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The Suez Canal is an man-made sea-level waterway in Egyptmarker, connecting the Mediterranean Seamarker and the Red Seamarker. Opened in November 1869, it allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigating around Africa. The northern terminus is Port Saidmarker and the southern terminus is Port Tawfik at the city of Suezmarker.

The canal is long with Ismailiamarker, on the west bank, north of the half-way point. It consists of the northern access channel of , the canal itself of and of the southern access channel of .

It is single-lane with passing places in Ballah By-Pass and in the Great Bitter Lakemarker. It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal into the Great Bitter Lake from both the Mediterranean Sea in the north and the Red Sea in the south, replacing evaporation.

The canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority (SCA) of the Arab Republic of Egyptmarker. Under international treaty, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag."

History of Suez Canal

Ancient west-east canals have facilitated travel from the Nile to the Red Seamarker. One smaller canal is believed to have been constructed under the auspices of either Senusret II or Ramesses II. Another canal probably incorporating a portion of the first was constructed under the reign of Necho II and completed by Darius.

2nd millennium BCE

The legendary Sesostris (likely either Pharaoh Senusret II or Senusret III of the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt) is suggested to have perhaps started work on an ancient canal joining the River Nile with the Red Seamarker (1897 BC–1839 BC). (It is said that in ancient times the Red Seamarker reached northward to the Bitter Lakesmarker and Lake Timsahmarker.)

In his Meteorology, Aristotle wrote:
One of their kings tried to make a canal to it (for it would have been of no little advantage to them for the whole region to have become navigable; Sesostris is said to have been the first of the ancient kings to try), but he found that the sea was higher than the land.
So he first, and Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it.


Strabo also wrote that Sesostris started to build a canal, and Pliny the Elder wrote:
165.
Next comes the Tyro tribe and, on the Red Sea, the harbour of the Daneoi, from which Sesostris, king of Egypt, intended to carry a ship-canal to where the Nile flows into what is known as the Delta; this is a distance of over 60 miles.
Later the Persian king Darius had the same idea, and yet again Ptolemy II, who made a trench 100 feet wide, 30 feet deep and about 35 miles long, as far as the Bitter Lakesmarker.


French cartographers discovered the remnants of an ancient north-south canal running past the east side of Lake Timsah and ending near the north end of the Great Bitter Lakemarker in the second half of the 19th century. (This ancient, second, canal may have followed a course along the shoreline of the Red Seamarker when the Red Sea once extended north to Lake Timsah.) In the 20th century the northward extension of this ancient canal was discovered, extending from Lake Timsah to the Ballah Lakes, which was subsequently dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt by extrapolating the dates of ancient sites erected along its course. However it remains unknown whether or not this is the same as Sesostris' ancient canal and whether it was used as a waterway or as a defence against the east.

The reliefs of the Punt expedition under Hatshepsut 1470 BC depict seagoing vessels carrying the expeditionary force returning from Punt. This has given rise to the suggestion that, at the time, a navigable link existed between the Red Sea and the Nile. Evidence seems to indicate its existence by the 13th century BC during the time of Ramesses II.

Canals dug by Necho, Darius I and Ptolemy

Remnants of an ancient west-east canal, running through the ancient Egyptian cities of Bubastismarker, Pi-Ramessesmarker, and Pithommarker were discovered by Napoleon Bonaparte and his cadre of engineers and cartographers in 1799.

According to the Histories of the Greek historian Herodotus, about 600 BC, Necho II undertook to dig a west-east canal through the Wadi Tumilat between Bubastismarker and Heroopolismarker, and perhaps continued it to the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red Seamarker. Regardless, Necho is reported as having never completed his project.

Herodotus was told that 120,000 men perished in this undertaking, but this figure is doubtless exaggerated. According to Pliny the Elder, Necho's extension to the canal was approximately 57 English miles, equal to the total distance between Bubastismarker and the Great Bitter Lakemarker, allowing for winding through valleys that it necessarily had to pass through. The length that Herodotus tells us, of over 1000 stadia (i.e., over 114 miles), must be understood to include the entire distance between the Nile and the Red Seamarker at that time.

