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Swansea ( , , "mouth of the Tawemarker") is a coastal city and county in Walesmarker. Swansea is in the historic county boundaries of Glamorganmarker. Situated on the sandy South West Walesmarker coast, the county area includes the Gower peninsulamarker and the Lliw uplands. Swansea is the second most populous city in Wales after Cardiffmarker and the third most populous county in Wales after Cardiff and Rhondda Cynon Taf. During its 19th century industrial heyday, Swansea was one of the key centres of the world copper industry, earning the nickname 'Copperopolis'.

History

Archaeological finds are mostly confined to the Gower Peninsulamarker, and include items from the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. The Romans visited the area, as did the Vikings.

Swansea originally developed as a Viking trading post, and the name Swansea is derived from Sveinn's island (Old Norse: Sveinsey) - the reference to an island may refer to a bank at the mouth of the river Tawe, or perhaps an area of raised ground in marshes. The name is pronounced Swans-y ), not Swan-sea. The Welsh name first appears in Welsh poems at the beginning of the 13th century, as "Aber Tawy".

The earliest known form of the modern name is Sweynesse, which was used in the first charter granted sometime between 1158–1184 by William de Newburgh, 3rd Earl of Warwick. The charter gave Swansea the status of a borough, granting the townsmen, called burgess certain rights to develop the area. A second charter was granted in 1215 by King John. In this charter, the name appears as Sweyneshe. The town seal which is believed to date from this period names the town as Sweyse.

Following the Norman Conquest, a marcher lordship was created under the title of Gower. It included land around Swansea Baymarker as far as the River Tawe, the manor of Kilvey beyond the Tawe, and the peninsula itself. Swansea was designated chief town of the lordship and received a borough charter some time between 1158 and 1184 (and a more elaborate one in 1304).

The port of Swansea initially traded in wine, hides, wool, cloth and later in coal. As the Industrial Revolution reached Wales, the combination of port, local coal, and trading links with the West Country, Cornwallmarker and Devonmarker, meant that Swansea was the logical place to site copper smelting works. Smelters were operating by 1720 and proliferated. Following this, more coal mines (everywhere from north-east Gower to Clynemarker and Llangyfelachmarker) were opened and smelters (mostly along the Tawe valley) were opened and flourished. Over the next century and a half, works were established to process arsenic, zinc and tin and to create tinplate and pottery. The city expanded rapidly in the 18th and 19th centuries, and was termed "Copperopolis".

From the late 17th century to 1801, Swansea's population grew by 500%—the first official census (in 1841) indicated that, with 6,099 inhabitants, Swansea had become significantly larger than Glamorgan'smarker county town, Cardiffmarker, and was the second most populous town in Wales behind Merthyr Tydfilmarker (which had a population of 7,705). However, the census understated Swansea's true size, as much of the built-up area lay outside the contemporary boundaries of the borough; the total population was actually 10,117. Swansea's population was later overtaken by Merthyr in 1821 and by Cardiff in 1881, although in the latter year Swansea once again surpassed Merthyr. Much of Swansea's growth was due to migration from within and beyond Wales—in 1881, more than a third of the borough's population had been born outside Swansea and Glamorgan, and just under a quarter outside Wales.

High Street in 1915
Through the 20th century, heavy industries in the town declined, leaving the Lower Swansea Valleymarker filled with derelict works and mounds of waste products from them. The Lower Swansea Valley Scheme (which still continues) reclaimed much of the land. The present Enterprise Zonemarker was the result and, of the many original docks, only those outside the city continue to work as docks; North Dock is now Parc Tawe and South Dock became the Marinamarker.

Little city-centre evidence, beyond parts of the road layout, remains from medieval Swansea; its industrial importance made it the target of bombing, known as the Blitz in World War II, and the centre was flattened completely. The city has three Grade One listed buildings, these being the Guildhallmarker, Swansea Castlemarker and the Morriston Tabernacle.

Whilst the city itself has a long history, many of the city centre buildings are post-war as much of the original centre was destroyed by World War II bombing on the 19th, 20th and 21st of February 1941 (the 'Three Nights Blitz'). Within the city centre are the ruins of the castlemarker, the Marina, the Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea Museum, the Dylan Thomas Centremarker, the Environmental Centre, and the Market, which is the largest covered market in Wales. It backs onto the Quadrant shopping centre which opened in 1978 and the adjoining St David's Centre opened in 1982. Other notable modern buildings are the BT Tower (formerly the GPO tower) built around 1970, Alexandra House built in 1976, County Hall built in 1982. Swansea Leisure Centre opened in 1977; it has undergone extensive refurbishment which retained elements of the original structure and re-opened in March 2008. Behind it stands the National Waterfront Museummarker, opened in October 2005.

Swansea was granted city status in 1969, to mark Prince Charles's investiture as the Prince of Wales. The announcement was made by the prince on 3 July 1969, during a tour of Wales. It obtained the further right to have a lord mayor in 1982.

Governance

The Guildhall

Local government

In 1887, Swansea was a township at the mouth of the river Tawe, covering in the county of Glamorganmarker. There were three major extensions to the boundaries of the borough, first in 1835, when Morristonmarker, St Thomasmarker, Landoremarker, St John-juxta-Swansea, and part of Llansamletmarker parish were added, and again in 1889 when areas around Cwmbwrlamarker and Trewyddfa were included, and in 1918 when the borough was enlarged to include the whole of the ancient parish of Swansea, the southern part of Llangyfelach parish, all of Llansamlet parish, Oystermouth Urban Districtmarker and Brynau parish.

