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For other meanings, see Szczecin and Stettin .


Szczecin ( ; ; ) - is the capital city of West Pomeranian Voivodeshipmarker in Polandmarker. It is the country's seventh-largest city and the largest seaport in Poland on the Baltic Seamarker. As of the 2005 census the city had a total population of 420,638. In 2007 its population was 407,811.

Szczecin is located on the Oder River, south of the Lagoon of Szczecinmarker and the Bay of Pomeraniamarker. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lakemarker, on both sides of Oder and on several large islands between western and eastern branch of the river. Szczecin borders with town of Policemarker, seat of the Police Countymarker, situated at an estuary of the Oder River.

The city evolved from an early medieval Pomeranian stronghold, which in 1243 was merged with two adjacent German settlements, creating the present-day Old Town. At the site of the former stronghold, a castle was builtmarker as a residence of the Griffin dukes, who ruled the Duchy of Pomerania until 1637. In addition to the castle, the Brick Gothic churches were built in the medieval era. These landmarks still dominate the skyline and can be assessed via the European Route of Brick Gothic. Three important treaties were concluded in the town, the Treaty of Stettin ending the Northern Seven Years' War, the Treaty of Stettin settling the conditions of Swedish occupation of the Duchy of Pomerania during the Thirty Years' War, and the Treaty of Stettin settling the border between Brandenburg-Prussianmarker and Swedish Pomeraniamarker after the war.

Stettin remained with Sweden until the Treaty of Stockholm , when it was integrated into the Brandenburg-Prussian part of Pomerania. From 1815 to 1945, the city was the capital of both the reorganized Prussian Province of Pomeraniamarker and of its central government region. Stettin became the largest and most industrial city of the province, and the surrounding towns and villages were subsequently amalgamated. After the Second World War, the city was annexed by Poland, and its inhabitants fled or were forcibly expelled. Subsequently, the devastated town was rebuilt by Polish settlers. Szczecin became the capital of the Szczecin Voivodeship, which in 1999 was merged into the West Pomeranian Voivodeshipmarker.

Name and its etymology

City Hall
Tram in Szczecin


The name of Szczecin, its neighbourhood locations and oldest districts is considered to be of Slavic origins, however the exact word upon which it is based on is subject of ongoing research

Spelling variants in medieval sources include:

Other medieval names are:
  • Burstaborg, in the Knytlinga saga
  • Burstenburgh, in the Annales of Waldemar
These names, literally "brush burgh", most possibly are derived from the translation of the city's Slavic name.

Maria Malec in Etymological dictionary of geographical names of Poland has counted 11 distinct theories regarding the origin of the name, that may be derived from

Historian Marian Gumowski (1881-1974) argued, based on his studies of early city stamps and seals, that the earliest name of the town was, in modern Polish spelling, Szczycin.

In Latin language, the city is referred to as Stetinum.

In 1310, Wartislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania founded the city of Neustettin ("New Stettin", now Szczecinekmarker). For distinction, the town was called Alten Stettin, Alten-Stettin or Altenstettin ("Old Stettin", ).

History

Middle Ages

Alten Stettin, 1575
The Old Town Hall, now the city's history museum
The Old Town was rebuilt in the late 1990s, consisting of new buildings, some of which were reconstructions of buildings destroyed in WWII


The history of Szczecin began in the 8th century, when West Slavs settled Pomerania and erected a stronghold on the site of the modern castlemarker. Since the 9th century, the stronghold was fortified and expanded toward the Oder bank. Mieszko I of Poland and Piast rulers took control of parts of Pomerania between the 960s and 1005, but not of the lower Oder region. Subsequent Polish rulers, the Holy Roman Empire and the Liutician federation aimed at control of the territory.

After the decline of neighboring regional center Wolinmarker in the 12th century, the settlement became one of the more important and powerful seaports of the Baltic Sea south coasts.

In a campaign in the winter of 11211122, Bolesław III Wrymouth, the Duke of Poland, gained control of the region and the stronghold.

The inhabitants were converted to Christianity by two missions of bishop Otto of Bamberg in 1124 and 1128. At this time, the first Christian church of St. Peter and Paul was erected. Polish minted coins were commonly used in trade in this period.

