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Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman CH (7 July 1903 – 1 November 2000) —known as Steven Runciman — was a Britishmarker historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. Arguably, his best known work is his three volume A History of the Crusades (1951-54).


Born in Northumberlandmarker, both of his parents were Members of Parliament for the Liberal Party. His father was created Viscount Runciman of Doxford in 1937. His paternal grandfather, Lord Runciman, was a shipping magnate.

He was named after his maternal grandfather, James Cochran Stevenson, the MP for South Shields.

It is said that he was reading Latin and Greek by age five. In the course of his long life he would master an astonishing number of languages, so that, for example, when writing about the Middle East, he relied not only on accounts in Latin and Greek and the Western vernaculars, but consulted Arabic, Turkish, Persian, Hebrew, Syriac, Armenian and Georgian sources as well. A King's Scholar at Eton Collegemarker, he was an exact contemporary and close friend of George Orwell. While there, they both studied French under Aldous Huxley. In 1921 he entered Trinity College, Cambridgemarker as a history scholar and studied under J.B. Bury, becoming, as Runciman later commented, "his first, and only, student." At first the reclusive Bury tried to brush him off; then, when Runciman mentioned that he could read Russian, Bury gave him a stack of Bulgarian articles to edit, and so their relationship began. His work on the Byzantine Empire earned him a fellowship at Trinity in 1927.

After receiving a large inheritance from his grandfather, Runciman resigned his fellowship in 1938 and began travelling widely. From 1942 to 1945 he was Professor of Byzantine Art and History at Istanbul Universitymarker, in Turkeymarker, where he began the research on the Crusades which would lead to his best known work, the History of the Crusades (three volumes appearing in 1951, 1952, and 1954). Most of Runciman's historical works deal with Byzantium and her medieval neighbours between Sicily and Syria; one exception is The White Rajahs, published in 1960, which tells the story of Sarawakmarker, an independent nation founded on the northern coast of Borneo in 1841 by the Englishman James Brooke, and ruled by the Brooke family for more than a century.

In his personal life, Runciman was an old-fashioned English eccentric, known, among other things, as an aesthete, raconteur, and enthusiast of the occult. According to Andrew Robinson, a history teacher at Eton, 'he played piano duets with the last Emperor of China, told tarot cards for King Fuad of Egypt, narrowly missed being blown up by the Germans in the Pera Palacemarker hotel in Istanbul and twice hit the jackpot on slot machines in Las Vegas'. In these respects, he was not a typical medieval historian. He was also known for his remarkably sunny disposition and openness of spirit, and had friends from all walks of life and classes in many countries. He died in Radwaymarker, Warwickshiremarker while visiting relatives, and is buried in Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire.


  • The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and His Reign (1929)
  • The First Bulgarian Empire (1930)
  • Byzantine Civilization (1933)
  • The Medieval Manichee : A Study of the Christian Dualist Heresy (1947)
  • A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Cambridge Universitymarker Press 1951) (Folio Society edition 1994)
  • A History of the Crusades: Volume 2, The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East (Cambridge University Press 1952) (Folio Society edition 1994)
  • A History of the Crusades: Volume 3, The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades (Cambridge University Press 1954) (Folio Society edition 1994)
  • The Eastern Schism: A Study of the Papacy and the Eastern Churches in XIth and XIIth Centuries (1953)
  • The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century (1958)
  • The White Rajahs (1960)
  • The Fall of Constantinople 1453 (1965)
  • The Great Church in Captivity (1968)
  • The Last Byzantine Renaissance (1970)
  • The Orthodox Churches and the Secular State (1972)
  • Byzantine Style and Civilization (1975)
  • The Byzantine Theocracy (1977)
  • Mistramarker (1980)
  • Patriarch Jeremias II and the Patriarchate of Moscow (1985)
  • A Traveller's Alphabet.Partial Memoirs. (1991)

See also


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