In 1889, Swansea attained county borough status, and it was granted city status in 1969, which was inherited by the Swansea districtmarker when it was formed by the merger of the borough and Gower Rural Districtmarker in 1974. In 1996, Swansea became one of 22 unitary authorities with the addition of part of the former Lliw Valley Borough. The new authority received the name 'City and County of Swansea' ( ).

Swansea was once a staunch stronghold of the Labour Party which, until 2004, had overall control of the council for 24 years. The Liberal Democrats are the largest group in the administration that took control of Swansea Council in the 2004 local elections. For 2009/2010, the Lord Mayor of Swansea is Councillor Alan Lloyd.
Position Current Representatives
Members of Parliament
Alan Williams, Labour, elected 1964 Martin Caton, Labour, elected 1997 Sian James, Labour, elected 2005
City & County Council Members
Viv Abbott, Liberal Democrats Veronyca Bates Hughes, Liberal Democrats Peter Black, Liberal Democrats Nicholas Bradley, Labour June Burtonshaw, Labour Mark Child, Labour Audrey Clement, Independent Anthony Colburn, Conservative John Davies, Labour Mike Day, Liberal Democrats Ryland Doyle, Labour June Evans, Independent William Evans, Labour Wendy Fitzgerald, Independent Robert Francis-Davies, Labour Mair Gibbs, Labour John Hague, Independent Michael Hedges, Labour Chris Holley, Liberal Democrats Nichola Holley, Liberal Democrats Paxton Hood-Williams, Conservative David Hopkins, Labour Dai Howells, Independent Barbara Hynes, Labour Dennis James, Labour Billy Jones, Labour David I.E.
Jones, Labour Jeffrey Jones, Liberal Democrats Mary Jones, Liberal Democrats Mervyn Jones, Independent Susan Jones, Independent Alan Jopling, Independent Jim Kelleher, Liberal Democrats René Kinzett, Conservative Erika Kirchner, Labour Richard Lewis, Liberal Democrats Alan Lloyd, Labour Bob Lloyd, Labour Keith Marsh, Independent Penny Matthews, Labour Peter May, Liberal Democrats Paul Meara, Liberal Democrats John Miles, Labour Keith Morgan, Liberal Democrats Hazel Morris, Labour John Newbury, Liberal Democrats Byron Owen, Labour David Phillips, Labour Cheryl Philpott, Liberal Democrats Darren Price, Plaid Huw T Rees, Liberal Democrats Stuart Rice, Liberal Democrats Ioan Richard, People's Representative Christine Richards, Labour Alan Robinson, Independent Gyln Seabourne, Labour Margaret Smith, Conservative Paulette Smith, Labour Roger Ll.
Smith, Labour Rob Speht, Liberal Democrats June Stanton, Liberal Democrats Rob Stewart, Labour Gareth Sullivan, Independent Ceinwen Thomas, Labour Des Thomas, Labour Graham Thomas, Liberal Democrats Janet Thomas, Liberal Democrats Nick Tregoning, Liberal Democrats Paul Tucker, Independent Sue Waller Thomas, Liberal Democrats Jayne Woodman, Liberal Democrats


Welsh politics

The National Assembly constituencies are:

The city is also part of the South Wales West regional constituency and is served by Peter Black AM, Alun Cairns AM, Dai Lloyd AM and Bethan Jenkins AM.

UK politics

The UK parliamentarymarker constituencies in Swansea are:

Twinning

Swansea is twinned with Connections with: Friendship link with:

Geography

Satellite photo of Swansea

Boundaries

The "City and County of Swansea" local authority area is bordered by unitary authorities of Carmarthenshiremarker to the north, and Neath Port Talbot to the east. Swansea is bounded by Swansea Baymarker and the Bristol Channelmarker to the south.

Physical description

The local government area is 378 km² (146 sq mi) in size, about 2% of the area of Wales. It includes a large amount of open countryside and a central urban and suburban belt.

Swansea can be roughly divided into four physical areas. To the north are the Lliw uplands which are mainly open moorland, reaching the foothills of the Black Mountainmarker. To the west is the Gower peninsulamarker with its rural landscape dotted with small villages. To the east is the coastal strip around Swansea Baymarker. Cutting though the middle from the south-east to the north-west is the urban and suburban zone stretching from the Swansea city centremarker to the towns of Gorseinonmarker and Pontarddulaismarker.

The most populated areas of Swansea are Morristonmarker, Skettymarker and the city centremarker. The chief urbanised area radiates from the city centre towards the north, south and west; along the coast of Swansea Bay to Mumblesmarker; up the Swansea Valley past Landoremarker and Morriston to Clydachmarker; over Townhillmarker to Cwmbwrlamarker, Penlanmarker, Treboethmarker and Fforestfachmarker; through Uplandsmarker, Skettymarker, Killaymarker to Dunvantmarker; and east of the river from St. Thomasmarker to Bonymaen, Llansamletmarker and Birchgrovemarker. A second urbanised area is focused on a triangle defined by Gowertonmarker, Gorseinonmarker and Loughormarker along with the satellite communities of Penllergaermarker and Pontarddulaismarker.