Polish superiority ended with Boleslaw's death in 1138. During the Wendish Crusade in 1147, a contingent led by the German margrave Albert the Bear, an enemy of Slavic presence in the region, papal legat Anselm of Havelberg and bishop Konrad of Meißen sieged the town. There, a Polish contingent supplied by Mieszko III the Old joined the crusaders. However the citizens had placed crosses around the fortifications, indicating they already had been Christianized. Ratibor I, Duke of Pomerania, negotiated the disbandement of the crusading forces.

After the Battle of Verchen in 1164, Stettin duke Bogislaw I became a vassal of the Saxony's Henry the Lion. In 1173, Stettin castellan Wartislaw II could not resist a Danish attack and became vassal of Denmarkmarker. In 1181, duke Bogislaw I of Stettin became a vassal of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1185, the dukes were again vassals of Denmark. The burgh was manned with a Danish force and reconstructed in 1190. The empire restored her superiority in the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227.

In the second half of the 12th century, a group of German tradesmen ("multus populus Teutonicorum" from various parts of the Holy Roman Empire) settled in the city around St. Jacob's Church, which was donated in 1180 by Beringer, a trader from Bambergmarker, and consecrated in 1187. Hohenkrug (now in Szczecin-Struga) was the first village in the Duchy of Pomerania clearly recorded as German (villa teutonicorum) in 1173. German settlement (Ostsiedlung) accelerated in Pomerania during the 13th century. Duke Barnim of Pomerania granted a local government charter to this community in 1237, separating the German settlement from the Slavic community settled around the St. Nicholas Church in the neighborhood of Kessin ( ). In the charter, the Slavs were put under German jurisdiction.

When Barnim granted Stettin Magdeburg Law in 1243, the old Slavic settlement with its burgh was included within the city limits, which is exceptional for Pomeranian towns usually not comprising former Slavic settlements or burghs, though sometimes founded in close proximity. The former Slavic settlement was dissolved when, after the town was placed under German town law, the duke had to promise to level the burgh in 1249. Most Slavic inhabitants were resettled to two new suburbia ( ) north and south of the town. Last records of Slavs in Stettin are from the 14th century, when a Slavic bath (1350) and bakery are recorded, and within the walls, Slavs lived in a street named Schulzenstrasse. By the end of the century, the remaining Slavs had been assimilated.

In 1249, Barnim granted town law also the town of Damm (also Altdamm) on the eastern bank of the Oder, which only on 15 October 1939 was merged to neighboring Stettin and is now the Szczecin-Dąbiemarker neighborhood. This town had been built on the site of a former Pomeranian burg, "Vadam" or "Dambe", which Boleslaw had destroyed during his 1121 campaign.

Stettin joined the Hanseatic League in 1278. The anti-Slavic policies of German merchants and craftsmen intensified in this period, resulting in bans on people of Slavic descent joining craft guilds, or even bans against public usage of native Slavic language. In Szczecin, richer Slavic citizens were forcefully stripped of their possessions which were awarded to Germans.

While not as heavily affected by medieval witchhunts as other regions of the empire, there are reports of the burning of three women and one man convicted of witchcraft in 1538.

Modern Age

The town's fortifications as seen in 1642
Harbour as seen in 1900
Sedina Monument (1899-1913)


In 1570, during the reign of Pomeranian duke Johann Friedrich, a congress was held at Stettin ending the Northern Seven Years' War. During the war, Stettin had tended to side with Denmarkmarker, while Stralsundmarker tended toward Swedenmarker - as a whole, the Duchy of Pomerania however tried to maintain neutrality. Nevertheless, a Landtag that had met in Stettin in 1563 introduced a sixfold rise of real estate taxes to finance the raising of a mercenary army for the duchy's defense. Johann Friedrich also succeeded in elevating Stettin to one of only three places allowed to coin money in the Upper Saxon Circle of the Holy Roman Empire, the other two places were Leipzigmarker and Berlinmarker.

The early deaths of several Pomeranian dukes in the beginning 17th century gave rise to superstitions, resulting in the witch trial and conviction of 72-year old noble Sidonia von Borcke in 1620. She was decapitated and her body burned in Stettin, outside the mill gate. Bogislaw XIV, who resided in Stettin since 1620, became the sole, and last Griffin duke when Philipp Julius died in 1625. Before the Thirty Years' War reached Pomerania, Stettin as all of the duchy declined economically due to the sinking importance of the Hanseatic League and a conflict between Stettin and Frankfurt marker.

