,
"Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared
water to children, or do you want a chance to change the
The following year, Apple set out to do just that,
starting with a Super Bowl
commercial titled, "1984
." At Apple's annual
shareholders meeting on January 24, 1984, an emotional Jobs
introduced the Macintosh
to a wildly
enthusiastic audience; Andy Hertzfeld
described the scene as "pandemonium." The Macintosh became the
first commercially successful small computer with a graphical user interface
development of the Mac was started by Jef
, and eventually taken over by Jobs.
While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple,
some of his employees from that time had described him as an
erratic and temperamental manager. An industry-wide sales slump
towards the end of 1984 caused a deterioration in Jobs's working
relationship with Sculley, and at the end of May 1985 –
following an internal power struggle and an announcement of
significant layoffs – Sculley relieved Jobs of his duties as
head of the Macintosh division.
Around the same time, Jobs founded another computer company,
. Like the Apple Lisa
, the NeXT workstation was
technologically advanced; however, it was largely dismissed by
industry as cost-prohibitive. Among those who could afford it,
however, the NeXT workstation garnered a strong following because
of its technical strengths, chief among them its object-oriented
software development system.
Jobs marketed NeXT products to the scientific and academic fields
because of the innovative, experimental new technologies it
incorporated (such as the Mach kernel
the digital signal
chip, and the built-in Ethernet
was described by Jobs as an
"interpersonal" computer, which he believed was the next step after
"personal" computing. That is, if computers could allow people to
communicate and collaborate together in an easy way, it would solve
a lot of the problems that "personal" computing had come up
against. During a time when e-mail for most people was plain text,
Jobs loved to demo the NeXT's e-mail system, NeXTMail
, as an example of his "interpersonal"
philosophy. NeXTMail was one of the first to support universally
visible, clickable embedded graphics and audio within e-mail.
Jobs ran NeXT with an obsession for aesthetic perfection, as
evidenced by such things as the NeXTcube's magnesium case.
considerable strain on NeXT's hardware division, and in 1993, after
having sold only 50,000 machines, NeXT transitioned fully to
software development with the release of NeXTSTEP/Intel.
Pixar and Disney
In 1986, Jobs bought The Graphics Group (later renamed Pixar
) from Lucasfilm
computer graphics division for the price of $10 million, $5 million
of which was given to the company as capital.
company, which was originally based in San Rafael,
California, but has since relocated to Emeryville,
California, was initially intended to be a high-end graphics
After years of unprofitability selling
the Pixar Image Computer
contracted with Disney to produce a number of computer-animated
feature films, which Disney would co-finance and distribute.
The first film produced by the partnership, Toy Story
, brought fame and critical acclaim
to the studio when it was released in 1995. Over the next ten plus
years, under Pixar's creative chief John
, the company would produce the box-office hits
A Bug's Life
Toy Story 2
(2008) and Up
(2009). Finding Nemo
, and WALL-E
each received the Academy Award for Best
, an award introduced in 2001.
In the years 2003 and 2004, as Pixar's contract with Disney was
running out, Jobs and Disney chief executive Michael Eisner
tried but failed to negotiate
a new partnership, and in early 2004 Jobs announced that Pixar
would seek a new partner to distribute its films once its contract
with Disney expired.
In October 2005, Bob Iger
at Disney, and Iger quickly worked to patch up relations with Jobs
and Pixar. On January 24, 2006, Jobs and Iger announced that Disney
had agreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock transaction worth $7.4
billion. Once the deal closed, Jobs became The Walt Disney Company
single shareholder with approximately 7% of the company's stock.
Jobs's holdings in Disney far exceed those of Eisner, who holds
1.7%, and Disney family member Roy E.
, who held about 1% of the
company's stock and whose criticisms of Eisner included the soured
Pixar relationship and accelerated his ousting. Jobs joined the
company's board of directors upon completion of the merger.
Jobs also helps oversee Disney and Pixar's combined animation
businesses with a seat on a special six-man steering
Return to Apple
- See also: "1998 to 2005: New
beginnings" in 'Apple Inc.
In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy NeXT
for $429 million. The deal was finalized in late 1996, bringing
Jobs back to the company he co-founded. He soon became Apple's
interim CEO after the directors lost confidence in and ousted
then-CEO Gil Amelio
in a boardroom coup
. In March 1998, in order to
concentrate Apple's efforts on returning to profitability, Jobs
immediately terminated a number of projects such as Newton
. In the coming months, many
employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in the
elevator, "afraid that they might not have a job when the doors
opened. The reality was that Jobs' summary executions were rare,
but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a whole
With the purchase of NeXT, much of the company's technology found
its way into Apple products, most notably NeXTSTEP
, which evolved into Mac OS X
. Under Jobs's guidance the company
increased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac
and other new products; since then, appealing
designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. At the
2000 Macworld Expo, Jobs officially dropped the "interim" modifier
from his title at Apple and became permanent CEO. Jobs quipped at
the time that he would be using the title 'iCEO.'