About three quarters of Swansea is bordered by the sea—the Loughor Estuarymarker, Swansea Bay and the Bristol Channelmarker. The two largest rivers in the region are the Tawemarker which passes the city centre and the Loughormarker which flows on the northern border with Carmarthenshire.

In the local authority area, the geology is complex, providing diverse scenery. The Gower peninsula was the first area in the United Kingdom to be designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). Excluding the urbanised area in the south-eastern corner of the county, the whole of the Gower peninsula is part of an AONB. Swansea has numerous urban and country parklands. The region has featured regularly in the Wales in Bloom awards.

The geology of the Gower peninsula ranges from carboniferous limestone cliffs along its southern edge from Mumbles to Worm's Headmarker and the salt-marshes and dune systems of the Loughor estuary to the north. The eastern, southern and western coasts of the peninsula are lined with numerous sandy beaches both wide and small, separated by steep cliffs. The South Wales Coalfield reaches the coast in the Swansea area. This had a great bearing on the development of the city of Swansea and other towns in the county like Morriston. The inland area is covered by large swathes of grassland common overlooked by sandstone heath ridges including the prominent Cefn Brynmarker. The traditional agricultural landscape consists in a patchwork of fields characterised by walls, stone-faced banks and hedgerows. Valleys cut through the peninsula and contain rich deciduous woodland.

Much of the county is hilly with the main area of upland being located in the council ward of Mawrmarker. Areas of high land up to 185 metres (600 ft) range across the central section of the county and form the hills of Kilveymarker, Townhillmarker and Llwynmawr, separating the centre of Swansea from its northern suburbs. Cefn Brynmarker, a ridge of high land, forms the backbone of the Gower peninsula. Rhossili Down, Hardings Down and Llanmadoc Hill form land features over 600 ft high. The highest point of the county is located at Penlle'r Castellmarker at 374 metres (1215 ft) on the northern border with Carmarthenshiremarker.

Climate

Typical of the west of Britain, Swansea has a temperate climate. As part of a coastal region, it experiences a milder climate than the mountains and valleys inland. This same location, though, leaves Swansea exposed to rain-bearing winds from the Atlanticmarker: figures from the Met Office make Swansea the wettest city in Britain. In midsummer, Swansea's temperatures can reach into the high twenties Celsius, depending on the weather; the hottest recorded temperature in Swansea was 31.6°C, recorded in 1980.

Demography

Population of Swansea
Year Population
1804 19,794
1811 21,338 7.8
1821 25,426 19.16
1831 32,064 26.11
1841 38,962 21.51
1851 47,260 21.30
1861 68,743 45.46
1871 90,226 31.25
1881 111,709 23.81
1891 132,956 19.02
1901 153,577 15.51
1911 177,411 15.52
1921 191,417 7.89
1931 206,558 7.91
1941 205,194 -0.66
1951 203,854 -0.65
1961 214,834 5.39
1971 226,406 5.39
1981 223,260 -1.39
1991 233,145 4.43
2001 223,293 -4.23
2006 227,100* 1.7
source: Vision of Britain except * ,
which is estimated by the

Office for National Statistics

Historical populations are calculated

with the modern boundaries
According to Census 2001 data, the population in the unitary authority was 225,000, and Swansea was the 34th largest settlement in the United Kingdommarker, while the wider urban area was the 25th largest. Around 82% of the population were born in Wales and 13% born in England; 13.4% were Welsh speakers.

From 1804 until the 1920s, Swansea experienced continuous population growth. The 1930s and 1940s was a period of slight decline. In the 1950s and 1960s the population grew and then fell in the 1970s. The population grew again in the 1980s only to fall again in the 1990s. In the 2000s, so far, Swansea is experiencing a small amount of population growth; the local authority area had an estimated population of 228,100 in 2007.

The population of the Swansea urban area within the unitary authority boundaries in 2001 was about 169,880, and the council population was 223,301. The other urban area within the unitary authority, centred on Gorseinon, had a population of 19,273 in 2001. However, the wider urban area including most of Swansea Baymarker has a total population of 270,506 (making it the 25th largest urban area in Englandmarker and Walesmarker). Over 218,000 individuals are white; 1,106 are of mixed race; 2,215 are Asian - mainly Bangladeshi (1,015); 300 are black; and 1,195 belong to other ethnic groups.

Culture

The Royal Institution of South Wales was founded in 1835 as the Swansea Literary and Philosophical Society.

Performing arts

The Grand Theatremarker in the centre of the city is a Victorian theatre which celebrated its centenary in 1997 and which has a capacity of a little over a thousand people. It was opened by the celebrated opera singer Adelina Patti and was refurbished from 1983–1987. The annual programme ranges from pantomime and drama to opera and ballet. A new wing of the Grand, the Arts Wing, has a studio suitable for smaller shows, with a capacity of about 200. The Taliesin buildingmarker on the university campus has a theatre, opened in 1984. Other theatres include the Dylan Thomas Theatre (formerly the Little Theatre) near the marina, and one in Penyrheol Leisure Centre near Gorseinonmarker. Fluellen Theatre Company is a professional theatre company based in Swansea performing regularly at the Grand Theatre. In the summer, outdoor Shakespeare performances are a regular feature at Oystermouth Castlemarker, and Singleton Parkmarker is the venue for a number of parties and concerts, from dance music to outdoor Proms. Outside the city, Pontardawemarker hosts an annual folk festival. Another folk festival is held on Gower. Standing near Victoria Park on the coast road is the Patti Pavilionmarker; this was the Winter Garden from Adelina Patti's Craig-y-Nos estate in the upper Swansea valley, which she donated to the town in 1918. It is used as a venue for music shows and fairs. The Brangwyn Hallmarker is a multi-use venue with events such as the graduation ceremonies for Swansea University. Every autumn, Swansea hosts a Festival of Music and the Arts, when international orchestras and soloists visit the Brangwyn Hall. The Brangwyn Hall is praised for its acoustics for recitals, orchestral pieces and chamber music alike.


