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Being the largest country in the world spanning a large percentage of Eurasia, and one of the most populated, Russiamarker is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions from autonomous Federal subjects to dependent subnational entities of various names.

Federal subjects

Russia is a federation which, as of March 1, 2008, consists of 83 federal subjects. These federal subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). However, they do differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Autonomous okrugs, while federal subjects in their own right, are at the same time considered to be administrative divisions of other federal subjects(with Chukotka Autonomous Okrugmarker being the only exception). The federal subjects are considered to be the second level of federal division, being subject to the federal laws (first level).

Administrative divisions

The administrative and territorial division of each federal subject is developed and maintained separately by each federal subject. The following is a generalized list of types of lower level (level 3) administrative divisions of the federal subjects:
  • Districts, or raions
  • Cities/towns and urban-type settlements under the jurisdiction of the federal subject
  • Autonomous okrugs under the jurisdiction of the federal subject (even though they are considered to be administrative divisions of the lower level, they have a status of federal subjects themselves and may themselves be subdivided into districts)

Typical level 4 administrative divisions include:
  • Selsovets (rural councils)
  • Towns and urban-type settlements under the jurisdiction of the district
  • City districts

Municipal divisions

In the course of the Russian municipal reform, all federal subjects of Russia were to streamline the structures of the local self-government, which is guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia. The reform prescribed that each federal subject have a unified structure of the municipal government bodies by January 1, 2005, and a law enforcing the reform provisions went in effect on January 1, 2006. According to the law, the units of the municipal division (called "municipal formations") are as follows:
  • Municipal district, a group of urban and rural settlements, often along with the inter-settlement territories. In practice, municipal districts are usually formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts (raions).
  • Urban okrug, an urban settlement not incorporated into a municipal district
  • Intra-city territory of a federal city, a part of a federal city's territory. In Moscow, these are called districts (raions); in St. Petersburg—municipal okrugs, towns, and settlements.

Territories not included as a part of municipal formations are known as inter-settlement territories.

Other types of subdivisions

Federal districts

All of the federal subjects are grouped into seven federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.

Economic regions

Economic regions of Russia

For economic and statistical purposes the federal subjects are grouped into twelve economic regions. Economic regions and their parts sharing common economic trends are in turn grouped into economic zones and macrozones.

See also


  1. Конституция Российской Федерации, Статья 65 (Constitution of Russia, Article 65) (IE only)
  2. (Russian Classificaton of Economic Regions (OK 024-95) of January 1, 1997 as amended by the Amendments #1/1998 through #5/2001. Section I. Federal Districts)
  3. (Russian Classificaton of Economic Regions (OK 024-95) of January 1, 1997 as amended by the Amendments #1/1998 through #5/2001. Section II. Economic Regions)

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