With Necho's death, work was discontinued. Herodotus tells us that the reason the project was abandoned was because of a warning received from an oracle that others would benefit by its successful completion. In fact, Necho's war with Nebuchadrezzar II most probably prevented the canal to be continued.

Necho's project was finally completed by Darius I of Persia, who conquered Egypt. We are told that by Darius's time a natural waterway passage which had existed between the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red Seamarker in the vicinity of the Egyptianmarker town of Shaluf (alt. Chalouf or Shaloof), located just south of the Great Bitter Lakemarker, had become so blocked with silt that Darius necessarily needed to clear it out so as to allow navigation once again. According to Herodotus, Darius's canal was wide enough that two triremes could pass each other with oars extended, and required four days to traverse. Darius commemorated his achievement with a number of granite stelae that he set up on the Nile bank, including one near Kabret, and a further one a few miles north of Suezmarker. The Darius Inscriptions read:

The canal left the Nile at Bubastismarker. An inscription on a pillar at Pithommarker records that in 270 or 269 BC it was again reopened, by Ptolemy II Philadelphus. In Arsinoe, Ptolemy constructed a navigable lock, with sluices, between the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red Seamarker which allowed the passage of vessels but prevented salt water from the Red Seamarker from mingling with the fresh water in the canal.

Receding Red Sea and the dwindling Nile

The Red Seamarker gradually receded over the centuries, its coastline slowly moving farther and farther southward away from Lake Timsahmarker and the Great Bitter Lakemarker to its present coastline today. Coupled with persistent accumulations of Nile silt, maintenance and repair of Ptolemy's canal became increasingly cumbersome over each passing century.

Two hundred years after the construction of Ptolemy's canal, Cleopatra seems to have had no west-east waterway passage, because the Pelusiac branchmarker of the Nile River, which had fed Ptolemy's west-east canal, had by that time dwindled, being choked with silt.


Old Cairo to the Red Sea

By the 8th century, a navigable canal existed between Old Cairomarker and the Red Seamarker, but accounts vary as to who ordered its construction—either Trajan or 'Amr ibn al-'As, or Omar the Great. This canal reportedly linked to the River Nile at Old Cairomarker and ended near modern Suezmarker.

The Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur is said to have ordered this canal closed so as to prevent supplies from reaching Arabian detractors.

Repair by Tāriqu l-Ḥākim

Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah is claimed to have repaired the Old Cairomarker to Red Seamarker passageway, but only briefly, circa 1000 AD, as it soon "became choked with sand." However, we are told that parts of this canal still continued to fill in during the Nile's annual inundations.

Napoleon discovers an ancient canal

Napoleon Bonaparte's interest in finding the remnants of an ancient waterway passage culminated in a cadre of archaeologists, scientists, cartographers and engineers scouring the area beginning in the latter months of 1798. Their findings, recorded in the Description de l'Égypte, include detailed maps that depict the discovery of an ancient canal extending northward from the Red Seamarker and then westward toward the Nile.



Napoleon had contemplated the construction of another, modern, north-south canal to join the Mediterraneanmarker and Red Seamarker. But his project was abandoned after the preliminary survey erroneously concluded that the Red Sea was higher than the Mediterranean, making a locks-based canal too expensive and very long to construct. The Napoleonic survey commission's error came from fragmented readings mostly done during wartime, which resulted in imprecise calculations.
1881 drawing of the Suez Canal.
Though by this time unnavigable, the ancient route from Bubastismarker to the Red Seamarker still channeled water in spots as late as 1861 and as far east as Kassassinmarker.

Construction by Suez Canal Company

In 1854 and 1856 Ferdinand de Lesseps obtained a concession from Sa'id Pasha, the viceroy of Egypt, to create a company to construct a canal open to ships of all nations, according to plans created by Linant de Bellefonds, a French engineer and high level official of the Egyptian administration of canals, bridges and roads, and by Italian engineer Alois Negrelli. The company was to operate the canal for 99 years from its opening. De Lesseps had used his friendly relationship with Sa'id, which he had developed while he was a French diplomat during the 1830s. The Suez Canal Company (Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez) came into being on 15 December, 1858 and work started on the shore of the future Port Said on 25 April 1859.