Festivals

Swansea hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1863, 1891, 1907, 1926, 1964, 1982 and 2006. The 2006 event occupied the site of the former Felindremarker tinplate works to the north of the city and featured a strikingly pink main tent. The international BeyondTv film festival has been hosted in Swansea since 2000 by Swansea based media charity Undercurrents.

Welsh language

There are many Welsh-language chapels and churches in the area. Welsh-medium education is a popular and growing choice for both English- and Welsh-speaking parents, leading to claims in the local press in autumn 2004 that, to accommodate demand, the council planned to close an English-medium school in favour of opening a new Welsh-medium school. The Welsh-medium school is named Bryn Tawe, and is located in the buildings of the former Penlan boys' school, which itself was merged with the girls' school at Mynyddbach on that site to become Daniel James Community School. This arrangement was a subject of considerable controversy in the period leading up to Bryn Tawe's inauguration.

45% of the rural council ward Mawrmarker speak Welsh, as do 38% of the ward of Pontarddulaismarker. Clydachmarker, Kingsbridgemarker and Upper Loughormarker all have levels of more than 20%. By contrast, the urban St. Thomasmarker has one of the lowest figures in Wales, at 6.4%, a figure only barely lower than Penderrymarker and Townhillmarker wards.

Food

Local produce includes cockles and laverbread which are sourced from the Loughor estuary. Local Gower salt marsh lamb is produced from sheep which are raised in the salt marshes of the Loughor estuary.

Notable people

People from Swansea are known locally as Swansea Jacks, or just Jacks. The source of this nickname is not clear. Some attribute it to Swansea Jack, the life-saving dog.

On the literary stage, the poet Dylan Thomas is perhaps the best-known. He was born in the town and grew up at 5 Cwmdonkin Drive, Uplands. There is a memorial to him in the nearby Cwmdonkin Parkmarker; his take on Swansea was that it was an "ugly lovely town". In the 1930s Thomas was a member of a group of local artists, writers and musicians known as The Kardomah Gang.

Other former residents include:







Sport

Strong local rivalries exist between Swansea and Cardiff in football, Swansea and Llanelli and the Ospreys and Scarlets in Rugby.

Swansea City A.F.C. moved from the Vetch Fieldmarker to the new Liberty Stadiummarker at the start of the 2005–2006 season, winning promotion to League One in their final year at their old home.

Swansea has four clubs that play in Welsh Football League: Garden Village, Morriston Town, South Gower and West End.

In 2003, Swansea RFC merged with Neath RFC to form the Neath-Swansea Ospreys rugby club. Swansea RFC remained at St Helen's in semi-professional form, but the Ospreys moved into the Liberty Stadium in Landore for the start of the 2005–2006 season. Neath-Swansea rugby games used to be hotly-contested matches, such that there was some debate about whether a team incorporating both areas was possible. The team came fifth in the Celtic League in their first year of existence and topping that league in their second year.

St Helens Rugby and Cricket Groundmarker is the home of Swansea RFC and Glamorgan County Cricket Club have previously played matches there. In this ground, Sir Garfield Sobers hit six sixes in one over; the first time this was achieved in a game of first-class cricket. The final ball landed on the ground past the Cricketers' pub just outside the ground. It is also the home of the tallest floodlight stand in Europe.

Swansea's rugby league side plays seven miles outside the county in the small town of Ystalyferamarker. They are known as the Swansea Valley Miners but were formed as the Swansea Bulls in 2002.

The Swansea Bowls Stadium opened in early 2008. The stadium hosted the World Indoor Singles and Mixed Pairs Championship in April 2008 and the Gravelles Welsh International Open Bowls Championships in 2009.

Religion



In 2001, 158,457 people in Swansea (71 per cent) stated their religion as Christian, 44,286 (20 per cent) no religion, 16,800 (7.5 per cent) did not state a religion and 2,167 were Muslim. There are small communities of other religions, each making up less than 1 per cent of the total population.

Swansea is part of the Anglican Diocese of Swansea and Brecon and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Menevia. The Catholic see is based in Swansea at Cathedral Church of Saint Josephmarker in the Greenhill area. The city is home to 10 per cent of the total Welsh Muslim population; Swansea's Muslim community is raising money to open a new central mosque and community centre in the former St Andrews United Reform Churchmarker. This would be in addition to the four other existing mosques (Swansea University Mosque, Hafod Mosque, Imam Khoei Mosque and the original Swansea City Mosque). Dharmavajra Kadampa Buddhist Centre, Swansea Synagogue and Jehovah's Witness Kingdom Hall are all located in the Uplandsmarker area. The international Kagyu Buddhist group 'Pulpung Changchub Dargyeling' [7580] also holds regular meetings in Swansea.

