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Stratego is a board game featuring a 10 × 10 square board and two players with 40 pieces each. Pieces represent individual officers and soldiers in an army. The objective of the game is to either find and capture the opponent's Flag, or capture so many of the opponent's pieces that he/she cannot make any further moves. Players cannot see the ranks of each other's pieces, so disinformation and discovery are important elements of the game.

Gameplay

Computer software version of Stratego


Typically, one player uses red pieces, and the other uses blue pieces. Pieces are colored on both sides, so players can easily distinguish between their own and their opponent's. Ranks are printed on one side only and placed so that players cannot identify specific opponent's pieces. Each player moves one piece per turn. If a piece is moved onto a square occupied by an opposing piece, their identities are revealed, the weaker piece is removed from the board, and the stronger piece is moved into the place formerly occupied by the weaker piece. If the engaging pieces are of equal rank, they are both removed. Pieces may not move onto a square already occupied by another piece without attacking.

Two zones in the middle of the board, each 2 × 2, cannot be entered by either player's pieces at any time. They are shown as lakes on the battlefield and serve as choke points to make frontal assaults less direct.

Setup

Players may arrange their 40 pieces in any configuration on a designated 4 ×10 section of the playing board. Such pre-play distinguishes the fundamental strategy of particular players, and influences the outcome of the game.

Pieces

For most pieces, rank alone determines the outcome, but there are special pieces. The most numerous special piece is the Bomb, which only Miners can defuse and which immediately eliminates any other piece that strikes it, but which cannot move. Each team also has one Spy which wins when it attacks the highest-ranked piece (the Marshal). The Spy loses if it is attacked by any piece, including the Marshal and also when it attacks any other piece, except for the opposing Spy, in which case both are removed.

From highest rank to lowest the movable pieces are:
Rank # Pieces U.S. Army insignia Modern U.S. Army rank equivalent
10-1 1 Marshal General of the Army
9–2 1 General Full General
8–3 2 Colonels Colonel
7–4 3 Majors Major
6–5 4 Captains Captain
5–6 4 Lieutenants Lieutenant
4–7 4 Sergeants Sergeant
3–8 5 Miners Specialist
2–9 8 Scouts Private
S 1 Spy No insignia No rank


There is one Flag piece and six Bombs. The Flag and Bombs are the only pieces which cannot attack another piece due to being unable to move. The Bombs remain on the board even when hit unless by a Miner. There are a few exceptions to this rule, such as in the game of "Ultimate Lightning Stratego" where the Bombs are "one time bombs" and are removed from the board when hit.

All movable pieces, with the exception of the Scout, may move only one step to any adjacent tile vertically or horizontally. The Scout may move any number of steps vertically or horizontally in a straight line (such as the rook in chess). In older versions of the game the Scout could only attack pieces if it began its turn adjacent to them. In more recent versions of the game the Scout can move several squares, ending with attacking an enemy piece. No piece can move diagonally, or back and forth between the same two tiles for more than three consecutive turns.

Some versions (primarily newer versions released since 2000) have higher ranks with higher numbers, while others (versions prior to 2000, as well as the Nostalgia version released in 2002) have higher ranks with lower numbers.

Strategy

In contrast to chess, Stratego is a game with incomplete information. In this respect it resembles somewhat such chess variants as Kriegspiel or dark chess. Collecting the information, planning, and strategic thinking play an important role in Stratego. Psychological aspects are very important too.

Basic strategies

Overall strategy in Stratego involves:
  • placing one's pieces initially so as to protect the Flag, while possibly misleading the opponent as to where it is
  • making strong pieces available for attack
  • identifying patterns in the enemy's movement during game play that give clues as to the distribution of his or her forces
  • starting with stronger pieces and/or Bombs farther away from the Flag (although this is risky), so as to trick one's opponent into attacking the wrong side of the board


Placing the Spy too far forward, for example, makes it more likely to be captured early on, but placing it too far back may make it inaccessible when the enemy Marshal is identified. Likewise, Miners are weak, but their ability to defuse Bombs may be needed early (although some players prefer to leave Bombs "unexploded" as long as possible, particularly if they hamper an opponent's movements). The placement of "reserve troops" in the rearmost row and deployment of Scouts, which can move in an unimpeded straight line, is also a strategic point.

During game play, players must identify Bombs without sacrificing too many troops, determine the probable location of the enemy Flag, and form an attack plan that takes into account the likely ranks of the troops and exact location of the Bombs that usually surround the Flag.

Flag placement

Since one of the win criteria is to capture the Flag, its placement is vital. It is commonly placed on the back row surrounded by two or three Bombs for protection. Some players will use this generalisation to their advantage and place the Flag somewhere unprotected, for example the Shoreline Bluff (also called "the Lakeside Bluff"), i.e. placing the Flag directly adjacent to one of the lakes where the opponent may not think to look for it.