In recent years, the company has branched out, introducing and
improving upon other digital appliances. With the introduction of
portable music player, iTunes
digital music software, and the iTunes Store
, the company made forays into
consumer electronics and music distribution. In 2007, Apple entered
the cellular phone business with the introduction of the iPhone
, a multi-touch
display cell phone, iPod
, and internet device.
While stimulating innovation, Jobs also reminds his employees that
"real artists ship," by which he means that delivering working
products on time is as important as innovation and attractive
Jobs is both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at
persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field
" and is
particularly evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially
known as "Stevenotes
") at Macworld Expos
and at Apple's
own World Wide Developers Conferences.
In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling
programs for e-waste
in the U.S. by lashing
out at environmental and other advocates at Apple's Annual Meeting
in Cupertino in April. However, a few weeks later, Apple announced
it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. The
responded by flying a banner from a plane over the
Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement
speaker. The banner read "Steve — Don't be a mini-player
recycle all e-waste". In 2006, he further expanded Apple's
recycling programs to any U.S. customer who buys a new Mac. This
program includes shipping and "environmentally friendly disposal"
of their old systems.
Stock options backdating issue
In 2001, Steve Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7.5
million shares of Apple with an exercise price of $18.30, which
allegedly should have been $21.10, thereby incurring taxable income
of $20,000,000 that he did not report as income. This indicated
, which was a fairly common
accounting trick at the time. Apple overstated its earnings by that
same amount. If found liable, Jobs might have faced a number of
criminal charges and civil penalties. Apple claimed that the
options were originally granted at a special board meeting that may
never have taken place. Furthermore, the investigation is focusing
on false dating of the options resulting in a retroactive $20
million increase in the exercise price. The case is the subject of
active criminal and civil government investigations, though an
independent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29,
2006 found that Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the
options granted to him were returned without being exercised in
2003. On July 1, 2008 a $7 billion class action suit was filed
against several members of the Apple Board of Directors for revenue
lost due to the alleged securities fraud.
Much has been made of Jobs' aggressive and demanding personality.
noted that he
"is considered one of Silicon Valley's leading egomaniacs
." Commentaries on his temperamental style
can be found in Mike Moritz
The Little Kingdom
of the few authorized biographies of Jobs; Jeffrey S. Young's
unauthorized Steve Jobs: The Journey Is
; The Second Coming of Steve
by Alan Deutschman; and iCon: Steve Jobs
, by Jeffrey S. Young
& William L. Simon.
, a former colleague, once said
that Jobs "would have made an excellent king of France," alluding
to Jobs' compelling and larger-than-life persona.
Jobs has always aspired to position Apple and its products at the
forefront of the information
industry by foreseeing and setting trends, at least
in terms of innovation and style. He summed up that self-concept at
the end of his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and
in January 2007 by quoting ice hockey legend Wayne Gretzky
said that at Pixar, Jobs
was a "mature, mellow individual" and never interfered with the
creative process of the filmmakers.
Jobs married Laurene Powell
, on March
18, 1991. Presiding over the wedding was the Zen
monk Kobun Chino
. The couple have a son, Reed Paul Jobs and two other
children. Jobs also has a daughter, Lisa Brennan-Jobs (born 1978),
from his relationship with Bay Area painter Chrisann Brennan
. She briefly raised their
daughter on welfare when Jobs denied paternity, claiming that he
was sterile; he later acknowledged paternity.
In the unauthorized biography The Second Coming of Steve
author Alan Deutschman reports that Jobs once dated
. Deutschman quotes Elizabeth
Holmes, a friend of Jobs from his time at Reed College, as saying
she "believed that Steve became the lover of Joan Baez
in large measure because Baez had been
the lover of Bob Dylan
." In another
unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve
by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon, the
authors suggest that Jobs might have married Baez, but her age at
the time (41) meant it was unlikely the couple could have children.
