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Syrian Jews ( ) are Jews who inhabit the region of the modern state of Syriamarker, and their descendants born outside Syria. Syrian Jews derive their origin from two groups: from the Jews who inhabited the region of today's Syriamarker from ancient timesmarker (known as Musta'arabi Jews, and sometimes classified as Mizrahi Jews, a generic term for to Jews with an extended history in the Middle East or North Africa); and from the Sephardi Jews (referring to Jews with an extended history in the Iberian Peninsulamarker, ie Spainmarker and Portugalmarker) who fled to Syria after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492 CE).

There were large communities in Aleppomarker and Damascusmarker for centuries, a smaller community in Qamishlimarker on the Turkish border near Nusaybinmarker. In the first half of the 20th century a large percentage of Syrian Jews emigrated to the U.S., Central and South America and Israel. Most of the remainining Jews left in the 28 years following 1973, due in part to the efforts of Judith Feld Carr who claims to have helped some 3,228 Jews escape; emigration was officially allowed in 1992. Today there are about 25 Jews in Syria, all of them living in Damascusmarker. The largest Syrian-Jewish community is located in Brooklynmarker, New Yorkmarker and is estimated at 75,000 strong. There are smaller communities elsewhere in the United States and in Latin America.

History

There are three basic components of the Syrian Jewish community.
  1. There have been Jews in Syria since ancient times: according to legend, since the time of King David, and certainly since early Roman times. Jews from this ancient community were known as Musta'arabim (Arabized Jews) to themselves, or Moriscos to the Sephardim.
  2. Many Sephardim arrived following the expulsion from Spain in 1492, and quickly took a leading position in the community.
  3. Still later, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, some Jews from Italy and elsewhere, known as Señores Francos, settled in Syria for trading reasons, while retaining their European nationalities.


there is no clear distinction between these groups, as they have intermarried extensively, and all regard themselves as "Sephardim" in a broader sense. It is said that one can tell Aleppo families of Spanish descent (in the narrow sense) by the fact that they light an extra Hanukkah candle. This custom was apparently established in gratitude for their acceptance by the more native Syrian based community.

In the nineteenth century, following the completion of the Suez Canalmarker in Egypt in 1869, trade shifted to that route from the overland route through Syria, and the commercial importance of Aleppo and Damascus underwent a marked decline. Many families left Syria for Egypt (and a few for Lebanon) in the following decades, and with increasing frequency until the First World War, Jews left the near East for western countries, mainly Great Britainmarker, the United States, Mexico and Argentinamarker. This pattern of migration largely followed the fortunes of the cotton trade, in which many Syrian Jews were engaged.

Beginning on the Passover Holiday of 1992, the 4,000 remaining members of the Damascus Jewish community (Arabic Yehud ash-Sham) as well as the Aleppo community and the Jews of Qamishli, were permitted under the regime of Hafez al-Assad to leave Syria for the United States provided they did not emigrate to Israel. Within a few months, thousands of Syrian Jews made their way to Brooklyn with the help of philanthropic leaders of the Syrian Jewish community. The few remaining Jews in Syria live in Damascus.

Present-day Syrian Jewish communities

Israel

A Baghdadi rabbi with Hasidic students and Syrian Jews at a wedding celebration in Jerusalem, 1904.
There has been a Syrian presence in Jerusalemmarker since before 1850, with many rabbinical families having members both there and in Damascus and Aleppo. These had some contact with their Ashkenazi opposite numbers of the Old Yishuv, leading to a tradition of strict orthodoxy: for example in the 1860s there was a successful campaign to prevent the establishment of a Reform synagogue in Aleppo. Some Syrian traditions, such as the singing of Baqashot, were accepted by the mainstream Jerusalem Sephardi community.

A further group immigrated to Palestine around 1900, and formed the Ades Synagoguemarker in Nachlaotmarker. This still exists, and is the main Aleppo rite synagogue in Israel, though its membership now includes Asiatic Jews of all groups, especially Kurdish. There is also a large Syrian community in Holonmarker and Bat Yammarker.