Swansea, like Wales in general, has seen many non-conformist religious revivals. In 1904, Evan Roberts, a miner from Loughormarker (Llwchwr), just outside Swansea, was the leader of what has been called one of the world's greatest Protestant religious revivals. Within a few months about 100,000 people were converted. This revival in particular had a profound effect on Welsh society. The "Welsh Revival" of 1904 is acknowledged as having been an instigator of, and a major influence on the twentieth century's Pentecostal movement. One of its first overseas influences was seen in the African American church: the Azusa Street Revival, beginning 9 April 1906 at Los Angeles, USA.

Future plans

Swansea City Centre is undergoing a transformation until 2015. £1 billion is to be spent on improvements. A large area of the city is earmarked for redevelopment. A new city-centre retail precinct is planned involving demolition of the dilapidated St. David's Shopping Centre which has three or four traders, about 13% of the retail space in the centre and the Quadrant Shopping Centremarker. Including relocation of the Tescomarker Superstore near to the city's Sainsbury'smarker store in Parc Tawe, the new retail precinct will be almost four times the size of the Quadrant Centre. The city centre is also being brightened up with street art and new walkways, along with the first phase of the David Evans - Castle Street development. New green spaces will be provided in conjunction with the proposed Quadrant Square and Grand Theatre Square. Redevelopment of the Oxford Street car park and Lower Oxford Street arcades are also planned.

At the sea front, The Tower, Meridian Quay is now Wales's tallest building at a height of over ; upon completion in 2009 it is planned to be in height with a restaurant on the top (29th) floor. It is still under construction adjacent Swansea Marinamarker.

Economy



Swansea originally developed as centre for metals and mining, especially the copper industry, from the beginning of the 18th century. The industry reached its apogee in the 1880s, when 60% of the copper ores imported to Britain were smelted in the Lower Swansea valleymarker. However, by the end of the Second World War these heavy industries were in decline, and over the post-war decades Swansea shared in the general trend towards a post-industrial, service sector economy.

Of the 105,900 people estimated to work within the City and County of Swansea, over 90% are employed in the service sectors, with relatively high shares (compared to the Welsh and UK averages) in public administration, education & health and banking, finance & insurance, and correspondingly high proportions of employment in occupations associated with the service sector, including professional, administrative/secretarial and sales/customer service occupations. The local authority believes this pattern reflects Swansea's role as a service centre for South West Wales.

Economic activity and employment rates in Swansea were slightly above the Welsh average in October 2008, but lower than the UK average. In 2005, GVA per head in Swansea was £14,302 - nearly 4% above the Welsh average but 20% below the UK average. Median full-time earnings in Swansea were £21,577 in 2007, almost identical to the Welsh average.

Education

Swansea Universitymarker has a campus in Singleton Parkmarker overlooking Swansea Bay. Its engineering department is recognised as a centre of excellence with pioneering work on computational techniques for solving engineering design problems. The Department of Physics is renowned for its research achievements at the frontiers of Theoretical Physics, particularly in the areas of Elementary Particle Physics and String Theory. And many other departments such as History, Computer Science and German were awarded an "Excellent" in the last inspection. The university was awarded the Times Higher Education Supplement Award for the UK's "best student experience" in 2005. Other establishments for further and higher education in the city include Swansea Metropolitan University and Swansea College, with Gorseinon College seven miles (11 km) outside the city. Swansea Metropolitan University (formerly Swansea Institute of Higher Education) is particularly well-known for its Architectural Glass department; stained glass being a long time speciality.

In the local authority area, there is one nursery school; six infant schools and five junior schools. There are 77 primary schools, nine of which are Welsh-Medium, and six of which are voluntary aided. There are 15 comprehensive schools under the remit of the local education authority, of which two are Welsh-medium. In addition, there are six special schools.

The oldest school in Swansea is Bishop Gore Schoolmarker. The largest comprehensive school in Swansea is the Olchfa Schoolmarker. There is one Roman Catholic comprehensive school in the county - Bishop Vaughan Catholic Comprehensive Schoolmarker. The Welsh medium schools are Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Gŵyrmarker and Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Bryn Tawemarker.

Independent schools in Swansea include Ffynone House Schoolmarker, Oakleigh House School and Craig-y-Nos School.

Local media

The local newspaper is the Swansea edition of the South Wales Evening Post. The Swansea Herald of Wales is a free newspaper which is distributed freely every week to residential addresses. The Cardiff edition of the free daily paper Metro is distributed throughout the city. The Council also produces a free monthly newspaper called the Swansea Leader. Swansea Life is a monthly lifestyle magazine published and distributed in Swansea.

Swansea is served by three local radio stations, The Wave on 96.4 FM and DAB, Swansea Sound on 1170 AM and DAB and lastly Bay Radio on 102.1 FM. Swansea University also runs its own radio station, Xtreme Radio, on 1431 AM.

Since 1924, the BBC has maintained a studio in the city; Dylan Thomas worked here in the interwar years, when the studio was used for the BBC Regional Programme. Currently it has facilities to broadcast live radio and television and is listed as a BBC regional studio..

In mid 2008, the BBC included Swansea in its "Big Screen" project, and a large live permanent television screen has been sited in Castle Square.