The excavation took some 10 years using forced labour (Corvée) of Egyptian workers during a certain period. Some sources estimate that over 30,000 people were working on the canal at any given period, that altogether more than 1.5 million people from various countries were employed and that thousands of laborers died on the project.

The Britishmarker government had opposed the project of the canal from the outset to its completion. As one of the diplomatic moves against the canal, it disaproved the use of slave labor on the canal (slaves had been banned throughout Europe and Russia by 1723). The British Empire was the major global naval force and officially condemned the forced work and sent armed bedouins to start a revolt among workers. Involuntary labour on the project ceased, and the viceroy condemned the Corvée, halting the project.

Angered by the British opportunism, de Lesseps sent a letter to the British government remarking on the British lack of remorse a few years earlier when forced workers died in similar conditions building the British railway in Egypt.

Initially international opinion was skeptical and Suez Canal Company shares did not sell well overseas. Britainmarker, the United Statesmarker, Austriamarker and Russiamarker did not buy any significant number of shares. All Frenchmarker shares were quickly sold in France. A contemporary British sceptic claimed:


One of the first traverses in the 19th century.
The canal opened to shipping on 17 November, 1869. Although numerous technical, political, and financial problems had been overcome, the final cost was more than double the original estimate.

After the opening of the canal, the Suez Canal Company was in financial difficulties. The remaining works were completed only in 1871, and traffic was below expectations in the first two years. Lesseps therefore tried to increase revenues by interpreting the kind of net ton referred to in the second concession (tonneau de capacité) as meaning a ship's real freight capacity and not only the theoretical net tonnage of the Moorsom System introduced in Britain by the Merchant Shipping Act in 1854. The ensuing commercial and diplomatic activities resulted in the International Commission of Constantinople establishing a specific kind of net tonnage and settling the question of tariffs in their protocol of 18 December 1873. This was the origin of the Sues Canal Net Tonnage and the Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate still used today.

The canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on world trade. Combined with the American transcontinental railroad completed six months earlier, it allowed the entire world to be circled in record time. It played an important role in increasing European colonisation of Africa. External debts forced Said Pasha's successor, Isma'il Pasha, to sell his country's share in the canal for £4,000,000 to the United Kingdommarker in 1875, but French shareholders still held the majority. Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli was accused by William Gladstone of undermining Britain's constitutional system, due to his lack of reference or consent from Parliamentmarker when purchasing the shares with funding from the Rothschilds.

The Convention of Constantinople in 1888 declared the canal a neutral zone under the protection of the British; British troops had moved in to protect it during a civil war in Egypt in 1882. They were later to defend the strategically important passage against a major Ottoman attack in 1915. Under the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, the United Kingdommarker insisted on retaining control over the canal. In 1951 Egypt repudiated the treaty, and in 1954 the UK agreed to remove its troops, and withdrawal was completed in July 1956.

Suez Crisis

After the United Kingdom and the United Statesmarker withdrew their pledge to support the construction of the Aswan Dammarker due to Egyptian overtures towards the Soviet Unionmarker, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalised the canal in 1956 and transferred it to the Suez Canal Authority, intending to finance the dam project using revenue from the canal. This provoked the Suez Crisis, in which the UKmarker, Francemarker and Israelmarker planned to invade Egyptmarker. The intention was for Israelmarker to invade on the ground, and for the Anglo-French partnership to give air and other support, later to intervene to resolve the crisis and control the canal.

To stop the war from spreading and to save the British from what he thought was a disastrous action, Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, proposed the creation of the very first United Nations peacekeeping force to ensure access to the canal for all and an Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai. On 4 November 1956, a majority of nations at the United Nations voted for Pearson's peacekeeping resolution, which mandate the UN peacekeepers to stay in the Sinai Peninsulamarker unless both Egypt and Israel agreed to their withdrawal. The United Statesmarker backed this proposal by putting financial pressure on the British government, which then agreed to withdraw its troops. Pearson was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

As a result of damage and ships intentionally sunk under orders from Nasser the canal was closed until April 1957, when it was cleared with UN assistance. A UN force (UNEF) was established to maintain the neutrality of the canal and the Sinai Peninsulamarker.