Since the Treaty of Stettin of 1630, the town along with most of Pomerania was allied to and occupied by the Swedish Empire, who managed to keep the western parts of Pomeraniamarker after the death of Bogislaw XIV in 1637 and the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, despite the protests of Elector Frederick William of Brandenburgmarker, who had a legal claim to inherit all of Pomerania. The exact partition of Pomerania between Sweden and Brandenburg was settled in Stettin in 1653. In 1720, after the Great Northern War, the Swedes were forced to cede the city to King Frederick William I of Prussia. Stettin developed into a major Prussianmarker city and became part of the Prussian-led German Empiremarker in 1871.

The Polish population numbered 3,000 people, including a few wealthy industrialists and merchants, before World War I. Among them was Kazimierz Pruszak, director of industrial works Gollnow, and a Polish patriot who predicted eventual return of Szczecin to Poland.

In 1935 the German Wehrmacht made Stettin the headquarters for Wehrkreis II, which controlled the military units in all of Mecklenburg and Pomerania. It was also the Area Headquarters for units stationed at Stettin I and II; Swinemündemarker; Greifswaldmarker; and Stralsundmarker.

In 1939 Stettin had about 400,000 inhabitants, the surrounding villages were included into "Groß-Stettin". It was Germany's third-biggest seaport (after Hamburgmarker and Bremenmarker) and was of great importance for the supply and trade of Berlinmarker. Cars of the Stoewer automobile company were produced in Stettin from 1899 - 1945.

In the interwar period the Polish presence fell from 3,000 people to 2,000 people. Nevertheless the Polish minority remained active despite repressions . A number of Poles were members of Union of Poles in Germany, a Polish scouts team was established. Additionally a Polish school was created where Polish language was taught. Repressions, intensified especially after Adolf Hitler came to power led to closing of the school. Members of Polish community who took part in cultural and political activities were persecuted and even murdered. In 1938 the head of Szczecin’s Union of Poles unit Stanisław Borkowski was imprisoned in Oranienburgmarker . In 1939 all Polish organisations in Szczecin were disbanded by German authorities and during the war teachers from Polish school, Golisz and Omieczyński murdered.

During the 1939 invasion of Poland, which started World War II in Europe, Stettin was the base for the German 2nd Motorized Infantry Division, which cut across the Polish Corridor.

As the war started the number of non-Germans in the city increased as slave workers were brought in. The first transports came in 1939 from Bydgoszczmarker, Toruńmarker and Łódżmarker. They were mainly used in synthetic silk factory near Szczecin. Next wave of slave workers was brought in 1940 in addition to PoWs who were used to work in agricultural industry. According to German police reports from 1940 the Polish population in the city reached 15,000 people, while 25,000 foreigners were registered in general.

In February 1940, the Jews of Stettin were deported to the Lublin reservation. International press reports emerged writing how the Nazis forced Jews regardless of age, condition and gender to sign away all property-including wedding rings-and loaded on trains escorted by SA and SS. Due to publicity of the event, German institutions ordered such actions in the future to be made in a way not arousing public notice.

During the war 135 work camps for slave workers were established in the city. Most of the slave workers were Poles, besides them Czechs, Italians, Frenchmen and Belgians as well Dutch were served in the camps.

Allied air raids in 1944 and heavy fighting between the German and Sovietmarker armies destroyed 65% of Stettin's buildings and almost all of the city centre, seaport and industries.In April 1945 the authorities of the city issued an order of evacuation and most of the city’s German population fled.

post-World War II



The Soviet Red Army captured the city on 26 April 1945. Many of the city's inhabitants fled before its capture, and Stettin was virtually deserted when it fell, with only 6,000 Germans in the city when Polish authorities took control . In the following month the Polish administration was forced to leave again two times, finally the permanent handover occurred on 5 July 1945. In the meantime part of the German population had returned, believing it might become part of the Soviet occupation zonemarker of Germany and the Soviet authorities had already appointed the German Communists Erich Spiegel and Erich Wiesner as mayors. Stettin is located mostly west of the Oder river, which was considered to become Poland's new border. Because of the returnees, the German population of the town swelled to 84,000 again. The mortality rate was at 20%, primarily due to starvation. However, Stettin and the mouth of the Oder River ( ), also became Polish as already stated in Treaty signed on 26 VII 1944 between Soviet Union and PKWN and confirmed during Potsdam Conference . On 4 October 1945, the decisive land border of Poland was laid out west of the 1945 line, but excluded the Police marker area, the Oder river itself and the Szczecin port, which remained under Sovietmarker administration. The Oder river was handed over to Polish administration in September 1946, and the port was subsequently handed over between February 1946 and May 1954.