Inexperienced players may accidentally alert an opponent to the location of their Flag by calling too much attention to it when they initially position their pieces on the board. This is often done by simply placing their Flag down first and then constructing their defenses around it. One counter measure for this is to place all the pieces on the board randomly and then rearrange them into the desired setup. This tactic became obsolete when some newer versions came supplied with a cardboard privacy screen.

Bluffing

Some common bluffs included
  • A cluster of Bombs set by itself may deceive one's opponent into thinking that the Flag is there when, in fact, it is on the other side of the board.
  • Charging with a small unit, e.g. a miner, towards a known medium sized unit, e.g. a major, with the view to get past and attack a bomb.
  • If the opponent's Marshal wins its first battle (and is thus revealed), and a player immediately moves a piece near the back row on the other side, the opponent will probably assume that this piece is the Spy when, in fact, the Spy may be on the other side of the board (and already close to the Marshal). This is a common tactic as it may cause the Marshal to move next to the Spy, thereby allowing the spy to attack first.
  • One could threaten a known Colonel with an unrevealed Sergeant to convince the opponent to retreat.


Effective scouting

Scouts are very useful towards the end of the game, once the board is more clear. They can be used to identify bombs on the back row, reveal bluffs or even capture the flag. They are most effective when they are moved one space at a time until necessary, as the moment they move multiple spaces, they are identified as a scout.Since they can move along a whole line, they are also effective for catching a spy daring to take a step into one's territory, even when they are standing on the other side of the board.

Spy strategies

In most games, it is advisable to have the Spy shadow a General or a Colonel. These pieces are normally vulnerable to attack by the opposing Marshal. Keeping a General or Colonel in the same vicinity as the spy allows an effective retreat to where the opponent's Marshal can be ambushed by the Spy.

Spy bluffs are also effective. For example, using a Sergeant to shadow a Colonel might confuse opponent, and he may be reluctant to have his Marshal attack the Colonel.

Miner strategies

Sophisticated players might identify opposing Bombs, but leave them in place, interfering with the enemy's movement. To do this, it is vital to memorize the location of all the opponent's Bombs as they are identified. By keeping the Miners unmoved in his own territory during the early game, a player can create the Bomb bluff, in which the opposing player may mistake those unmoved Miners for Bombs.

Protecting pieces

One of the most important concepts of Stratego is the incomplete knowledge and misdirection, so the manual recommends taking a piece with one that is not much stronger than it, for example take a Captain with a Major. In the same manner, one strategy is to protect with an "evens and odds" system, where a piece is protected by one which is two levels stronger than it, an odd piece protecting another odd piece, for example protecting the Captain with a Colonel.

Enforcing an advantage

If a player is lucky enough to have gained an advantage over his opponent, it is worth enforcing that advantage, by trading equal pieces of higher strength. For example, attacking a Major with another Major is much more of a loss for the opponent if he doesn't have any Colonels, Generals or Marshals remaining on the board.

Attacking unknown pieces

A risky strategy, which might be necessary when losing, is to attack unknown, unmoved pieces with a strong piece. This strategy relies on odds, for example if a player attacks an unknown, unmoved piece with a General, it would lose to any of the 6 Bombs, the Marshal or the other General. Mathematically, the odds are 7 in 40, but realistically these can be improved by not attacking pieces which are likely to be Bombs, or by keeping track of the pieces already identified.

Tournaments

2007 World Championship

The 2007 World Championship was held in Antwerpmarker, Belgiummarker at the Hotel ter Elst from August 10th through 12th. There were 44 participants, including the first ever player from the United States in the World Championships. It was won by Vincent de Boer.

2007 World Team Cup

The World Team cup is played annually at the World Championships. It is a 4 player event with teams competing for their country.Holland defeated Germany in the 2007 World Team Cup.

2007 Stratego Olympiad

The 2007 Stratego Olympiad was held as part of the list of events within the Mind Sports Olympics. The 2007 event was held near London, England on 25 and 26 August 2007.Roel Efting won the event.

2007 Stratego World Team Championship

The Stratego World Team Championship is held as part of the events at the Mind Sports Olympics. This event is a 3 player event with teams competing for their country.Great Britain defeated Holland in the 2007 World Team Championships.

2007 Computer Stratego World Championship

StrategoUSA [4959] conducted the first open tournament ever held for Stratego AI programs during December 2007. Programs played Classic Stratego rules in a round robin format. The tournament was a demonstration of state-of-the-art Stratego AI, with the hope it would spur new research into Stratego AI methodology. The winning program was Probe [4960], which finished with a record of 17–0–3 (W-L-D).