Arab-Israeli wars of 1967 and 1973

In May 1967 President Nasser ordered the UN peacekeeping forces out of the Sinai Peninsulamarker, including the Suez Canal area. Despite Israeli objections in the United Nations, the peacekeepers were withdrawn and the Egyptian army took up positions on the Israeli border, closing the Straits of Tiranmarker to Israeli shipping. The canal itself had been closed to Israeli shipping since 1949, except for a short period in 1951-1952.

These actions were key factors in the Israeli decision to launch a pre-emptive attack on Egypt in June 1967, and to capture the Sinai Peninsulamarker to the Suez Canal. After the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, also called the Six Day War, the canal was closed by an Egyptian blockade until 5 June 1975. As a result, fourteen cargo ships known as "The Yellow Fleet" remained trapped in the canal for over eight years. In 1973, during the Yom Kippur War, the canal was the scene of a major crossing by the Egyptian army into Israeli-occupied Sinai, and in the later stage of the war, a crossing by the Israeli army into mainland Egypt. Much wreckage from this conflict remains visible along the canal's edges.



In reaction to the Yom Kippur War the United Statesmarker initiated Operation Nimbus Moon. The helicopter carrier USS Iwo Jima was sent to the Canal, carrying twelve RH-53D minesweeping helicopters of HM-12. These cleared the Suez Canal between May and December 1974. When the operations were completed, the Suez Canal and its lakes were considered 99% clear of mines. The Canal was then reopened in 1975.

The UNEF mandate expired in 1979. Despite the efforts of the United Statesmarker, Israelmarker, Egyptmarker, and others to obtain an extension of the UN role in observing the peace between Israel and Egypt, as called for under the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty of 1979, the mandate could not be extended because of the veto by the USSRmarker in the security council, at the request of Syriamarker. Accordingly, negotiations for a new observer force in the Sinai produced the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), stationed in Sinai in 1981 in coordination with a phased Israeli withdrawal. It is there under agreements between the United Statesmarker, Israelmarker, Egyptmarker, and other nations. .

Capacity

Ships moored at El Ballah during transit


The canal allows passage of ships up to 62 feet draft or 210,000 deadweight tons and up to a maximum height of 68 m above water level and a maximum beam of 254 ft 3 in (under certain conditions). Improvements are planned to increase draft to 22 m (72 ft) by 2010, allowing passage of fully laden supertankers.

Some supertankers are too large. Others can offload part of their cargo onto a canal-owned boat to reduce their draft, transit, and reload at the other end of the canal.

Alternatives

The main alternative is travelling around Cape Agulhasmarker at the south of the African continent. This was the only route before the canal was constructed, and—more recently—when the canal was closed. It is still the only route for ships which are too large for the canal. In the early twenty-first century the long route has enjoyed increased popularity because of increasing piracy in Somalia and high canal tolls.

Before the canal's opening in 1869 goods were sometimes offloaded from ships and carried overland between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.

Operation

The canal has no locks due to the flat terrain, and the minor sea level difference between each end is inconsequential.

There is one shipping lane with passing areas in Ballah-Bypass near El Qantaramarker and in the Great Bitter Lakemarker.On a typical day, three convoys transit the canal, two southbound and one northbound. The first southbound convoy enters the canal in the early morning hours and proceeds to the Great Bitter Lake, where the ships anchor out of the fairway, awaiting passage of the northbound convoy. The northbound convoy passes the second southbound convoy, which moors in Ballah-Bypass . The passage takes between 11 and 16 hours at a speed of around . The low speed helps prevent erosion of the canal banks by ships' wakes.

By 1955 approximately two-thirds of Europe's oil passed through the canal. About 7.5% of world sea trade is carried via the canal today. In 2008, a total of 21,415 vessels passed through the canal and the receipts from the canal totaled $5.381 billion. Average cost per-ship is roughly $250,000.00

New Rules of Navigation that constitute an improvement over the older ones were passed by the board of directors of the Suez Canal Authority (SCA) to organise vessels’ and tankers’ transit that came into force as at 1 January 2008.