Baez included a mention of Jobs in the acknowledgments of her 1987
memoir And A Voice To Sing
Steve Jobs is also a devoted Beatles
has referenced them on more than one occasion at Keynotes and also
was interviewed on a showing of a Paul
concert. When asked about his business model
on 60 Minutes
, he replied:
Jobs bought an apartment in The San
Remo, an apartment building in New York City with a politically progressive reputation, where
Demi Moore, Steven Spielberg, Steve Martin, and Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, daughter of Rita Hayworth, also had apartments.
With the help of I.M. Pei
, Jobs spent years renovating his apartment in
the top two floors of the building's north tower, only to sell it
almost two decades later to U2
. Jobs had never moved in.
Jobs purchased a , 14 bedroom Spanish
Colonial mansion, designed by George Washington Smith
California, also known as Jackling House.
Although it reportedly remained in an
almost unfurnished state, Jobs lived in the mansion for ten years.
According to reports, he kept an old BMW
motorcycle in the living room, and let Bill
use it in 1998. He allowed the mansion to fall into a
state of disrepair, planning to demolish the house and build a
smaller home on the property; but he met with complaints from local
preservationists over his plans. In June 2004, the Woodside Town
Council gave Jobs approval to demolish the mansion, on the
condition that he advertise the property for a year to see if
someone would move it to another location and restore it. A number
of people expressed interest, including several with experience in
restoring old property, but no agreements to that effect were
reached. Later that same year, a local preservationist group began
seeking legal action to prevent demolition. In January 2007 Jobs
was denied the right to demolish the property, by a court
He usually wears a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck
made by St. Croix
501 blue jeans, and New Balance 991
sneakers. He is a vegetarian
Jobs had a public war of words with Dell
CEO Michael Dell
when Jobs first criticized Dell for making "un-innovative beige
boxes." On October 6, 1997, in a Gartner
Symposium, when Michael Dell was asked what he would do if he owned
then-troubled Apple Computer, he said "I'd shut it down and give
the money back to the shareholders." In 2006, Steve Jobs sent an
email to all employees when Apple's market capitalization
Dell's. The email read:
In 2005, Steve Jobs banned all books published by John Wiley & Sons
from Apple Stores
in response to their publishing an
unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve
In mid-2004, Jobs announced to his employees that he had been
diagnosed with a cancerous tumor
in his pancreas
prognosis for pancreatic cancer
usually very grim; Jobs, however, stated that he had a rare, far
less aggressive type known as islet
cell neuroendocrine tumor
After initially resisting the idea of conventional medical
intervention and embarking on a special diet to thwart the disease,
Jobs underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy
procedure") in July 2004 that appeared to successfully remove the
tumor. Jobs apparently did not require nor receive chemotherapy
or radiation therapy
. During Jobs' absence,
Timothy D. Cook
, head of worldwide sales and operations
at Apple, ran the company.
In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apple's annual
. His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually
"listless" delivery, together with his choice to delegate
significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a
flurry of media and internet speculation about his health. In
contrast, according to an Ars
journal report, WWDC
attendees who saw Jobs
in person said he "looked fine"; following the keynote, an Apple
spokesperson said that "Steve's health is robust."
Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobs' 2008 WWDC keynote
address; Apple officials stated Jobs was victim to a "common bug"
and that he was taking antibiotics
while others surmised his cachectic
was due to the aforementioned Whipple procedure
. During a July
conference call discussing Apple earnings, participants responded
to repeated questions about Steve Jobs' health by insisting that it
was a "private matter." Others, however, opined that shareholders
had a right to know more, given Jobs' hands-on approach to running
his company. The New York
published an article based on an off-the-record
phone conversation with Jobs, noting that "while his health issues
have amounted to a good deal more than 'a common bug,' they weren’t
life-threatening and he doesn’t have a recurrence of cancer."
On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg
of Jobs in its corporate
news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of
death. (News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries
to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure's
untimely death.) Although the error was promptly rectified, many
news carriers and blogs reported on it, intensifying rumors
concerning Jobs' health. Jobs responded at Apple's September 2008
keynote by quoting Mark
: "Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated"; at a
subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with a
slide reading "110 / 70", referring to his blood pressure
, stating he would not address
further questions about his health.
On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing vice-president
would deliver the
company's final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo
2009, again reviving questions about Jobs' health. In a statement
given on January 5, 2009 on Apple.com
Jobs said that he had been suffering from a "hormone
imbalance" for several months. On January
14, 2009, in an internal Apple memo
, Jobs wrote
that in the previous week he had "learned that my health-related
issues are more complex than I originally thought" and announced a
six-month leave of absence
the end of June 2009 to allow him to better focus on his health.
, who had previously acted
as CEO in Jobs' 2004 absence, became acting CEO of Apple, with Jobs
still involved with "major strategic decisions."