Many Jews fled from Syria to Palestine during the anti-Jewish riots of 1947. After that, the Syrian government clamped down and allowed no emigration, though some Jews left illicitly. In the last two decades some emigration has been allowed, mostly to America, though some have since left America for Israel, under the leadership of Rabbi Albert Hamra.

The older generation from prior to the establishment of the state retains little or no Syrian ethnic identity of its own and is well integrated into mainstream Israeli society. The most recent wave is integrating at different levels, with some concentrating on integration in Israel and others retaining closer ties with their kin in New York and Mexico.

There is a Merkaz 'Olami le-Moreshet Yahadut Aram Tsoba (World Center for the Heritage of Aleppo Jewry) in Tel Avivmarker, which publishes books of Syrian Jewish interest.

Great Britain

The main settlement of Syrian Jews was in Manchestermarker, where they joined the synagogues of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, which had a mixed community that included North African, Turkish, Egyptian and Iraqi as well as Syrian Jews. This community founded two synagogues; one in North Central Manchester, which has since moved to Salfordmarker, and the other on Queenston Road in West Didsburymarker, in the southern suburbs. A breakaway synagogue was later formed on Old Lansdowne Road with more of a Syrian flavor; but it and the Queenston Road congregation have since merged. Today, they are still known as the Lansdowne Road synagogue and the Queen's Road synagogue, after the names those streets bore in the 1930s. While there are still several Sephardim in the Manchester area, a fair number have since left for communities in the Americas. Despite their reduced numbers, there is currently an initiative to acquire a new site for a synagogue in Halemarker, to be closer to the current centers of the Sephardic and general Jewish populations.

United States

Syrian Jews first immigrated to New York in December of 1900. The first Syrian Jew to arrive was Joseph Raymond Beyda, who arrived in December of that year. His family followed in July of 1902. The first Syrian American Jew to be born in America was David Joseph Beyda, born December 31, 1903. They initially lived on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Later settlements were in Bensonhurstmarker, Midwood, Flatbush, and along Ocean Parkwaymarker in Gravesendmarker, Brooklyn. The latter is considered to be the current center of the community, though the community was formerly centered around the Magen David Synagogue on 67th street in the Bensonhurst neighborhood. Some of the more notable congregations are listed below:



Argentina

The largest Jewish community in Argentinamarker is in the capital Buenos Airesmarker. The majority are Ashkenazim, but the Sephardim, and especially the Syrians, are a sizeable community. Syrian Jews are most visible in the Once district, where there are many community schools and temples. For some decades there has been a good-natured rivalry between the Shami (Damascenemarker) community of "Shaare Tefila (Pasito)" synagogue and the Halebi (Aleppanmarker) community of "Sucat David" across the street. The most influential rabbinic authority was Rabbi Isaac Chehebar from the "Yessod Hadat" congregation on Lavalle street; he was consulted from all across the globe, and had an influential role in the recovery of parts of the Aleppo codex. There are many kosher butcher shops and restaurants catering to the community.There were important communities in the Bocamarker and Floresmarker neighborhoods as well. Many Syrian Jews own clothing stores along Avellaneda avenue in Flores, and there is a community school on Felipe Vallese (formerly Canalejas) street. Some important clothing chains such as Chemea and Tawil, with tens of shops each, were started by Syrian Jews.

Brazil

The majority of the Syrian community of Brazilmarker come from Beirutmarker, Lebanonmarker, where they had lived since their expulsion from Syria following the creation of the State of Israel in 1948 and the subsequent violent anti-Jewish pogroms perpetrated by their Muslim neighbours. They left Beirut in wake of the first Lebanese Civil War. Most Syrian Jews established themselves in the industrial city of São Paulomarker, being attracted there by the many commercial opportunities it offered. The community became very prosperous, and several of its members are among the wealthiest and the politically and economically most influential families in São Paulo. The community first attended Egyptian synagogues, but later founded their own synagogues, most notably the Beit Yaakov synagogues in the neighbourhoods of Jardins and Higienopolis.The community has its own school and youth movement, and claims a strong Jewish identity and low assimilation rate. The majority of the community affiliates itself with Jewish Orthodoxy, though few could be described as fully Orthodox. There are approximately 7,000 Syrian Jews in Brazil.