2008 Computer Stratego World Championship

The 2008 tournament was held during December with six programs participating. Once again, StrategoUSA [4961] hosted the tournament online. Probe [4962] repeated as the champion, with a record of 22–3–0 (W-L-D).

2009 Computer Stratego World Championship

The 2009 tournament will be held during November. StrategoUSA [4963] will host the tournament online.

Variants

Release versions

Official Modern Version:Redesigned pieces and game art. The pieces now use stickers attached to new "castle-like" plastic pieces. The stickers must be applied by the player after purchase, though the box does not mention any assembly being required. Ranking order is reversed to adopt European play style (higher numbers equals higher rank).
Nostalgia Game Series Edition:Traditional stamped plastic pieces, although the metallic paint is dull and less reflective than some older versions, and the pieces are not engraved as some previous editions were. Wooden box, traditional board and game art.
Library Edition:Hasbro's Library Series puts what appears to be the classic Stratego of the Nostalgia Edition into a compact, book-like design. The box approximates the size of a book and is made to fit in a bookcase in one's library. In this version, the scout may not move and strike in the same turn.
Franklin Mint Civil War Collector's Edition:The Franklin Mint created a luxury version of Stratego with a Civil War theme and gold and silver plated pieces. Due to a last-minute licensing problem, the set was never officially released and offered for sale. The only remaining copies are those which were sent to the company's retail stores for display.
Ultimate Stratego:No longer in production, this version can still be found at some online stores and specialty gaming stores. This version is a variant of traditional Stratego and can accommodate up to 4 players simultaneously. The Ultimate Stratego board game contained four different Stratego versions: "Ultimate Lightning", "Alliance Campaign", "Alliance Lightning" and "Ultimate Campaign".
Stratego CD-ROM:No longer in production, this version can still be found in many online stores. Produced by Hasbro Interactive this game combined Classic and Ultimate Stratego to give a choice of five different versions.


Promotional

Hertog Jan, a Dutch brand of beer, released a promotional version of Stratego with variant rules. It includes substantially fewer pieces, including only one Bomb and no Miners. Since each side has only about 18 pieces, the pieces are far more mobile. The scout in this version is allowed to move three squares in any combination of directions (including L-shapes) and there is a new piece called the archer, which is defeated by anything, but can defeat any piece other than the Bomb by shooting it from a two-square distance, in direct orthogonal directions only. If one player is unable to move any more of his pieces, the game results in a tie because neither player's flag was captured.

Commercial

These variants are produced by the company with pop culture themed pieces. Produced by Avalon Hill Produced by USAopoly

Competition

Stratego is a very competitive game and this competition has increased over the years. There are now many Stratego competitions held throughout the world.Competitive Stratego competitions are held in the 3 main versions of the game.
Classic Stratego:Competitions in the original game include the "Classic Stratego World Championships", the "Classic Stratego Olympiad" and several National Championships from various different countries.
Ultimate Lightning Stratego:Competitions in this version include the "Ultimate Lightning World Championships" and the "Ultimate Lightning European Championships".
Barrage Stratego:Competitions in this version include the "Barrage World Championships".


In addition to these competitions, there is also a 2 yearly "Stratego Ryder Cup", where Europe takes on the Americas in a 24 player team Stratego competition. This competition combines all the 3 competitive versions of the game and is played by 12 of the best players from each continent.

History

The origins of Stratego can be traced back to traditional Chinese board game "Jungle" also known as "Game of the Fighting Animals" (Dou Shou Qi) or "Animal Chess". The game Jungle also has pieces (but of animals rather than soldiers) with different ranks and pieces with higher rank capture the pieces with lower rank. The board, with two lakes in the middle, is also remarkably similar to that in Stratego. The major differences between the two games is that in Jungle, the pieces are not hidden from the opponent, and the initial setup is fixed.The roots of the game are similar to Mdm. Hermance Edan's patented invention of "L Attaque" in 1908 in France and Mr. Mogendorff may have drawn his game from this original, but there are some differences. As to the first American appearance, this came from Milton Bradley, who acquired the rights to distribute the game in America. In 1961 they issued a set with numbers on wooden tiles, but a true First appearance was distinguished by the fact that the wooden tiles had a design on the back that looked like vines covering a castle wall.A modern, more elaborate, Chinese game known as Land Battle Chess (Te Zhi Lu Zhan Qi) or Army Chess (Lu Zhan Jun Qi) is a descendant of Jungle, and a cousin of Stratego – the initial setup is not fixed, one's opponent's pieces are hidden, and the basic gameplay is similar (differences include "missile" pieces and a Chinese Chess style board layout with railroads and defensive "camps"; a third player is also typically used as a neutral referee to decide battles between pieces without revealing their identities). An expanded version of the Land Battle Chess game also exists – this adds naval and aircraft pieces and is known as Sea-Land-Air Battle Chess (Hai Lu Kong Zhan Qi).

