subtropics are the geographical zone of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropical zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of
Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitudes 23.5°N and
The term "subtropical" describes the climatic region
to the tropics, usually between 20 and 40 degrees of latitude in
According to climatologist Glenn G. Trewartha
, a subtropical region should
have at least eight months with a mean temperature of or above. His
revision of Köppen
assigns to such areas the letter C,
while others zones encompassed in the original Köppen group C class
would be considered part of group D.
American climatologist John F.
Griffiths in his book Applied climatology described
the subtropical zone as having a coldest month of between and and
assigning to this group the letter B, while the original B group of
Köppen taxonomy would be spread over the various temperature-based
climatologists Carl Troll and Karl-Heinz Paffen defined
warmgemäßigte Zonen ("Warm temperate zones") plain and
hilly lands having an average temperature of the coldest month
between and in Northern Hemisphere and between and in Southern Hemisphere, excluding oceanic
In subtropical climates the winters are relatively warm, but not as
hot as the summer season. These climates rarely—if ever—see frost
or snow, and plants such as palm, citrus and many broadleaf evergreens
flourish, in contrast to the hardier deciduous
trees which dominate midlatitude climates. As one moves toward the
tropical side the slight winter cool season disappears altogether,
while at the polar threshold of the subtropics the winters become
Rainfall patterns vary widely throughout the subtropics including
hot deserts, savannas
, monsoon forests
, humid forests
and the warmer parts of the
Mediterranean climate zone. Subtropical regions include most of
California and southern Europe (Mediterranean or dry-summer
subtropical climate), the low deserts of the Southwest USA (hot
arid type), the Gulf Coast and most of Florida (humid subtropical
climate), northern India (monsoon),
southeast China (humid), the
middle part of South America (varied), much of Australia (varied)
and coastal South Africa.
Scilly meet both requirements— average in the coldest
month and eight months with the average above . Plymouth in Devon just meets
the John F. Griffiths' requirement for a subtropical climate —
average min and max in the coldest month.
Examples of subtropical cities and areas around the world include
(see map above for more details):
- In Africa
- North Africa:
Algiers, Algeria; Alexandria, Egypt; Casablanca, Morocco; Tripoli, Libya; Tunis, Tunisia; Las Palmas, Spain (European Union); Funchal, Portugal (European
Town, Durban and East
London, South Africa; Maseru, Lesotho and Natal, South Africa.
- In The Americas
Texas; Birmingham, Alabama; Charleston, South Carolina; Dallas,
Texas; Jacksonville, Florida; Las Vegas, Nevada; Los Angeles,
California; Little Rock,
Arkansas; Memphis, Tennessee; Nashville, Tennessee; New Orleans,
Arizona; Raleigh, North Carolina; Richmond, Virginia; San Antonio, Texas; San Diego; San Jose, California; Savannah, Georgia; Tampa,
Arizona and Wilmington, North Carolina.
- Latin America:
Aires, Argentina; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago,
Chile; Lima, Perú; São
Paulo, Brazil and
- In Eurasia
- China: Guangzhou, Hong
Kong, Macau, Shanghai, Chongqing, Chengdu, Wuhan, Xiamen, Nanjing, Changsha, Taipei, Nanning and Taiwan.
Union: Inland areas around the Mediterranean Sea including a major part of the Iberian
Peninsula. Sample cities and places: Gibraltar; Malaga; Malta.
- Georgia: Batumi.
- India: Amritsar, Mumbai (Bombay)
- Russia: Sochi, Tuapse, Gelendzhik.
- Philippines: Baguio, Batanes.
- Turkey: Adana, Antalya, Izmir, Mersin.
Middle East: Iran, Persian Gulf; Baghdad, Iraq; Pakistan; Jerusalem, Israel; Riyadh, Saudi
Aviv, Israel; Beirut,
Lebanon and Latakia, Syria.
- In Oceania
Georgia: Live oak with spanish
moss. This is a typical scene in the subtropical
region of the eastern and southern USA as far west
as Houston, TX.Image:Parque Tingui Curitiba
Brasil.jpg|Curitiba: Live oak with araucarias.
This is a typical scene in the
subtropical region of the southern
Charts of Selected Cities with Subtropical Climates