Chile

In Chilemarker, many Syrian Jews escaped from Syria and Palestine, provinces of the Ottoman Empire during the World War I. At present there are 2,300 Syrian Jews in Chile.

Mexico

There have been Jews from Damascus and Aleppo in Mexico City since the early years of the twentieth century. Originally they worshipped in a private house transformed in a synagogue - Sinagoga Ketana (Bet Haknesset HaKatan) located in Calles de Jesús María. The first organized Jewish community in Mexico was Alianza Monte Sinai founded in 1912, mainly by natives of Damascus (together with a few Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews) and led by Isaac Capon. They later founded the first synagogue, Monte Sinaí, on Justo Sierra street in downtown Mexico City, originally led by Rabbi Laniado, which still holds a daily service of Minha. The Damascene community also bought the first Jewish burial place in Tacuba street in 1916, which is in use to this day and has been expanded by the recent purchase of the adjacent land.

The Rodfe Sedek synagogue, for Aleppan Jews, was established in 1931, largely through the efforts of Rabbi Mordejay Attie. This synagogue, known also as Knis de Cordoba, is situated at 238 Cordoba Street in the Colonia Roma quarter of Mexico City. At the time this neighborhood was home to the largest concentration of Jews from Aleppo in Mexico Citymarker. The first mikveh (ritual bath) in Mexico was established within the Rodfe Sedek synagogue. In 1982 a funeral house was built in the courtyard of the synagogue.

Also in the 1930s the members of Monte Sinaí established a large synagogue for Damascene Jews in the Colonia Roma area. They have been welcoming in different Jews into their midst, which has allowed tremendous growth over the years. In 1938 Jewish immigrants from Aleppo set up Sociedad de Beneficencia Sedaká u Marpé, which evolved into a separate Jewish community: since 1984 it has been known as Comunidad Maguen David. Monte Sinai and Maguen David are now the largest Jewish communities in Mexicomarker, having more than four synagogues, a community center and a school each.

Panama

Panamamarker also received a large number of Syrian Jewish immigrants, mostly from Halab (Aleppomarker), where they constitute the largest group in Panama's 8,000 strong Jewish Sephardic community.

Traditions and Customs

Liturgy

Rabbi Jacob Saul Dwek and officials of the great synagogue of Aleppo.
There exists a fragment of the old Aleppo prayer book for the High Holy Days, published in Venicemarker in 1527, and a second edition, starting with the High Holy Days but covering the whole year, in 1560. This represents the liturgy of the Musta'arabim (native Arabic-speaking Jews) as distinct from that of the Sephardim proper (immigrants from Spain and Portugal): it recognizably belongs to the "Sephardic" family of rites in the widest sense, but is different from any liturgy used today. For more detail, see Old Aleppo ritual.

Following the immigration of Jews from Spain following the expulsion, a compromise liturgy evolved containing elements from the customs of both communities, but with the Sephardic element taking an ever larger share. In Syria, as in North African countries; there was no attempt to print a Siddur containing the actual passages of the community, as this would not generally be commercially viable. Major publishing centres, principally Livornomarker, and later Viennamarker, would produce standard "Sephardic" prayer books suitable for use in all communities, and particular communities such as the Syrians would order these in bulk, preserving any special usages by oral tradition. (For example, Ḥacham Abraham Ḥamwi of Aleppo commissioned a series of prayer-books from Livorno, which were printed in 1878, but even these were "pan-Sephardic" in character, though they contained some notes about the specific "minhag Aram Tsoba".) As details of the oral tradition faded from memory, the liturgy in use came ever nearer to the "Livorno" standard. In the early years of the twentieth century, this "Sephardic" rite was almost universal in Syria. The only exception (in Aleppo) was a "Musta'arabi" minyan at the Central Synagogue of Aleppomarker, but even their liturgy differed from the standard in only a few details such as the order of the hymns on Rosh Hashanah.