The most important amendments to the Rules include allowing vessels with 62 ft draught to transit and increasing the allowed breadth from 32m up to 40m following improvement operations, as well as imposing a fine on vessels using divers without permission from outside the SCA inside the canal boundaries.

The amendments also allow vessels loaded with dangerous cargo, such as radioactive or inflammable materials, to transit after bringing conformity with the latest amendments provided by international conventions.

The SCA will also have the right to determine the number of tugs required to assist warships transiting the Canal to achieve the highest degree of safety during transit.

The vast canal can handle more ship traffic and larger ships than the Panama Canalmarker.

Connections between the shores

From north to south connections are:

A railway on the west bank runs parallel to the canal for its entire length.

Environmental impact

Map of the Red Sea
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 created the first salt-water passage between the Mediterranean and Red seas. The Red Sea is about higher than the eastern Mediterranean , so the canal serves as a tidal strait that pours Red Sea water into the Mediterranean. The Bitter Lakesmarker, which are hypersaline natural lakes that form part of the canal, blocked the migration of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean for many decades, but as the salinity of the lakes gradually equalised with that of the Red Sea, the barrier to migration was removed, and plants and animals from the Red Sea have begun to colonise the eastern Mediterranean. The Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlanticmarker, and the direction of flow is generally from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the salty and nutrient-poor eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, most Red Sea species invade the Mediterranean biota, and only few do the opposite. This migratory phenomenon is called Lessepsian migration (after Ferdinand de Lesseps) or Erythrean invasion. The construction of the Aswan High Dammarker across the River Nile in the 1960s reduced the inflow of freshwater and nutrient-rich silt from the Nile into the eastern Mediterranean, making conditions there even more like the Red Sea, worsening the impact of the invasive species.

Invasive species originated from the Red Sea and introduced into the Mediterranean by the construction of the canal have become a major component of the Mediterranean ecosystem, and have serious impacts on the Mediterranean ecology, endangering many local and endemic Mediterranean species. Currently about 300 species from the Red Sea have been identified in the Mediterranean Sea, and there are probably others yet unidentified. The Egyptian government's intent to enlarge the canal have raised concerns from marine biologists, fearing that this will worsen the invasion of Red Sea species in the Mediterranean. .

Construction of the Suez Canal was preceded by cutting a small fresh-water canal from the Nile deltamarker along Wadi Tumilatmarker to the future canal, with a southern branch to Suez and a northern branch to Port Said. Completed in 1863, these brought fresh water to a previously arid area, initially for canal construction, and subsequently facilitating growth of agriculture and settlements along the canal.

Timeline

  • Circa 1799 — Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Egypt and ordered a feasibility analysis. This reported a supposed difference in sea levels and a high cost, so the project was set on standby.
  • Circa 1840 — A second survey found the first one incorrect. A direct link between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea would be possible and not be as expensive as expected.
  • 30 November 1854 - The former French consul in Cairomarker, Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, obtained the first licence for the construction and subsequent operation during 99 years from the Viceroy.
  • 6 January 1856 - Lesseps was provided with a second, more detailed licence.
  • 15 December 1858 - Lesseps established the "Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez" (Said Pacha acquired 22% of the Suez Canal Company, the remainder controlled by French private holders).
  • 25 April 1859 — Official start of the canal construction.
  • 16 November 1869 — The Suez Canal opened; operated and owned by Suez Canal Company.
  • 18 December 1873 - The International Commission of Constantinople establishes the Suez Canal Net Ton and the Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate (as they are called today)
  • 25 November 1875 — Britain became a minority share holder in the Suez Company, acquiring 44% of the Suez Canal Company. The remainder were controlled by French syndicates.
  • 25 August 1882 — Britain took control of the canal.
  • 2 March 1888 — The Convention of Constantinople renewed the guaranteed right of passage of all ships through the Suez Canal during war and peace (which rights were already part of the licences awarded to Lesseps.
  • 14 November 1936 — Suez Canal Zone established, under British control.
  • 13 June 1956 — Suez Canal Zone restored to Egypt.
  • 26 July 1956 — Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal; all Egyptian assets, rights and obligations of the Suez Canal Company were transferred to the Suez Canal Authority.
  • 5 November 1956 to 22 December 1956 — French, British, and Israeli forces occupied the Suez Canal Zone.
  • 22 December 1956 — Restored to Egypt.
  • 5 June 1967 to 10 June 1975 — Canal closed and blockaded by Egypt, against Israel, sparking the Six-Day War.
  • 10 June 1975 — Suez Canal reopened.
  • 1 January 2008 — New rules of navigation passed on by the Suez Canal Authority come into force.