The Polish authorities were led by Piotr Zaremba. He wrote: "The Poles rule in Germany, and the Germans duck". Many remaining Germans were forced to work in Soviet military camps that were outside of Polish jurisdiction. In Stettin-Scheune, a transit camp for German expellees was set up, infamous for looting and rapes.

In 1945 the Polish community in Stettin consisted of forced labourers from the General government. Contemporary to the expulsion of the German population, Stettin was resettled with Poles. Additional Poles were moved to the city from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. This settlement process was coordinated by the city of Poznań, and Stettin's name was restored to the Polish name Szczecin. In 1947, after Operation Vistula, a significant number of Ukrainians came to Szczecin, having been forced by the Communist government to leave eastern Poland.

The new citizens of Szczecin rebuilt and extended the city's industry and industrial areas, as well as its cultural heritage, although efforts were hampered by the authorities of Communist Poland. Szczecin became a major Polish industrial centre and an important seaport (particularly for Silesian coal) for both Poland, Czechoslovakiamarker, and East Germanymarker. The city witnessed anti-communist revolts in 1970 and 1980 and participated in the growth of the Solidarity movement during the 1980s. Since 1999 Szczecin has been the capital of the West Pomeranian Voivodeshipmarker.

Historical population

  • 12th century: 5,000 inhabitants
  • 1709: 6,000 inhabitants
  • 1711: 4,000 inhabitants (Black Death)
  • 1720: 6,000 inhabitants
  • 1740: 12,300 inhabitants
  • 1816: 21,500 inhabitants
  • 1816: 26,000 inhabitants
  • 1843: 37,100 inhabitants
  • 1861: 58,500 inhabitants
  • 1872: 76,000 inhabitants
  • 1875: 80,972 inhabitants
  • 1890: 116,228 inhabitants[4816]
  • 1900: 210,680 inhabitants (including amalgated suburbs)[4817]
  • 1910: 236,113 inhabitants[4818]
  • 1939: 382,000 inhabitants
  • 1945: 260,000 inhabitants (majority of the German population fled the advancing Red Army or was later expelled)
  • 1950: 180,000 inhabitants (drop due to continuing expulsions of Germans; arrival of Polish and Jewish settlers, partially from the Polish territories annexed by the Soviet Union as well as some Polish citizens of the Ukrainian descent; see also "Recovered Territories", Repatriation of Poles , Operation Wisla)
  • 1960: 269,400 inhabitants
  • 1970: 338,000 inhabitants
  • 1975: 369,700 inhabitants
  • 1980: 388,300 inhabitants
  • 1990: 412.600 inhabitants
  • 1995: 418.156 inhabitants
  • 2000: 415,748 inhabitants
  • 2002: 415,117 inhabitants
  • 2003: 414,032 inhabitants
  • 2004: 411,900 inhabitants
  • 2005: 411,119 inhabitants
  • 2007: 407,811 inhabitants


Architecture and urban planning

Lotników Square
Jasne Błonia Square


Szczecin's architectural style is mainly influenced by those of the last half of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th century: Academic art and Art Nouveau. In many areas built after 1945, especially in the city centre, which had been destroyed due to Allied bombing, social realism is prevalent.

Urban planning of Szczecin is unusual. The first thing observed by a newcomer is abundance of green areas: parks and avenues wide streets with trees planted in the island separating opposite traffic (where often tram tracks are laid); and roundabouts. Thus, Szczecin's city plan resembles that of Parismarker. This is because Szczecin was rebuilt in the 1880s according to a design by Georges-Eugène Haussmann, who had redesigned Paris under Napoléon III.

This course of designing streets in Szczecin is still used, as many recently built (or modified) city areas include roundabouts and avenues.

Within Szczecin's boundaries is part of the protected area called Szczecin Landscape Parkmarker in the forest of Puszcza Bukowa.