The liturgy of Damascusmarker differed from that of Aleppo in some details, mostly because of its greater proximity to the Holy Land. Some of the laws specific to Eretz Yisrael are regarded as extending to Damascus, and the city had ties both to the Safedmarker Kabbalists and to the Jerusalem Sephardic community.

The liturgy now used in Syrian communities round the world is textually speaking Oriental-Sephardic. That is to say, it is based on the Spanish rite as varied by the customs of Isaac Luria, and resembles those in use in Greek, Turkish and North African Jewish communities. In earlier decades some communities and individuals used "Edot ha-Mizraḥ" prayer-books which contained a slightly different text, based on the Baghdadi rite, as these were more commonly available, leaving any specifically Syrian usages to be perpetuated by oral tradition. The nearest approach to a current official prayer book is Kol Ya'akob, but other editions exist and there is still disagreement on some textual variants.

The musical customs of Syrian communities are very distinctive, as many of the prayers are chanted to the melodies of the pizmonim, according to a complicated annual rota designed to ensure that the maqam (musical mode) used suits the mood of the festival or of the Torah reading for the week. See Syrian Cantors and The Weekly Maqam.

Pizmonim

Syrian Jews have a large repertoire of hymns, sung on social and ceremonial occasions such as weddings and bar mitzvahs. Pizmonim are also used in the prayers of Shabbat and holidays. Some of these are ancient and others were composed more recently as adaptations of popular Arabic songs; sometimes they are written or commissioned for particular occasions, and contain coded allusions to the name of the person honoured. There is a standard Pizmonim book called "Shir uShbaha Hallel veZimrah", edited by Cantor Gabriel A. Shrem under the supervision of the Sephardic Heritage Foundation, in which the hymns are classified according to the musical mode (maqam) to which the melody belongs. As time passes, more and more pizmonim are getting lost, and therefore efforts are being made by the Sephardic Pizmonim Project, under the leadership of Mr. David M. Betesh, to preserve as many pizmonim as possible. A website to facilitate its preservation, was set up at Pizmonim.com.

Baqashot

It was a custom in Syrian Jewish communities (and some others), to sing Baqashot (petitionary hymns), before the morning service on Shabbat. In the winter months, the full corpus of 66 hymns is sung, finishing with Adon Olam and Kaddish. This service generally lasts about four hours, from 3:00am to 7:00am.

This tradition still obtains full force in the Ades Synagoguemarker in Jerusalem. In other communities such as New York, it is less widespread; though the hymns are sung on other occasions.

Pronunciation of Hebrew

The Syrian pronunciation of Hebrew is similar to that of other Mizrahi communities, and is influenced both by Sephardi Hebrew and by the Syrian dialect of Arabic. It does not reflect the formal rules for the pronunciation of Classical Arabic (tajwid) to the same extent as the pronunciation of Iraqi Jews. Particular features are as follows:

The retention of distinct emphatic sounds such as and differentiates Syrian pronunciation from many other Sephardic/Mizrahi pronunciations which have failed to maintain these phonemic or phonological distinctions, for example between and .

Vowels are pronounced as in most other Sephardi and Mizrahi traditions: for example there is no distinction between patach and qamats gadol ( ), or between segol, tsere and vocal sheva ( ). Ħiriq is sometimes reduced to or in an unstressed closed syllable, or in the neighbourhood of an emphatic or guttural consonant.

A semivocalic sound is heard before pataħ ganuv (pataħ coming between a long vowel and a final guttural): thus ruaħ (spirit) is pronounced [ˈruːwaħ] and siaħ (speech) is pronounced [ˈsiːjaħ].

Aleppo Codex

The Aleppo Codex, now known in Hebrew as Keter Aram Tsoba, is the oldest and most famous manuscript of the Bible. Written in Tiberiasmarker in the year 920, and annotated by Aaron ben Asher, it has become the most authoritative Biblical text in Jewish culture. The most famous halachic authority to rely on it was Maimonides, in his exposition of the laws governing the writing of Torah scrolls in his codification of Jewish law (Mishneh Torah). After its completion, the Codex was brought to Jerusalem. Toward the end of the 11th century, it was stolen and taken to Egypt, where it was redeemed by the Jewish community of Cairo. At the end of the 14th century the Codex was taken to Aleppo, Syria (called by the Jews Aram Zobah, the biblical name of part of Syria)—this is the origin of the manuscript's modern name.

