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The Stockholm Metro ( ) is the metro system in Stockholmmarker, Swedenmarker. The system has 100 stations in use, of which 47 are subterranean and 53 are above ground (surface and elevated) stations. There are seven lines numbered from 10 to 19, in three groups identified by a colour: the Green, Red and Blue Lines. Each colour line has two or three numbered lines on shared sections through the Stockholm City Centre.

The metro system is owned by the Stockholm County Council through Storstockholms Lokaltrafik. Operation was contracted to Veolia Transport until 1 November 2009, after which MTR Corporation took over.

History

Construction of a section of the metro in 1957
The decision to build a metro was made in 1941. The following years, some routes were built with near metro standard but operated with trams. The first part of the metro was opened in 1950, when an underground tram line from 1933 was converted to metro standard. This line ran south from Slussenmarker to Hökarängenmarker. Over the following years, two more lines extending from Slussen (via Gullmarsplan, then Johanneshov) were opened. In 1952, a second system from Hötorgetmarker to the western suburbs was opened. In 1957, the two parts were connected via the Central station and the Old Town, forming the Green Line. The Red Line was opened in 1964, with two lines going from northeast to southwest via the city center. The third and final system, the Blue Line, was opened in 1975, with two lines running northwest from the city center. The latest addition to the whole network, Skarpnäck station, was opened in 1994.

Network



Stations

There are 100 stations in use in the Stockholm Metro. One station, Kymlingemarker, was built but never taken into use. One station has been taken out of use and demolished. The Bagarmossen old surface station was demolished and replaced with a new underground station there instead, this prior to the metro extension to Skarpnäck metro station.

The Stockholm Metro is well known for its decoration of the stations; it has been called the longest art gallery in the world. This not fully true since some other metros, most notably Moscow, have more stations with art. Several of the stations (especially on the Blue Line) are left with the bedrock exposed, crude and unfinished, or as part of the decorations. At Rissne, an informative wall fresco about the history of Earth's civilizations runs along both sides of the platform.



Lines

In the tunnels
  • The Green line has 3 line numbers and 49 stations: 12 subterranean (nine concrete, three rock) and 37 above ground stations. The track is 41,256 metres long. It opened 1 October 1950 (between Slussen and Hökarängen stations). It is used by 451,000 riders per workday or 146 million per year (2005).
  • The Red line has 2 line numbers and 36 stations: 20 subterranean (four concrete, 16 rock) and 15 above ground stations. The track is 41,238 metres long. It opened 5 April 1964. It is used by 394,000 riders per workday or 128 million per year (2005).
  • The Blue line has 2 line numbers and 20 stations: 19 subterranean (all rock) and one elevated station. The track is 25,516 metres long. It opened 31 August 1975. It is used by 171,000 riders per workday or 55 million per year (2005).


Trains are operated from 05:00 to 01:00, with extended all night service on weekends. All lines have trains every 10 minutes during daytime, reduced to every 15 minutes in early mornings and late evenings, and every 30 minutes during nights. Additional trains in peak hours gives a train every 5–6 minutes on most stations, with 2–3 minutes between trains on the central parts of the network.

Line Stretch Travel

time
Length Stations
T10 KungsträdgårdenHjulsta 23 min 14
T11 KungsträdgårdenAkallamarker 22 min 12
T13 NorsborgmarkerRopstenmarker 44 min 25
T14 FruängenmarkerMörby centrummarker 33 min 19
T17 ÅkeshovmarkerSkarpnäckmarker 43 min 24
T18 AlvikmarkerFarsta strand 37 min 23
T19 Hässelby strandHagsätramarker 55 min 35
Entire metro network 100


Schematic network map with shore contours


Technology

C20, popularly called "Vagn 2000", the newest train type
A train of older stock, type C4
Interior of a C6H type car


Rolling stock

There are two main types of car in the Stockholm Metro. The newer C20 stock, and the older C1–C15 stocks which are collectively referred to as the Cx stock. A train typically consists of two or three cars of the C20 stock, or four, six or eight cars of the Cx stock. A full length train—three C20 cars, or eight Cx cars—is about in length, and takes about 1,250 passengers, of which about 380 can be seated. The Blue Line as well as the Red Line (from Stadionmarker to Mörby Centrum) was built with longer platforms to allow running trains consisting of ten Cx cars. When the C20 was introduced, it appeared that trains consisting of four C20 cars would not fit completely on these platforms.

There are 271 cars of the C20 stock, and around two hundred Cx stock cars. The green line only uses the new cars, and they are used most of the time on the Red and Blue Lines. However, during rush hours, the older cars can occasionally be seen. Of the older cars the stocks C6, C14 and C15 are still in use.