Municipal administration

The city is administratively divided into boroughs (Polish: dzielnica), which are further divided into smaller neighbourhoods. The governing bodies of the latter serve the role of auxiliary local government bodies called Neighborhood Councils (Polish: Rady Osiedla). Elections for Neighborhood Councils are held up to six months after each City Council elections. Attendance is rather low (on 20 May 2007 it ranged from 1.03% to 27.75% and was 3.78% on average). Councillors are responsible mostly for small infrastructure like trees, park benches, playgrounds, etc. Other functions are mostly advisory. Official list of districts

Dzielnica Śródmieście (City Centre)Centrum, Drzetowo-Grabowo, Łękno, Międzyodrze-Wyspa Pucka, Niebuszewo-Bolinko, Nowe Miasto, Stare Miasto, Śródmieście Północ, Śródmieście-Zachód, Turzyn.

Dzielnica Północ (North)Bukowo, Golęcino-Gocław, Niebuszewo, Skolwin, Stołczyn, Warszewo, Żelechowa.
Szczecin's boroughs
Dzielnica Zachód (West)Głębokie-Pilchowo, Gumieńce, Krzekowo-Bezrzecze, os.Arkońskie-Niemierzyn, Osów, Pogodno, Pomorzany, Świerczewo, os.Zawadzkiego-Klonowica.

Dzielnica Prawobrzeże (Right-Bank)Bukowe-Klęskowo, Dąbiemarker, Majowe-Kijewo, Płonia-Śmierdnica-Jezierzyce, Podjuchy, os.Słonecznemarker, Wielgowo-Sławociesze, Załom, Zdrojemarker, Żydowce-Klucz.

Other historical neighborhoods

Babin, Barnucin, Basen Górniczy, Błędów, Boleszyce, Bystrzyk, Cieszyce, Cieśnik, Dolina, Drzetowo, Dunikowo, Glinki, Grabowo, Jezierzyce, Kaliny, Kępa Barnicka, Kijewko, Kluczewko, Kłobucko, Kniewo, Kraśnica, Krzekoszów, Lotnisko, Łasztownia, Niemierzyn, Odolany, Oleszna, Podbórz, Port, os.Przyjaźni, Rogatka, Rudnik, Sienna, Skoki, Słowieńsko, Sosnówko, Starków, Stoki, Struga, Śmierdnica, os.Świerczewskie, Trzebusz, Urok, Widok, Zdunowo.

Members of European Parliament (MEPs) from Szczecin



Economy

PAZIM building
Szczecin Shipyard


Szczecin has three shipyards (Stocznia Remontowa Gryfia, Stocznia Pomerania, Stocznia Szczecińska), of which one is the biggest in Poland (Stocznia Szczecińska, which five years ago went bankrupt and was reinstated). It has a fishing industry and a steel mill. It is served by Szczecin-Goleniów "Solidarność" Airport and by the Port of Szczecin, third biggest port of Poland. It is also home to several major companies. Among them is the major food producer Drobimex, Polish Steamship Company, producer of construction materials Komfort, Bosman brewery and Cefarm drug factory. It also houses several of the new business firms in the IT sector.

Transportation

There is a popular public transit system operating throughout Szczecin, including a bus network and electric trams, that is run by ZDiTM.

The A6 motorway (recently upgraded) serves as the southern bypass of the city, and connects to the German A11 autobahn (portions of which are currently undergoing upgrade), from where one can reach Berlin in about 90 minutes (about 150 km). Road connections with the rest of Poland are of lower quality (no motorways), though the Express Road S3 that is currently under construction will begin to improve the situation after its stretch from Szczecin to Gorzów Wielkopolskimarker is opened around 2010. Construction of Express Roads S6 and S10 which are to run east from Szczecin has also started, though these roads will not be fully completed until about 2015.

Szczecin has good railway connections with the rest of Poland, but it is connected by only two single track, non-electrified lines with Germany to the west (high quality double-track lines were degraded after 1945). Because of this, the rail connection between Berlin and Szczecin is much slower and less convenient than one would expect between two European cities of that size and proximity.

Szczecin is served by Szczecin-Goleniów "Solidarność" Airport which is 45 km northeast of the city.