For the next five centuries, it was kept closely guarded in the basement of the Central Synagogue of Aleppomarker, and was considered the community's greatest treasure. Scholars from round the world would consult it to check the accuracy of their Torah scrolls. In the modern era the community would occasionally allow academics, such as Umberto Cassuto, access to the Codex, but would not permit it to be reproduced photographically or otherwise.

The Codex remained in the keeping of the Aleppo Jewish community until the anti-Jewish riots of December 1947, during which the ancient synagogue where it was kept was broken into and burned. The Codex itself disappeared. In 1958, the Keter was smuggled into Israel by Murad Faham and wife Sarina, and presented to the President of the State, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi. Upon its arrival, it was found that parts of the Codex including most of the Torah, had been lost. The Codex was entrusted to the keeping of the Ben-Zvi Institute and the Hebrew University of Jerusalemmarker, though the Porat Yosef Yeshivah has argued that, as the spiritual heir of the Aleppo community, it was the legitimate guardian. Some time after the arrival of the Codex, Mordechai Breuer began the monumental work of reconstructing the lost sections, on the basis of other well-known ancient manuscripts. Since then a few other leaves have been found.

Modern editions of the Bible, such as the Hebrew Universitymarker's "Jerusalem Crown" and Bar-Ilan Universitymarker's "Mikraot Gedolot ha-Keter", have been based on the Codex. The missing sections have been reconstructed on the basis of cross-references in the Masoretic Text of surviving sections, and of the notes of scholars who have consulted the Codex and of other manuscripts.

The codex is now kept in the Israel Museummarker, in the building known as "The Shrine of The Bookmarker." It lies there along with the Dead Sea Scrolls and many other ancient Jewish relics.

Attitudes to conversion

In the early twentieth century the Syrian Jewish communities of New York and Buenos Aires adopted rulings designed to discourage intermarriage. The communities would not normally carry out conversions to Judaism, particularly where the conversion is suspected of being for the sake of marriage, or accept such converts from other communities, or the children of mixed marriages or marriages involving such converts. However, there are exceptions to the rule, such as conversions for the sake of adoptions always being permitted. Additionally, communal rabbis (such as the late Chief Rabbi Jacob S. Kassin) have occasionally recognized conversions carried out by certain rabbis, such as members of the Israeli Chief Rabbinate. Nonetheless, these rulings heavily discourage people from converting into the Syrian Jewish community as they might have to travel to Israel and back in order to convert, as well as requiring them to show commitment toward Judaism above and beyond what is required by the normative rabbinical laws of conversion.

Hacham Uzziel, then Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israelmarker, was asked to rule on the validity of this ban. He acknowledged the right of the community to refuse to carry out conversions and to regard as invalid conversions carried out by other communities in which marriage is a factor. At the same time, he cautioned that persons converted out of genuine conviction and recognized by established rabbinic authorities should not be regarded as non-Jews, even if they were not allowed to join the Syrian community.

The ban is popularly known within the Syrian community as the "edict" or "proclamation" (in Hebrew, takkanah). Every twenty years or so, the edict is reaffirmed by all leaders and rabbis of the community, often with extra clauses. A full list is as follows:
  • Buenos Aires, 1927 (R. David Setton)
  • New York, 1935 (Hacham Hayim Tawil)
  • New York, 1946 "Clarification"
  • New York, 1972 "Affirmation"
  • New York, 1984 "Reaffirmation"
  • New York, 2006 "Reaffirmation"


There has been some argument as to whether the ruling amounts to a blanket ban on all converts or whether sincere converts from other communities, not motivated by marriage, may be accepted. The relevant sentence in the English language summary is "no male or female member of our community has the right to intermarry with non-Jews; this law covers conversions which we consider to be fictitious and valueless". In the 1946 "Clarification" a comma appears after the word "conversions", which makes it appear that all conversions are "fictitious and valueless", though this understanding is not uncontested, and there is no equivalent change in the Hebrew text.