In its present form Stratego appeared in Europe before World War I as a game called L'attaque. Thierry Depaulis writes on "Ed's Stratego Site":

"It was in fact designed by a lady, Mademoiselle Hermance Edan, who filed a patent for a 'jeu de bataille avec pièces mobiles sur damier' (a battle game with mobile pieces on a gameboard) on 11-26-1908. The patent was released by the French Patent Office in 1909 (patent #396.795 ). Hermance Edan had given no name to her game but a French manufacturer named "Au Jeu Retrouvé" was selling the game as L'Attaque as early as 1910... "

Depaulis further notes that the 1910 version divided the armies into red and blue colors. The rules of L'attaque were basically the same as the game we know as Stratego. It featured standing cardboard rectangular pieces, color printed with soldiers who wore contemporary (to 1900), not Napoleonic uniforms.

The modern game, with its Napoleonic imagery, was originally manufactured in the Netherlandsmarker by Jumbo, and was licensed by the Milton Bradley Company for American distribution, and first introduced in the United States in 1961 (although it was trademarked in 1960). The Jumbo Company continues to release European editions, including a three- and four-player version, and a new Cannon piece (which jumps two squares to capture any piece, but loses to any attack against it). It also included some alternate rules such as Barrage (a quicker two-player game with fewer pieces) and Reserves (reinforcements in the three- and four-player games). The four-player version appeared in America in the 1990s.

Other themed variants appeared first in North America: a Star Wars version, a The Lord of the Rings variant, and a "Legends" variant with fantasy pieces arguably inspired by Magic: The Gathering. The Legends variant added more rules and complexity, giving the players choices of pieces with special attributes, collectible "armies" from more than a hundred individual pieces offered in six sets, and varied boards with terrain features.

Pieces were originally made of printed cardboard. After World War II, painted wood pieces became standard, but starting in the late 1960s all versions had plastic pieces. The change from wood to plastic was made for economical reasons, as was the case with many products during that period, but with Stratego the change actually was for the better – the plastic pieces were much less likely to tip over. Unlike the wooden pieces, the plastic pieces were designed with a small base. The wooden pieces had none, often resulting in pieces tipping over. This, of course, was disastrous for that player, since it often immediately revealed the piece's rank. European versions introduced cylindrical castle-shaped pieces that proved to be popular. American variants later introduced new rectangular pieces with a more stable base and colorful stickers, not images directly imprinted on the plastic.

The game is particularly popular in the Netherlandsmarker, Germanymarker and Belgiummarker, where regular national and world championships are organized. The international Stratego scene has, in recent years, been dominated by players from the Netherlands.

European versions of the game show the Marshal rank with the numerically-highest number (10), while American versions give the Marshal the lowest number (1) to show the highest value (i.e. it is the #1 or most powerful tile). Recent American versions of the game which adopted the European system caused considerable complaint among American players who grew up in the 1960s and 1970s. This may have been a factor in the release of a Nostalgic edition, in a wooden box, reproducing the Classic edition of the early 1970s.

Electronic Stratego was introduced by Milton Bradley in 1982. It has features that make many aspects of the game strikingly different from those of classic Stratego. Each type of playing piece in Electronic Stratego has a unique series of bumps on its bottom that are read by the game's battery-operated touch-sensitive "board". When attacking another piece a player hits his Strike button, presses his own piece and then the piece he is targeting: the game either rewards a successful attack or punishes a failed strike with an appropriate bit of music. In this way the players never know for certain the rank of the piece that wins the attack, only whether the attack wins, fails, or ties. Instead of choosing to move a piece, a player can opt to "probe" an opposing piece by hitting the Probe button and pressing down on the enemy piece: the game then beeps out a rough approximation of the strength of that piece. There are no bomb pieces: bombs are set using pegs placed on a touch-sensitive "peg board" that is closed from view prior to the start of the game. Hence, it is possible for a player to have his own piece occupying a square on which a bomb has been placed. If an opposing piece lands on the seemingly-empty square, the game plays the sound of an explosion and that piece is removed from play. As in classic Stratego, only a Miner can remove a bomb from play. A player who successfully captures the opposing Flag is rewarded with a triumphant bit of music from the 1812 Overture.

References

  1. Probe Tutorials
  2. Ed's Stratego Site - Initial Piece Setups
  3. Ed's Stratego Site - Tips & Strategies
  4. http://www.strategofan.com/screen.html
  5. Ed's Stratego Site - The Stratego Message Board - Section 3
  6. The French patent, in French, may be downloaded here: (click on "Original document" tab).
  7. Waggoner, Susan. Under the Tree: the Toys and Treats That Made Christmas Special, 1930-1970. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 2007.


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