2009, Jobs underwent a liver
transplant at Methodist University Hospital Transplant
Institute in Memphis, Tennessee.
Jobs' prognosis was "excellent".
In popular culture
Jobs was prominently featured in three films about the history of
the personal computing industry:
Jobs has also been frequently parodied
- Mad Magazine — a
feature called Calvin and Jobs, a parody of Calvin and Hobbes, starring Steve in
the role of Hobbes and
his attempts to explain to Calvin his job.
was also parodied in "Mypods and
Boomsticks", a 2008 The
Simpsons episode which features an adventure into the
'world' of Mapple, MyPods, and "Steve Mobbs".
- 30 Rock parodied Jobs's keynote
presentation style, turtleneck and all in the episode
- The Onion featured a parody
article titled "Apple Unveils New Product-Unveiling Product," which
contained a picture showing Jobs introducing what appears to be
another Steve Jobs.
- ceoSteveJobs is a parody Twitter account which
features 140-character tweets from the eyes of the CEO.
- Daniel Lyons writes a popular
blog called The Secret Diary of Steve Jobs, and a book,
Options: The Secret Life of Steve Jobs.
He was awarded the National
Medal of Technology
from President Ronald Reagan
in 1985 with Steve Wozniak
(the first people to ever
receive the honor), and a Jefferson Award for Public
in the category "Greatest Public Service by an
Individual 35 Years or Under" (aka the Samuel S. Beard Award
) in 1987.
On November 27, 2007, Jobs was named the most powerful person in
business by Fortune
On December 5, 2007, California
and First Lady Maria
inducted Jobs into the California Hall of Fame
, located at
California Museum for History, Women and the Arts
In August 2009, Jobs was selected the most admired entrepreneur
among teenagers on a survey by Junior
On November 5, 2009, Jobs was named the CEO of the decade
by Fortune Magazine
- Letters – General Questions Answered,
Steven: "iWoz", a: pages
147–148, b: page 180. W. W. Norton, 2006. ISBN 978-0-393-06143-7
- Kent, Stevn: "The Ultimate History of Video Games", pages
71–73. Three Rivers, 2001. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4
- Player 2 Stage 1: The Coin Eaters
- Arcade History: Breakout
- Classic Gaming: A Complete History of
- 2006-01-25 Disney buys Pixar for $7.4 bn,
- Apple Computer, Inc. Finalizes Acquisition of NeXT
Software Inc., Apple Inc., 1997-02-07. Retrieved on
- Colvin, Geoff. " Steve Jobs' Bad Bet." Fortune,
- JOBS MACWORLD 07
- Steve Jobs (pg 2) - Mar. 4, 2008
- At 04:24 a picture is displayed
Gizmodo on Steve Jobs' attire
- "If Apple can go home again, why not Dell?"
CNET News. May 19, 2008.
- Mayo Clinic: Pancreatic Cancer Treatment
- NY Times
- Steve Jobs and Whipple.
- "Looking very thin, almost gaunt":
- "[The audience was] uninspired (and concerned) by Jobs'
relatively listless delivery":
- Business Technology: Steve Jobs' Appearance Grabs
Notice, Not Just the IPhone
- "Apple says Steve Jobs feeling a little under the
weather" in AppleInsider.
- Fortune Magazine Article
- "Steve Jobs and Apple" Marketing Doctor Blog.
July 24, 2008.
- Talking Business: Apple’s Culture of Secrecy
The New York Times (July 26,
- Apple abandons Macworld amid Jobs illness
rumours Daily Headlines - GQ.com UK]
- Steve Jobs recovering after liver
- "Apple Unveils New Product-Unveiling Product. The Onion.
- http://www.uspto.gov/nmti/recipients_85.html THE NATIONAL MEDAL
OF TECHNOLOGY RECIPIENTS 1985 Laureates
25 most powerful people in business 1. Steve Jobs
- Jobs inducted into California Hall of Fame,
Museum, Accessed 2007.
Steve Jobs bigger than Oprah!
Steve Jobs: CEO of the decade
- — April 20, 1995.
- Steve Jobs: The Rolling Stone Interview,
Rolling Stone – December
- The Seed of Apple's Innovation, BusinessWeek — October 12, 2004.
- How Big Can Apple Get?, Fortune — February 21,
- , Newsweek — October 15,
- Bill Gates and Steve Jobs (video and transcript of
on stage interview), All Things
D – May 30, 2007.
- Videotaped Deposition of Steven P. Jobs in front of the Securities and Exchange
Commission – March 18, 2008