Supporters of the edict argue that it has been demographically successful, in that the rate of intermarriage with non-Jews in the Syrian community is believed to be less than 3%, as opposed to anything up to 50% in the general American Jewish population. Opponents argue that this fact is not a result of the edict, but of widespread attendance at Orthodox day schools, and that a similarly low rate of intermarriage is found among other Orthodox day-schooled Jews despite the absence of any equivalent of the edict.

Cuisine

As in most Arab and Mediterraneanmarker countries, Syrian Jewish food is fairly similar to Syrian food, although some meals have different names among Jewish members. This is partly because of the eastern Mediterranean origins of Judaism as such and partly because the similarity of the Islamic dietary laws to the Jewish Kashrut laws. Syrian (and Egyptian) recipes remain popular in Syrian Jewish communities around the world. There are traditions linking different dishes to the Jewish festivals.

Popular dishes are as follows:

  • Kibbeh: minced meat with pine nuts and pomegranate seeds in a burghul shell
  • Kibbeh ħamda: meat balls in chicken soup made with lemon juice and vegetables
  • Kibbeh bisfarjal: same as above but with quince instead of potatoes eaten on (Rosh Hashanah)
  • Kibbeh Yakhnieh: Meat balls with chick peas and spinach
  • Kibbeh bisfiha: meat burgers with eggplant
  • Fauleh blahmeh or Loubieh blahmeh: Lamb or veal cubes with string beans or black-eyed peas
  • Ijjeh or eggah: egg dish, similar to a Spanish omelette with parsley, potato or cheese
  • Ijjeh blahmeh: fried meat burgers with eggs served with lemon and radishes
  • Muħshi Badinjan: Stuffed eggplant with rice & meat and chick peas
  • Muħshi Kousa: Stuffed zucchini with rice & meat, nana mint and lemon
  • Yaprak: Stuffed vine leaves with rice and meat
  • Kebab: Meat balls (sometimes with cherries or pomegranate paste)
  • Chicken sofrito: chicken sautéed with lemon juice, turmeric and cardamom
  • beida bi-lemoune: chicken soup mixed with an egg and lemon
  • Dfeena: Shabbat meat and bean stew equivalent to cholent
  • Ħammin eggs: hard-boiled eggs stained brown by being baked with dfeena or boiled with onion skins, sometimes adding tea leaves or coffee grounds[302005]
  • Laħmajeen (or Laħmabajeen): meat (sometimes with pomegranate paste or prune juice) on small round pastry base
  • Maoudeh: A stew of fried cubicle shaped potatoes with lamb, beef or chicken meat
  • Matahambre: boiled squash, cheese, eggs and pieces of pita bread
  • Mfarraket al-ful: cold minced beef with fava beans and scrambled eggs (for Shabbat)
  • Sambousak: small half-moon pastry filled with cheese or meat
  • Kousa b'jibn: Squash baked with cheese
  • M'jadra: rice and lentil or burghul and lentil kedgeree
  • Tabbouleh: burghul salad with vine leaves
  • Bazirjan or Muhammara: burghul crushed wheat with pomegranate paste or prune juice
  • Shakshuka or Beid bifranji: boiled tomato puree with onion and eggs like scrambled
  • Beid blaban: boiled yogurt with garlic, nana mint and scrambled eggs
  • Ka'ak: aniseed-flavoured bracelets with sesame seeds
  • Ghreibe: shortbread biscuits, often in bracelet form
  • Ma'amoul: shortbread pastries with date or nut fillings (the Jewish version differs from the Arab in not using semolina flour)
  • Knafeh mabroumeh or ballorieh: fine threads of shredded filo dough filled with pistachios or ricotta
  • Orange Passover cakes: (derived from Spanish recipes through Sephardic immigration)
  • Coconut jam: (used at Passover)
  • Sharab al-loz: iced drink made from almond syrup; generally a summer drink, but also used before Yom Kippur