Presidents of the Suez Canal Company (1858-1956)

Before nationalisation:

Chairmen of the Suez Canal Authority (1956-present)

Since nationalisation:

British Vice-Consuls of Port Suez (1922-1941)



British Consuls of Port Suez (1941-1956)



Governors of the Suez Canal Zone



Supreme Allied Commander

During the Suez Crisis:

Popular culture



See also



References

  1. Suez Canal guide
  2. Characteristics of the canal
  3. Suez Canal Authority
  4. Great Bitter Lake
  5. Official Web Site of the Suez Canal Authority
  6. Constantinople Convention of the Suez Canal of 2 March 1888 still in force and specifically maintained in Nasser's Nationalisation Act.
  7. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition, s.v. "Suez Canal". Accessed 8 August 2008.
  8. Rappoport, S. (Doctor of Philosophy, Basel). History of Egypt (undated, early 20th century), Volume 12, Part B, Chapter V: "The Waterways of Egypt," pages 248-257. London: The Grolier Society.
  9. Hassan, F. A. & Tassie, G. J. Site location andhistory (2003). Kafr Hassan Dawood On-Line, Egyptian Cultural Heritage Organization. Accessed 08 August 2008.
  10. Please refer to Sesostris#Modern research.
  11. J. H. Breasted attributes the ancient canal's early construction to Senusret III, up through the first cataract. Please refer to J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part One, Chicago 1906, §§642-648
  12. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, s.v. "Suez Canal". Accessed 14 May 2008.
  13. Naville, Édouard. "Map of the Wadi Tumilat" (plate image), in The Store-City of Pithom and the Route of the Exodus (1885). London: Trubner and Company.
  14. Meteorology (1.15) [1]
  15. The Elder Pliny and John Healey Natural History (6.33.165) Penguin Classics; Reprint edition (5 Feb 2004) ISBN: 978-0140444131 p.70 [2]
  16. Carte hydrographique de l'Basse Egypte et d'une partie de l'Isthme de Suez (1855, 1882). Volume 87, page 803. Paris. See [3].
  17. Shea, William H. "A Date for the Recently Discovered Eastern Canal of Egypt," in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 226 (April 1977), pp. 31-38.
  18. Sanford (1938), p.72; Garrison (1999), p.36.
  19. Hess, Richard S. Rev. of Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition, by James K. Hoffmeier. The Denver Journal 1 (1 January 1998). Accessed 14 May 2008.
  20. Hassan, Fekri A. Kafr Hassan Dawood On-line, 17 August 2003. Accessed 14 May 2008.
  21. Martínez Babon, Javier. "Consideraciones sobre la Marinay la Guerra durante el Egipto Faraónico". Accessed 14 May 2008.
  22. Descriptions de l'Égypte, Volume 11 (État Moderne), containing Mémoire sur la communication de la mer des Indes à la Méditerranée par la mer Rouge et l'Isthme de Sueys, par M. J.M. Le Père, ingénieur en chef, inspecteur divisionnaire au corps impérial des ponts et chaussées, membre de l'Institut d'Égypte, p. 21 - 186
  23. Their reports were published in Description de l'Égypte
  24. Montet, Pierre. Everyday Life In The Days Of Ramesses The Great (1981), page 184. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  25. Silver, Morris. Ancient Economies II (Apr. 6, 1998), "5c. Evidence for Earlier Canals." ANCIENT ECONOMIES II, retrieved Aug. 8, 2008. Economics Department, City College of New York.
  26. Herodotus ii.158.
  27. "The figure ‘120,000’ is doubtless exaggerated. Mehemet Ali lost only 10,000 in making the Mahmûdieh Canal (from the Nile to Alexandria)." remarked W. W. How and J. Wells, A Commentary on Herodotus.
  28. According to Herodotus, work on the project was "stayed by a prophetic utterance that he [Necho] was toiling beforehand for the barbarian. The Egyptians call all men of other languages barbarians." (Herodotus, eo. loc..)