Swansea is one of the few regions in Wales with reasonable digital radio coverage, and this was improved further in January 2005 with the launch of the Swansea DAB multiplex, which carries a number of local and regional stations. The Kilvey Hillmarker transmitter provides digital terrestrial TV, DAB, analogue radio and TV in the Swansea area, and the city is also in the catchment areas of the Wenvoemarker transmitter (in the Vale of Glamorganmarker) and the Carmel transmitter in Carmarthenshiremarker.

Independent filmmakers Undercurrents and Studio8 are based in Swansea, and the city plays host to the BeyondTV Film Festival. BeyondTV is annual event organised by Undercurrents to showcase the best of activism filmmakers. Swansea has also hosted the annual Swansea Bay Film Festival, where past-winning directors have included Gareth Evans, Anthony James, Alun D Pughe and Andrew Jones .

Representation in the media

Swansea has been used as a filming location for the films Only Two Can Play and Twin Town, the TV series Mine All Mine and in episodes of Doctor Who.

Swansea was the first city in Wales to feature in its own version of the board game Monopoly. The Swansea edition of Monopoly features 33 local landmarks, including the Mumbles Piermarker and the National Waterfront Museummarker; the game has been produced in both English and Welsh.

Public services

Swansea is policed by the South Wales Police. The regional headquarters for the Swansea area is Cockett police station. Ambulance services are provided by the Wales Ambulance Service, and fire services by the Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service. Swansea Airportmarker is one of the country's three Wales Air Ambulance bases, the others being Welshpoolmarker and Caernarfonmarker. Local public healthcare services are operated by Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board who operate two hospitals in Swansea with Accident and Emergency services: Singleton Hospitalmarker and Morriston Hospitalmarker. Waste management services are coordinated by the local council which deals with refuse collection and recycling, and operates five civic amenity sites. The electricity distribution network operator supplying Swansea is Western Power Distribution. Welsh Water provides drinking water supply and wastewater services to Swansea. There is a water treatment works at Crymlyn Burrowsmarker. Reservoirs which supply Swansea include the Cray reservoirmarker and the Lliw Reservoirs, which are operated by Welsh Water. The Local Gas Distribution company is Wales and West Utilities.

Public order



There was a high rate of car crime during the 1990s. The BBC has described Swansea as a "black spot for car crime", for example. However, over the past few years, there seems to have been a decline in car crime, possibly due to national media awareness or economic trends. Car crime is a central theme in the film Twin Town, which is set in and around Swansea.

The football violence that Swansea experienced during the 1970s-1990s has considerably reduced, the only major clashes occurring between Swansea City supporters and Cardiff City supporters. Many matches between these sides have ended in violence in both Swansea and Cardiff. These two clubs have a long history of intense rivalry, being described in the media as tribal.

Transport

The M4 motorway crosses though Swansea (junctions 44 to 47 inclusive). The A48, formerly a trunk road, passes through the north of the city centre, through Llansamlet and past Morriston. The A48 and the M4 connect Swansea with other towns and cities including Port Talbotmarker, Bridgendmarker, Cardiffmarker, Bristolmarker and Londonmarker to the east and Llanellimarker and Cross Handsmarker to the west. The A483 passes though the city centre, providing a link to the Heads of Valleys Road to the west. On departing to the north, the A483 continues through mid Wales via towns like Ammanfordmarker, Builth Wellsmarker and Newtownmarker and terminates at Chestermarker. The A4067 (Swansea Valley Road) links Swansea with settlements in the Swansea Valleymarker and continues towards Breconmarker. Park and Ride services are operated from car parks at Landoremarker, Fabian Way and Fforestfachmarker. During busy periods of the year, additional Park and Ride services are operated from the Brynmillmarker recreation ground.

Bus routes within Swansea are operated predominately by First Cymru and Veolia Transport Cymru, originating from Swansea bus stationmarker. First operates the Swansea Metro, a road-based FTR bus rapid transit route, introduced between Morriston Hospitalmarker and Singleton Hospitalmarker in 2009, and a shuttle bus (Service 100) to Cardiff Central bus stationmarker calling at Bridgend Designer Outletmarker. Veolia operates the rural services around the Gower peninsula and the Lliw Valley branded Gower Explorer and Lliw Link respectively. Swansea is on the X40 Cardiffmarker to Aberystwythmarker TrawsCambria bus route connecting the west and south of Wales. National Express serves Swansea operating eastbound to Heathrow Airportmarker, Gatwick Airport, Londonmarker, Birminghammarker, Cardiffmarker and Bristolmarker, and westbound to Llanellimarker, Carmarthenmarker and Haverfordwestmarker.

There are four dedicated cycle routes in the county area:

City cruiser pedal vehicles are being introduced to the city centremarker in a joint venture between the council and Swansea Business Improvement District.

In November 2007 a new bridge was completed over the Fabian Way which provides an express bus-only lane and a shared-use pedestrian and cycle way. The leaf-shaped bridge was shortlisted for the 2008 Structural Steel Design Awards.

Swansea railway stationmarker is located 10 minutes from Swansea bus stationmarker by foot. Services calling at Swansea operate to Llanellimarker, Carmarthenmarker, Milford Havenmarker and Haverfordwestmarker to the west, Shrewsburymarker to the north, and Cardiff Centralmarker (for connections to England and beyond), Newportmarker and London Paddingtonmarker to the east. There are also suburban stations in Gowertonmarker, Llansamletmarker and in Pontarddulaismarker which are served by Arriva Trains Wales.