See also



References

Endnotes

  1. This term may be derived from the Spanish for "Moorish", or may be a corruption of Mashriqis, meaning Arabic-speakers from eastern countries.
  2. Seroussi, Edwin, "On the Beginnings of the Singing of Bakkashot in 19th Century Jerusalem". Pe'amim 56 (1993), 106-124. [H]
  3. The reasons for the dominance of the Sephardic rite are explored in Sephardic Judaism#Liturgy.
  4. Other Israel-specific laws, such as omitting tikkun Rahel in shemittah years, were regarded as extending to Aleppo but not to Damascus, because of the tradition of David's conquest of "Aram Zoba".
  5. No distinction was made between beth with or without dagesh, but occasionally the sound of both letters slipped into (bilabial v): 1.1.1.
  6. 1.8.2.
  7. 1.11.2.
  8. The pronunciation occurred very occasionally, but was regarded as a mistake made under the influence of Arabic: 1.1.4 note 2. It is just possible that this was the older pronunciation, and was "corrected" to under the influence of Turkish Sephardim.
  9. 1.10.2.
  10. 1.6.1.
  11. 1.10.1.
  12. 1.6.2.
  13. The pronunciation of qof as aleph, while regarded as a mistake, was diagnostic of Syrian identity. Care was taken to avoid it since Sephardic rabbis from Turkey queried why Aleppans said adosh, adosh, adosh: 1.9.1. note 11. Very occasionally, an aleph that is meant to be a glottal stop is hypercorrected to : 1.11.3.2.
  14. 1.2.2.
  15. The Tiberian Masoretic rule, according to which the pronunciation of vocal sheva changes before yod or a guttural consonant, is recorded in the literature (e.g. Sethon, Menasheh, Kelale Diqduq ha-Qeriah) but does not appear to have been observed in practice.
  16. 6.1.
  17. 6.4.2.
  18. Although no scientific studies have been completed in regard to the Syrian-Jewish intermarriage rate, anecdotal evidence suggests that the Syrian community's current rate of intermarriage with non-Jews is between 2 and 3%. The National Jewish Population Survey study cited by Gordon and Horowitz gives intermarriage rates for Centrist and Hasidic Jews of 3% for those between the ages of 18-39 and 6% overall, as compared with 32% for Conservative Jews, 46% for Reform Jews and 49% for secular Jews. Gordon and Horowitz suggest that the main reason for the difference is the growing commitment to Jewish Day School education: "The combination of Jewish commitment and having experienced a complete K-12 Orthodox Jewish Day School education results in an intermarriage rate of not greater than 3%." This suggests that Jewish day schools, rather than the edict, are the decisive factor in discouraging intermarriage.


Bibliography

  • Abadi, J.F., A Fistful of Lentils: Syrian-Jewish Recipes from Grandma Fritzie's Kitchen: Harvard 2002. Hardback: ISBN 1-55832-218-3
  • Ades, Abraham, Derech Ere"tz: Bene Berak 1990
  • Collins, Lydia, The Sephardim of Manchester: Pedigrees and Pioneers: Manchester 2006 ISBN 0-9552980-0-8
  • Dobrinsky, Herbert C.: A treasury of Sephardic laws and customs: the ritual practices of Syrian, Moroccan, Judeo-Spanish and Spanish and Portuguese Jews of North America. Revised ed. Hoboken, N.J. : KTAV; New York, N.Y. : Yeshiva Univ. Press, 1988. ISBN 0-88125-031-7
  • Dweck, Poopa and Michael J. Cohen, Aromas of Aleppo: The Legendary Cuisine of Syrian Jews: HarperCollins 2007, ISBN 0060888180, ISBN 9780060888183
  • Harel, Yaron, Sifre Ere"tz: ha-Sifrut ha-Toranit shel Ḥachme Aram Tsoba (The Books of Aleppo: Torah Literature of the Rabbis of Aleppo): Jerusalem 1996 summarized here
  • Idelsohn, A.Z., Phonographierte Gesänge und Aussprachsproben des Hebräischen der jemenitischen, persischen und syrischen Juden: Vienna 1917
  • Kligman, Mark, Maqam and Liturgy: Ritual, Music and Aesthetics of Syrian Jews in Brooklyn, Detroit 2009
  • Laniado, David Tsion, La-Qedoshim asher ba-are"ts: Jerusalem 1935 repr. 1980
  • Laniado, Samuel, Debash ve-ḤALAB al-leshonech: Jerusalem 1998/9 (Hebrew)
  • Roden, Claudia, A New Book of Middle Eastern Food: London 1986 ISBN 0-14-046588-X
  • Roden, Claudia, The Book of Jewish Food: New York 1997, London 1999 ISBN 0-14-046609-6
  • Sethon, Menasheh, Kelale Diqduq ha-Qeriah, Aleppo 1914, printed in Ḥamwi, Peh Eliyahu pp. 391-400
  • Shelemay, Kay Kaufman, Let Jasmine Rain Down, Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology: 1998. Hardback: ISBN 0-226-75211-9, Paperback: ISBN 0-226-75212-7.
  • Sutton, David, Aleppo: City of Scholars: Artscroll 2005 ISBN 1-57819-056-8 (partly based on Laniado, La-Qedoshim asher ba-are"ts)
  • Sutton, Joseph, Aleppo Chronicles: the Story of the Unique Sepharadeem of the Ancient Near East – in their Own Words: Brooklyn 1988
  • Sutton, Joseph, Magic Carpet: Aleppo in Flatbush: Brooklyn 1979
  • Zenner, Walter P., A Global Community: The Jews from Aleppo, Syria: Wayne State University Press 2000 ISBN 0-8143-2791-5
  • _______."The Ethnography of Diaspora: Studying Syrian Jewry," Marshall Sklare Award address, 1997