Culture

Major cultural events in Szczecin are:
  • Days of the Sea (Polish Dni Morza) held every June.
  • Street Artists' Festival (Polish Festiwal Artystów Ulicy) held every July.
  • Days of The Ukrainian Culture (Polish Dni Kultury Ukraińskiej) held every May.
  • Air show on Dabie airport held every May.


Museums

  • National Museum in Szczecin (Polish Muzeum Narodowe w Szczecinie) collects arts, old jewelry, military equipment. It has three branches:
    • Museum of the City of Szczecin (Polish Muzeum Miasta Szczecina).
    • Maritime Museum (Polish Muzeum Morskie).
    • Gallery of Contemporary Arts (Polish Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej).
  • Museum of the Szczecin Archidiocese (Polish Muzeum Archidiecezjalne w Szczecinie) collects sacral arts and historical documents.
    • EUREKA - the miracles of science. EUREKA


Arts and entertainment

The Pleciuga Puppetry Theatre (newly built)
  • Bismarck tower Szczecin
  • Kana Theatre (Polish Teatr Kana)
  • Modern Theatre (Polish Teatr Współczesny)
  • Opera in the Castle (Polish Opera na Zamku)
  • Polish Theatre (Polish Teatr Polski)
  • (ruins of) The Quistorp's Tower (Polish Wieża Quistorpa, German Quistorpturm)
  • The Pomeranian Dukes' Castle in Szczecinmarker (Polish Zamek Książąt Pomorskich w Szczecinie)
  • The Castle Cinema (Polish Kino Zamek)
  • The Cellar by the Vault Cabaret (Polish Kabaret Piwnica przy Krypcie)
  • The Crypt Theatre (Polish Teatr Krypta)
  • The Pleciuga Puppetry Theatre (Polish Teatr Lalek Pleciuga)


Education and science

The Rector Building of University of Szczecin


Scientific and regional organizations



Sports

The Match of Pogoń Szczecin
There are many popular professional sports team in Szczecin area. The most popular sport today is probably football (thanks to Pogoń Szczecin just promoted to play in the 1st league in season 2004/2005). Amateur sports are played by thousands of Szczecin citizens and also in schools of all levels (elementary, secondary, university).

Professional teams



Amateur leagues



International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

The twin towns and sister cities of Szczecin are:


Famous residents

Before 1945



After 1945



Panorama

See also



References

  1. Tadeusz Białecki, "Historia Szczecina" Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1992 Wrocław. Pages 9,20-55, 92-95, 258-260, 300-306
  2. Gerard Labuda, Władysław Filipowiak, Helena Chłopocka, Maciej Czarnecki, Tadeusz Białecki, Zygmunt Silski, Dzieje Szczecina 1-4, Państwowe Wydawn. Nauk., 1994, p.14, ISBN 8301043423
  3. Merians anmüthige Städte-Chronik, das ist historische und wahrhaffte Beschreibung und zugleich Künstliche Abcontrafeyung zwantzig vornehmbster und bekantester in unserm geliebten Vatterland gelegenen Stätte, 1642
  4. Stanisław Rospond, Slawische Namenkunde Ausg. 1, Nr. 3, C. Winter, 1989, p.162
  5. Słownik etymologiczny nazw geograficznych Polski Profesor Maria Malec PWN 2003
  6. Zdzisław Kaczmarczyk, Problematyka polsko-niemiecka i polskich Ziem Zachodnich w badaniach Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu (1919-1969), Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 1971, pg 134
  7. Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk Wydział Filologiczno-Filozoficzny, Slavia occidentalis, 1974, pg. 13
  8. Examples for this usage are: Kirchen Visitatio zu Alten-Stettin, Bescheid und Ordnung, 1535; Resolution des Ausschusses der Stände, Altenstettin 1595; Daniel Cramer, Pommerische Kirchen Chronica, Alten-Stettin 1603; Friedeborn, Histor. Beschreibung der Stadt Alten-Stettin in Pommern., 1613; Aulicae vitae Institutiones, Alten Stettin 1693; Christoph Tetzloff, Die stetige Zuflucht eines Gottesmenschen zum Herrn, Alten-Stettin, 1719; M. Stephani, Von der Pest und andern Kranckheiten, Alten-Stettin 1734
  9. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.52, ISBN 839061848
  10. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, pp.31,32, ISBN 839061848
  11. Paul W. Knoll, Frank Schaer, annotaded Gesta Principum Polonorum: The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles by Gallus, Central European University Press, 2003, p.32, ISBN 9639241407: "It is assumed that Mieszko I some time before 967 defeated the Wolinians, [...] but could not conquer the estituary of the Oder River; no campaign of Boleslaw I to that region is known."
  12. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.36, ISBN 839061848
  13. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, pp.31,36,43 ISBN 839061848: p.31 (yrs 967-after 1000 AD):"[...] gelang es den polnischen Herrschern sicherlich nicht, Wollin und die Odermündung zu unterwerfen." p.36: "Von 1119 bis 1122 eroberte er schließlich das pommersche Odergebiet mit Stettin, [...]" p.43: "[...] während Rügen 1168 erobert und in den dänischen Staat einverleibt wurde."
  14. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.100-101, ISBN 3886802728
  15. Norbert Buske, Pommern, Helms Schwerin 1997, pp.11ff, ISBN 3-931185-07-9
  16. Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, pp.15ff, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2: pp.14-15:"Die westslawischen Stämme der Obroditen, Lutizen und Pomoranen konnten sich lange der Eroberung widersetzen. Die militärisch überlegenen Mächte im Norden und Osten, im Süden und im Westen übten jedoch einen permanenten Druck auf den südlichen Ostseeraum aus. Dieser ging bis 1135 hauptsächlich von Polen aus. Der polnische Herzog Boleslaw III Krzywousty (Schiefmund) unterwarf in mehreren Feldzügen bis 1121 pomoranisches Stammland mit den Hauptburgen Cammin und Stettin und drang weiter gen Westen vor." p.17: Das Interesse Waldemars richtete sich insbesondere auf das Siedlungsgebiet der Ranen, die nördlich des Ryck und auf Rügen siedelten und die sich bislang gegen Eroberer und Christianisierungsversuche gewehrt hatten. [...] und nahmen 1168 an König Waldemar I. Kriegszug gegen die Ranen teil. Arkona wurde erobert und zerstört. Die unterlegenen Ranen versprachen, das Christentum anzunehmen, die Oberhoheit des Dänenkönigs anzuerkennen und Tribut zu leisten."
  17. Malcolm Barber, "The two cities: medieval Europe, 1050-1320", Routledge, 2004, pg. 330 [1]
  18. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, pp.36ff, ISBN 839061848
  19. Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p.17, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2: "Mit dem Tod Kaiser Lothars 1137 endete der sächsische Druck auf Wartislaw I., und mit dem Ableben Boleslaw III. auch die polnische Oberhoheit."
  20. Bernhard Schimmelpfennig, Könige und Fürsten, Kaiser und Papst nach dem Wormser Konkordat, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 1996, p.16, ISBN 3486550349
  21. Horst Fuhrmann, Deutsche Geschichte im hohen Mittelalter: Von der Mitte des 11. Bis zum Ende des 12. Jahrhunderts, 4th edition, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2003, p.147, ISBN 352533589
  22. Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer, The Encyclopedia of world history, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001, pg 206, [2]
  23. Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-06-097468-0, p. 362
  24. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.43, ISBN 839061848: Greater Polish continguents of Mieszko the Elder