Swansea Airportmarker is a minor aerodrome situated in the Gowermarker providing recreational flights only. Further development of the airport is strongly resisted by the local communities and environmental groups. Swansea is served by Cardiff Airportmarker, east, in the Vale of Glamorganmarker, which provides scheduled domestic and international flights. It is approximately 40 minutes away by road or 70 minutes by rail. Pembrey Airportmarker, to the west offers charter flights to a few European destinations.

Swansea Marinamarker to the south of the city centre has berths for 410 leisure boats. An addition 200 berths for leisure boats are located near the mouth of the River Tawe. Further leisure boating berths are being constructed at the Prince of Wales Dock in the Swansea Docksmarker complex. The Swansea Docks complex is owned and operated by Associated British Ports and is used to handle a range of cargo ranging from agribulks and coal to timber and steel. Swansea Docks consists of three floating docks and a ferry terminal. The Swansea-Cork car ferry service which ceased in 2006 is due to re-start again in March 2010. The service will be operated by new Irish ferry company FastnetLine which acquired a new ship for the service in September 2009. A new catamaran-based passenger ferry service from Ilfracombemarker to Swansea is scheduled to begin in Easter 2010 with two return trips a day taking around 50 minutes each way, it will also have facilites to carry cycles.

Mumbles railway and tram

The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was built in 1804 to move limestone from the quarries of Mumbles to Swansea and to the markets beyond. It carried the world's first fare-paying rail passengers on the day the British Parliament abolished the transportation of slaves from Africa. It later moved from horse power to steam locomotion, and finally converting to electric trams, before closing in January 1960, in favour of motor buses. [2].At the time of the railway's decommissioning, it had been the world's longest serving railway and it still holds the record for the highest number of forms of traction of any railway in the world - horse-drawn, sail power, steam power, electric power, diesel and petrol.

Trams4Swansea is a group led by Councillor Rob Speht trying to bring trams back to Swansea.

Leisure and tourism

Another shot of the marina from Trawler Road
The beaches at Langland, Caswell and Limeslade are used by swimmers and tourists with children, whereas Swansea Baymarker tends to attract water-sport enthusiasts. Coastal paths connect most of the Gower bays and Swansea Bay itself, and can attract hikers to the countryside views throughout the year. Although little known on the tourist map, areas north of Swansea offer various panoramas of mountain landscapes. The former fishing village of Mumblesmarker (located on the western edge of Swansea Baymarker) has a Victorian piermarker and a number of restaurants, pubs and coffee shops. The promenade at Mumbles offers a panoramic view of Swansea Bay.

Attractions

On the Waterfront, Swansea Bay has a five mile (8 km) sweep of coastline which features a beach, promenade, children's lido, leisure pool, marina and maritime quarter featuring the newest and oldest museums in Wales - the National Waterfront Museummarker and Swansea Museummarker. Also situated in the maritime quarter is the Dylan Thomas Centremarker which celebrates the life and work of the author with its permanent exhibition 'Dylan Thomas - Man and Myth'. The centre is also the focal point for the annual Dylan Thomas Festival (27 October - 9 November). The SA1 Waterfront area is the latest development for living, dining and leisure.Swansea Bay, Mumbles and Gower are home to various parks and gardens and almost 20 nature reserves. Clyne Gardensmarker is home to a collection of plants set in parkland and host to 'Clyne in Bloom' in May. Singleton Parkmarker has acres of parkland, a botanical garden, a boating lake with pedal boats, and crazy golf. Plantasiamarker is a tropical hothouse pyramid featuring three climatic zones, housing a variety of unusual plants, including several species which are extinct in the wild, and monkeys, reptiles, fish and a butterfly house. Other parks include Cwmdonkin Parkmarker, where Dylan Thomas played as a child, and Victoria Park which is close to the promenade on the seafront.

Activities

Swansea has a range of activities including sailing, water skiing, surfing, and other watersports, walking and cycling. Part of the Celtic Trail and the National Cycle Network, Swansea Bay provides a range of traffic-free cycle routes including along the seafront and through Clyne Valley Country Parkmarker. The Cycling Touring Club CTC has a local group in the area. Swansea Bay, Mumbles and Gower have a selection of golf courses.

Prior to closure in 2003, Swansea Leisure Centremarker was one of the top ten visitor attractions in the UK; it has been redeveloped as an indoor waterpark, rebranded the 'LC', and was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 7 March 2008. The Wales National Poolmarker is based in Swansea.

Nightlife

Swansea has a range of public houses, bar, clubs, restaurants and two casinos. The majority of city centre bars are situated on Wind Street, with various chains represented including Revolution, Varsity, Yates's and Walkabout. Most clubs, including Oceana, are located on the Kingsway. Some venues feature live music. The Mumblesmarker Mile, described by the BBC as "one of Wales' best-known pub crawls" has declined in recent years with a number of local pubs being converted into flats or restaurants.