Historically the metro is converted from a tramway and the older sections were run as tramway for a few years. The naming convention for rolling stock comes from this, where A are motorised trams, B are unmotorised trams (trailers) and C are metro cars.

C20 stock cars

The C20 car is double-articulated, in length, in width, in height, and weighs . The car takes 126 seated passengers, and 288 standing passengers. The C20 stock cars were built between 1996 and 2004.

A single prototype car designated C20F stock is in use. Built on Bombardier Transportation's FICAS technology, it has a lighter body, much thinner side walls, and more space compared to the regular C20, by using a sandwich-like composite construction of the body. The C20F weighs , other exterior measurements are the same as for the C20. The C20F has the same number of seats as the C20, but has space for 323 standing passengers.

Cx stock cars

The name Cx refers to all the older types C1–C15. The only cars of the Cx stock still in use are C6, C14 and C15. They are to in length, in width, to in height, and weigh 23 to 29 metric tons. The cars take 48 seated passengers, and 108 to 110 standing passengers. They were built in the 1970s and 1980s.

Infrastructure and safety

The Stockholm metro runs electrically using a third rail with a nominal operating voltage of 650 V DC on the Green and Red Lines, 750 V DC on the Blue Line.

The maximum speed is on the Red and Blue Lines, on the Green Line ( at the platforms). Maximum acceleration and deceleration is 0.8 m/s2. The reason for the lower speed limit on the Green Line is due to tighter curves than on the other lines, because the Green Line was built with cut and cover under streets in the inner city, while the other lines are drilled at deeper depth.

To allow close-running trains with a high level of safety, the metro uses a continuous signal safety system that sends information continually to the train's safety system. The signal is picked up from the rail tracks through two antennas placed in front of the first wheel axle and compared with data about the train's speed. Automatic braking is triggered if the train exceeds the maximum permitted speed at any time. The driver is given information about the speed limit through a display in the driver's cabin; in C20 stock, and in Cx stock outfitted for operation with the new signal system installed on the Green Line, this is a speedometer with a red maximum speed indicator (needle), while the traditional display in the Cx stock is a set of three lights indicating one of three permitted speeds (high, medium, lLow). The system allows two trains to come close to each other but prevents collisions occurring at speeds greater than . More modern systems also ensure that stop signals are not passed.

Another possibility is automatic train operation, which helps the driver by driving the train automatically. However, the driver still operates the door controls and allows the train to start. ATO is as of 2006 only available on the Green line, where a new signal system was installed in the late 1990s. This signal system, together with the C20 rolling stock, permits the use of ATO.

Graffiti



Since the mid 1980s, the Stockholm Metro has been seriously affected by graffiti. Previously a train on which graffiti had been painted could remain in service for weeks and graffiti could remain in place at stations for months if not for years. Nowadays, however, trains with graffiti are taken out of service immediately and graffiti at stations is regularly cleaned up within a few days. The cost of graffiti and other types of vandalism has been calculated at approximately SEK 100 million per year.

During the 1990s, the Stockholm Transit System (SL) started outsourcing protection to private security firms, some of which have been accused of using unlawful methods such as the use of plain clothes guards and heavy-handed treatment of vandals arrested, and even heavy-handed treatment of ticketless riders trying to escape. Since 2005, the Stockholm Police have assigned a special task force (Klotterkommissionen) to address the issues. The mainstay among the private security contractors in the fight against graffiti is the Commuter Security Group.

Future

There are a few realistic plans for extensions in the Stockholm Metro in the near decades.
  • A one-station branch on the green line from Odenplanmarker to Karolinska/Norra station. This metro extension outperforms the alternatives in a cost-benefit analysis. An early estimate of the cost is SEK 1.4 billion, and a build time of 3–5 years, which is also dependent on coordination with other constructions in the area, e.g. the Citybanan commuter rail tunnel.
  • Extension of the blue line from Kungsträdgården to Nackamarker with three possible end points: Nacka centre (SEK 7–7.5 billion), Orminge (SEK 10.5–11 billion), or Gustavsberg (SEK 15.5–16 billion). An alternative to the metro extension would be to improve on the existing bus traffic; another, to double-track the lightly loaded Saltsjöbanan commuter railway and connect it to the Tvärbanan light rail line.


See also



References

  1. T10 T11 T13 T14 T17 T18 T19
  2. Storstockholms Lokaltrafik investigation
  3. Dagens Nyheter article about extension to Nacka
  4. http://www.danvikslosen.se/


External links




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