is a historical rank in the Indian Army
, ranking below
British commissioned officers and above non-commissioned officers.
The rank was otherwise equivalent to a British lieutenant
and was introduced in the East India Company
's presidency armies
(the Bengal Army
, the Madras
and the Bombay Army
) to make it
easier for British officers to communicate with native troops. It
was thus essential for subedars to be fluent in English.
Until 1866, the rank was the highest a non-European Indian could
achieve in the armies of British
A subedar's authority was confined to other Indian troops, and he
could not command British troops.
1947 Partition of India and the
independence of India and Pakistan, Subedars
were known as Viceroy's
Commissioned Officers, and after 1947 this term was changed to
'Junior Commissioned Officers'.
Until 1858, Subedars wore two epaulettes
with small bullion fringes on each shoulder. After 1858, they wore
two crossed golden swords, or, in the Gurkha Regiments, two crossed
golden Kukris, on each collar of a tunic or else on the right
breast of their kurtas
. After 1900, Subedars
wore two pips on each shoulder, and a red-yellow-red ribbon was
introduced under each pip. After the Second World War
, this ribbon was moved to
lie between the shoulder title and the rank insignia.
independence, which came in 1947 with the Partition of India, the former Indian
Army was divided between India and Pakistan.
the Pakistan Army
, the rank has been
retained, but the ribbon is now red-green-red. After Bangladesh separated from Pakistan, the Bangladesh Army also retained the rank,
changing the ribbon colours to red-purple-red, but in Bangladesh
the title of Subedar was changed to Senior Warrant Officer in