Beaches

Sunset over Swansea Bay.
Oxwich Baymarker on the Gower peninsulamarker was named the most beautiful beach in Britain by travel writers who visited more than 1,000 around the world in search of the perfect sands (2007). The Travel Magazine praised Oxwich for "magnificent and unspoilt" scenery and as a "great place for adults and children to explore". It boasts over three miles (5 km) of soft, golden sands, making it the ideal family getaway. Not surprisingly, The Guardian named it one of Britain's blue-ribband top 10 category beaches (2007). The Independent newspaper hailed Rhossili Bay as "the British supermodel of beaches" (2006) and the best beach in Britain for breathtaking cliffs (2007), whilst The Sunday Times listed it as one of the 25 best beaches in the world (2006). Thanks to its clear air and lovely golden sand, this romantic stretch of sand was voted the best place in the UK to watch the sun set (Country Living magazine 2005) and one the top romantic spots in the country (The Guardian 2007). Nearby Llangennith Beach, with its soft sands, consistent beach break and great facilities, was listed as the best place to learn how to surf in Britain by The Observer (2006) and one of the 10 'classic surfing beaches by The Guardian (2007). Gower also claims Britain's Best Beach, Three Cliffs Baymarker. The Gower landmark topped the BBC Holiday Hit Squad nationwide competition (2006) and was voted Britain's best camping beach by The Independent thanks to its superb setting and quiet location (2007). Three Cliffs Baymarker also made the final of the ITV series Britain's Favourite View - the only nomination in Wales and backed by singer Katherine Jenkins. Nearby Brandy Covemarker came sixth in an online poll to find the UK's top beach for the baby boomer generation (2006). Beaches which won 2006 Blue Flag Beach Awards are: Bracelet Baymarker, Caswell Baymarker, Langland Baymarker, Port Eynon Bay and Swansea Marina (one of the few Blue Flag Marinas in Wales). All of these beaches also won a Seaside Award 2006. Limeslade was awarded the Rural Seaside Award and the Green Coast Award. Other Green Coast Awards went to Pwll Du, Rhossili Bay and Tor Baymarker.

References

  1. [ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/576322/Swansea Swansea (Wales, United Kingdom) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia]
  2. Hughes, S. (2000) Copperopolis: landscapes of the early industrial period in Swansea (Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales
  3. Wyn Owen, H. and Morgan, R. (2008) Dictionary of the Place-names of Wales. Llandysul: Gomer.
  4. The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008.
  5. Rosser, C. and Harris, C.C. (1998) The Family and Social Change: A Study of Family and Kinship in a South Wales Town. Routledge
  6. City and County of Swansea - Listed building index
  7. London Gazette, issue no. 44986, 12 December 1969
  8. Prince announces city status for Swansea,The Times 4 July 1969.
  9. London Gazette, issue no. 48932, 25 March 1982
  10. Swansea Glamorgan through time | Local history overview for the place
  11. West Glamorgan Archive Service Borough/County Borough/City of Swansea records
  12. Swansea CB Glamorgan through time | Boundaries of Local Government District
  13. The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008
  14. City and County of Swansea - History of the Mayoralty
  15. see Swansea City and County and National Council on Archives: Rules for the construction of place names
  16. City & County of Swansea Economic Development Division, Tourism Student Information Pack
  17. Local Government Association: Twin Town search
  18. http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USSC0335?par=usatoday&site=www.usatoday.com&promo=0&cm_ven=USAToday&cm_cat=www.usatoday.com&cm_pla=WxPage&cm_ite=CityPage weather.com
  19. 2001 Census Socio ­ Economic Profile
  20. Wales’s Population A Demographic Overview 2009
  21. Population and Migration - Ethnic groups (Swansea) Office for National Statistics. Retrieved on 2009-06-15.
  22. South Wales Evening Post, 8 September 2004, and subsequent issues.
  23. Food detective: Salt marsh lamb- Times Online
  24. Swansea Jack - Swansea History Web
  25. Tourism Swansea Bay - FAQ
  26. Dylan Thomas and the Kardomah Set - Features, Books - The Independent 11 February 2006
  27. Cricket archive
  28. 2001 Census Key Statistics: Table KS07: Religion
  29. A Social Audit of the Muslim Community in Wales
  30. BBC NEWS | Wales | South West Wales | New mosque 'would benefit all'
  31. Jenkins, P (1992) A History of Modern Wales 1536-1990. Harlow: Longman.
  32. Swansea Economic Profile October 2008
  33. ;
  34. The NS and AdWeb Ltd - Swansea Herald of Wales
  35. Morgan, K. (2002) Rebirth of a Nation: A History of Modern Wales. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.251.
  36. BBC: Swansea Big Screen
  37. Only Two Can Play (1962)
  38. BBC News: City Launch for Swansea Monopoly
  39. Swansea Metro service kicks off - City and County of Swansea. Retrieved 27/09/09.
  40. City and County of Swansea - Minutes of the Licensing Committee, Friday 19 September 2008. Retrieved 27/09/09.
  41. Swansea BID | Projects. Retrieved 27/09/09/
  42. Worldarchitecturenews.com - Fabian Way Bridge is shortlisted for Structural Steel Design Awards. Thursday 17 April 2008. Retrieved 27/09/09.
  43. BBC - New £7m ship for ferry crossing
  44. BBC News - Spring launch for new fast ferry
  45. Visit Swansea Bay - Watersports
  46. Visit Swansea Bay - Walking
  47. Visit Swansea Bay - Cycling and Mountain Biking
  48. Swansea Cycling Map
  49. Visit Swansea Bay - Golf
  50. Aspers Swansea Casino
  51. [1]
  52. Swansea - Oceana - Ur Music Network
  53. Visit Swansea Bay - Nightlife
  54. BBC News | Wales | Closures shrink famous pub crawl


External links

City and County of Swansea: History:



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