  25. Jean Richard, Jean Birrell, "The Crusades, c. 1071-c. 1291", Cambridge University Press, 1999, pg. 158, [3]
  26. Jonathan Riley-Smith, "The Crusades: A History", Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005, pg. 130, [4]
  27. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.30, ISBN 3886802728
  28. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.34, ISBN 3886802728
  29. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.35, ISBN 3886802728
  30. Université de Caen. Centre de recherches archéologiques médiévales, Château-Gaillard: études de castellologie médiévale, XVIII : actes du colloque international tenu à Gilleleje, Danemark, 24-30 août 1996, CRAHM, 1998, p.218, ISBN 290268505
  31. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.43, ISBN 3886802728
  32. Jan Maria Piskorski, Slawen und Deutsche in Pommern im Mittelalter, in Klaus Herbers, Nikolas Jaspert, Grenzräume und Grenzüberschreitungen im Vergleich: der Osten und der Westen des mittelalterlichen Lateineuropa, Akademie Verlag, 2007, p.85, ISBN 3050041552
  33. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.43ff, ISBN 3886802728
  34. Jan Maria Piskorski, Slawen und Deutsche in Pommern im Mittelalter, in Klaus Herbers, Nikolas Jaspert, Grenzräume und Grenzüberschreitungen im Vergleich: der Osten und der Westen des mittelalterlichen Lateineuropa, Akademie Verlag, 2007, p.86, ISBN 3050041552
  35. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.75, ISBN 3886802728
  36. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.83, ISBN 3886802728
  37. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.84, ISBN 3886802728
  38. Jan Maria Piskorski, Slawen und Deutsche in Pommern im Mittelalter, in Klaus Herbers, Nikolas Jaspert, Grenzräume und Grenzüberschreitungen im Vergleich: der Osten und der Westen des mittelalterlichen Lateineuropa, Akademie Verlag, 2007, p.87, ISBN 3050041552
  39. Jan Maria Piskorski, Slawen und Deutsche in Pommern im Mittelalter, in Klaus Herbers, Nikolas Jaspert, Grenzräume und Grenzüberschreitungen im Vergleich: der Osten und der Westen des mittelalterlichen Lateineuropa, Akademie Verlag, 2007, p.88, ISBN 3050041552
  40. Roderich Schmidt, Pommern und Mecklenburg, Böhlau, 1981, p.61, ISBN 3412069760
  41. Peter Johanek, Franz-Joseph Post, Städtebuch Hinterpommern 2-3, Kohlhammer, 2003, p.277, ISBN 3170181521
  42. Johannes Hinz, Pommernlexikon, Kraft, 1994, p.25, ISBN 3808311649
  43. Hubertus Fischer, Klosterfrauen, Klosterhexen: Theodor Fontanes Sidonie von Borcke im kulturellen Kontext : Klosterseminar des Fontane-Kreises Hannover der Theodor-Fontane-Gesellschaft e.V. mit dem Konvent des Klosters St. Marienberg vom 14. bis 15. November 2003 in Helmstedt, Rübenberger Verlag Tania Weiss, 2005, p.22, ISBN 3936788073
  44. Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p.62, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2
  45. Joachim Krüger, Zwischen dem Reich und Schweden: die landesherrliche Münzprägung im Herzogtum Pommern und in Schwedisch-Pommern in der frühen Neuzeit (ca. 1580 bis 1715), LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 2006, pp.53-55, ISBN 3825897680
  46. Marion George, Andrea Rudolph, Hexen: historische Faktizität und fiktive Bildlichkeit, J.H.Röll Verlag, 2004, p.136, ISBN 3897542250
  47. Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p.65, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2
  48. Polonia szczecińska 1890-1939 Anna Poniatowska Bogusław Drewniak, Poznań 1961
  49. The Origins of the Final Solution Christopher R. Browning, Jürgen Matthäus page 64 University of Nebraska Press, 2007
  50. Szczecin.pl
  51. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.376, ISBN 839061848
  52. Grete Grewolls: Wer war wer in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern? Ein Personenlexikon. Edition Temmen, Bremen 1995, ISBN 3-86108-282-9, p. 467.
  53. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.377, ISBN 839061848
  54. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, pp.380-381, ISBN 839061848
  55. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.383, ISBN 839061848
  56. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.532, ISBN 3886802728
  57. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.416, ISBN 3886802728
  58. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.534, ISBN 3886802728
  59. Selwyn Ilan Troen, Benjamin Pinkus, Merkaz le-moreshet Ben-Guryon, Organizing Rescue: National Jewish Solidarity in the Modern Period, pp.283-284, 1992, ISBN 0714634131
  60. Cezar Bîrzea, Council of Europe. Council for Cultural Co-operation. Human rights and minorities in the new European democracies: educational and cultural aspects, 1996, pp.118,119, ISBN 9287129754
  61. esbjergkommune.dk accessed Feb-2008


Publications

  • W. H. Meyer, Stettin in alter und neuer Zeit, Stettin, 1887 (de)
  • Encyclopedia of Szczecin. Vol. I, A-O. Szczecin: University of Szczecin, 1999, ISBN 83-87341-45-2 (pl)
  • Encyclopedia of Szczecin. Vol. II, P-Ż. Szczecin: University of Szczecin, 2000, ISBN 83-7241-089-5 (pl)
  • Jan M. Piskorski, Bogdan Wachowiak, Edward Włodarczyk, A short history of Szczecin, Poznań 2002, ISBN 83-7063-332-3 (pl)


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