  29. Apparently, Ptolemy considered the Great Bitter Lake as a northern extension of the Red Sea, whereas Darius had not, because Arsinoe, Egypt, is located north of Shaluf, Egypt. (See Naville, "Map of the Wadi Tumilat," referenced above.)
  30. Please refer to Darius the Great's Suez Inscriptions.
  31. F. W. Walbank, The Hellenistic World 1981:202. Ptolemy II Philadelphus's lifespan was 309 BC–246 BC.
  32. Petermann, A. Karte Der Bai Von Súes (1856). Nach der Engl. Aufnahme v. Comm. Mansell. [4]
  33. Linda Hall Library, Kansas City, Missouri. The Search for the Ancient Suez Canal, accessed August 20, 2008. [5]
  34. Please refer to Description de l'Égypte.
  35. Descriptions de l'Égypte, Volume 11 (État Moderne), containing Mémoire sur la communication de la mer des Indes à la Méditerranée par la mer Rouge et l'Isthme de Sueys, par M. J.M. Le Père, ingénieur en chef, inspecteur divisionnaire au corps impérial des ponts et chaussées, membre de l'Institut d'Égypte, p. 21 - 186
  36. Wilson, The Suez Canal
  37. Arnold. T. Wilson, The Suez Canal
  38. [6]
  39. Oster (2006)
  40. There are differing informations on the exact amounts
  41. * Bent Flyvbjerg, Nils Bruzelius, and Werner Rothengatter, Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition (Cambridge University Press, 2003). ISBN 0521009464
  42. Protocol of the Commission (in french)
  43. Stephen J. Lee, Gladstone and Disraeli. Routledge, 107
  44. First World War - Willmott, H.P. Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 87
  45. The Other Side of Suez (documentary) - 2003
  46. http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/1970s/1974/sep74.pdf
  47. ( Multinational Force and Observers)
  48. Suez Canal Authority http://www.suezcanal.gov.eg
  49. Egypt State Information Service, http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/Land&people/SCanal/031300000000000002.htm
  50. A comparison shows that beam is no practical limitation: the largest Caribbean cruisers would be barred by their height, dito the largest aircraft carrier Enterprise. The former ULCC Hellespont Fairfax cannot pass fully laden, the largest container ship Emma Maersk has less beam and draught than allowed, the tallest tall ship Royal Clipper has a mast top of only 54 m, the bulk (ore) carrier Berge Stahl, by its draught, is limited to travel between Rotterdam and a port in Bresil or a bay in South Africa. Even the semi-submersible heavy-lift ship Blue Marlin would have problems only because of the size of its cargo.
  51. SC News
  52. Level
  53. Galil and Zenetos (2002)
  54. Britannica (2007)


Sources

  • Britannica (2007) "Suez Canal", in: The new encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., 28, Chicago, Ill. ; London : Encyclopaedia Britannica, ISBN 1-59339-292-3
  • Galil, B.S. and Zenetos, A. (2002). "A sea change: exotics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea", in: Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S. and Olenin, S. (eds), Invasive aquatic species of Europe : distribution, impacts, and management, Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic, ISBN 1-4020-0837-6 , p. 325–336
  • Garrison, Ervan G. (1999) A history of engineering and technology : artful methods, 2nd ed., Boca Raton, Fla. ; London : CRC Press, ISBN 0-84939-810-X
  • Oster, Uwe (2006) Le fabuleux destin des inventions : le canal de Suez, TV documentary produced by ZDFmarker and directed by Axel Engstfeld (Germany)
  • Sanford, Eva Matthews (1938) The Mediterranean world in ancient times, Ronald series in history, New York : The Ronald Press Company, 618 p.


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