Prayer books

Historic
  • Maḥzor Aram Tsoba: Venice 1527, 1560
  • Bet El (seliḥot and morning service), Abraham Ḥamwi: Livorno 1878 (repr. New York 1982)
  • Bet Din (Rosh Hashanah), Abraham Ḥamwi: Livorno 1878 (repr. Jerusalem 1986)
  • Bet ha-Kapporet (Kippur), Abraham Ḥamwi: Livorno 1879
  • Bet Simḥah (Sukkot), Abraham Ḥamwi: Livorno 1879 (repr. Jerusalem 1970)
  • Bet ha-Beḥirah (Pesaḥ), Abraham Ḥamwi: Livorno 1880 (repr. Jerusalem 1985)
  • Seder Olat Tamid (minḥah and arbit only): Aleppo 1907
  • Olat ha-Shaḥar: Aleppo 1915


Modern
  • Seder Seliḥot, ed. Shehebar: Jerusalem 1973
  • Bet Yosef ve-Ohel Abraham: Jerusalem, Manṣur (Hebrew only, based on Baghdadi text) 1974–1980
  • Siddur le-Tish'ah be-Ab, ed. Shehebar: Jerusalem 1976
  • Mahzor Shelom Yerushalayim, ed. Albeg: New York, Sephardic Heritage Foundation 1982
  • Siddur Kol Mordechai, ed. Faham bros: Jerusalem 1984 (minִhah and arbit only)
  • Sha'are Ratson, ed. Moshe Cohen: Tel Aviv 1988, repr. 2003 (High Holy Days only)
  • Kol Yaakob, ed. Alouf: New York, Sephardic Heritage Foundation 1990 (Hebrew only; revised edition 1996, Hebrew and English; a new edition is in preparation)
  • The Aram Soba Siddur: According to the Sephardic Custom of Aleppo Syria, Moshe Antebi: Jerusalem, Aram Soba Foundation 1993 (minḥah and arbit only)
  • Orḥot Ḥayim, ed. Yedid: Jerusalem 1995 (Hebrew only)
  • Orot Sephardic Siddur, Eliezer Toledano: Lakewood, NJ, Orot Inc. (Hebrew and English: Baghdadi text, Syrian variants shown in square brackets)
  • Siddur Abodat Haleb / Prayers from the Heart, Moshe Antebi, Lakewood, NJ: Israel Book Shop, 2002
  • Abir Yaakob, ed. Haber: Sephardic Press (Hebrew and English, Shabbat only)
  • Siddur Ve-ha'arev Na, ed. Isaac S.D. Sassoon, 2007


External links




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