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The T-64 is a Sovietmarker main battle tank, introduced in the early 1960s. It was used solely by the Soviet Army in its front-line divisions and was a more advanced counterpart to the T-62. Although the T-62 and the famed T-72 would see much wider use and generally more development, it was the T-64 that formed the basis of more modern Soviet tank designs like the T-80.

Overview

The T-64 was conceived in Kharkov (Kharkivmarker, Ukraine) as the next-generation main battle tank by Alexander A. Morozov, the designer of the T-54 (which in the meantime would be incrementally improved by Leonid N. Kartsev's Nizhny Tagil bureau, in models T-54A, T-54B, T-55, and T-55A).

A revolutionary feature of the T-64 is the incorporation of an automatic loader for its 115-mm gun, allowing a crewmember's position to be omitted, and helping to keep the size and weight of the tank down. Tank troopers would joke that the designers had finally caught up with their unofficial hymn, "Three Tankers"—the song had been written to commemorate the crewmen fighting in the Battle of Khalkhin Golmarker, in 3-man BT-5 tanks in 1939.

The T-64 also pioneered other Soviet tank technology: the T-64A model of 1967 introduced the 125-mm smoothbore gun, and the T-64B of 1976 would be able to fire a guided antitank missile through its gun barrel.

The T-64 design was further developed as the gas turbine-powered T-80 main battle tank. The turret of the T-64B would be used in the improved T-80U and T-80UD, and an advanced version of its diesel engine would power T-80UD and T-84 tanks built in Ukraine.

The T-64 would be used only by the Soviet Army and never exported, unlike the T-54/55. It was superior to these tanks in most qualitative terms, until the introduction of the T-72B model in 1985. The tank equipped elite and regular formations in Eastern Europe and elsewhere, the T-64A model being first deployed with East Germany's Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG) in 1976, and some time later in Hungary's Southern Group of Forces (SFG). By 1981 the improved T-64B began to be deployed in East Germany and later in Hungarymarker. While it was believed that the T-64 was "only" reserved for elite units, it was also used by much lower "non-ready formations", for example, the Odessamarker Military District's 14th Army.

With the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, T-64 tanks remained in the arsenals of constituent republics. Currently, slightly fewer than 2,000 of the old Soviet inventory of T-64 tanks are in service with the military of Ukrainemarker and about 4,000 remain in service with the Russian Ground Forces.

Development history

The initial requirement

Recognizing that the T-55/T-62 lineage had finally exhausted its potential for improvement, the USSR embarked upon the development of an entirely new tank design that could defeat new Western tanks like the British Chieftain and resist new Western anti-tank weapons.

Project 430

Studies for the design of a new battle tank started as early as 1951. The KB-60M team was formed at the Kharkovmarker construction bureau of the Kharkov transport machine-building factory No. 75 named for Malyshev ( ) by engineers coming back from Nizhniy Tagilmarker, with A.A. Morozov at its head. A project named obyekt 430 gave birth to three prototypes which were tested in Kubinkamarker in 1958. Those vehicles showed characteristics which were going to radically change the design of battle tanks on this side of the Iron Curtain. For the first time, an extremely compact opposed-cylinder engine was used : the 4TD, designed by the plant's engine design team. The transmission system comprised two lateral gears on each side of the engine. Those two innovations yielded a very short engine compartment with the opening located beneath the turret. The engine compartment volume was almost half that of the T-54. The cooling system was extracting and a new lightweight suspension was fitted, featuring hollow metallic wheels of a small diameter and caterpillar tracks with rubber joints.

The tank would keep a D-10TS 100 mm gun and frontal armour of 120 mm. As it did not present a clear superiority in terms of combat characteristics when compared to the T-55 which was entering active service, Morozov decided that production was not yet ready given the project's drawbacks. However, studies conducted on the obyekt 430U, featuring a 122 mm gun and 160 mm of armour, demonstrated that the tank had the potential to fit the firepower and armour of a heavy tank on a medium tank chassis. A new project was consequently started, obyekt 432.

Project 432

The gun fitted on this new tank was a powerful 115 mm D-68 (2A21). A potentially risky decision was taken to replace the human loader by an electro-hydraulic automatic system, never used on tanks before. The crew was reduced to three, which allowed an important reduction in internal volume, and consequently in weight, from 36 tonnes (obyekt 430) to 30.5 tonnes. The height dropped by 76 mm.

However, the arrival of the British 105 mm L7 gun and the US M-68 variant of it, fitted respectively to the Centurion and M60 tanks, forced the team to undertake another audacious première, with the adoption of a composite armour. The recently created process was called "K combination" by Western armies: this protection consisted of an aluminium alloy layer between two high strength steel layers. As a consequence, the weight of the prototype rose eventually to 34 tonnes. But as the engine was now a 700 hp (515 kW) 5TDF (also locally designed), its mobility remained excellent, far superior to the active T-62. The obyekt 432 was ready in September 1962 and the production started in October 1963 in Kharkov plant. On December 30, 1966, it entered its service as the T-64.

T-64A

The T-64 has a characteristic exhaust vent in the rear


Even as the first T-64s were rolling off the assembly lines, the design team was working on a new version which would allow it to keep firepower superiority, named obyekt 434. The brand new and very powerful 125 mm D-81T gun, from the Permmarker weapons factory, was fitted to the tank. This gun was merely a scaled-up version of the 115 mm smoothbore cannon from the T-62. The larger size of the 125 mm ammunition meant less could be carried inside the T-64, and with a fourth crewman loader taking up space as well, the tank would only have a 25-round capacity. This was unacceptably low for the Soviet designers, but strict dimensional parameters forbade them from enlarging the tank to increase interior space. The solution was to replace the human loader with a mechanical autoloader, cutting the crew to three and marking the first use of autoloaders in a Soviet MBT.(Perrett 1987:42) The 6ETs10 autoloader has 28 rounds and can fire 8 shots per minute; the stabiliser, a 2E23, was coupled to the new TPD-2-1 (1G15-1) sight. Night driving was also adapted with the new TPN-1-43A periscope which would benefit from the illumination of a powerful infrared L2G projector, fitted on the left side of the gun. The shielding was improved, with fibreglass replacing the aluminium alloy in the armour, and small spring-mounted plates fitted along the mudguards (known as the Gill skirt), to cover the top of the suspension and the side tanks. They were however extremely fragile and were often removed. Some small storage spaces were created along the turret, with a compartment on the right and three boxes on the front left. Schnorkels were mounted on the rear of the turret. A NBC protection system was fitted and the hatches were widened.

Prototypes were tested in 1966 and 1967 and, as production began after the six hundredth T-64, it entered service in the Soviet Army under the T-64A designation. Chief engineer Alexander Morozov was awarded the Lenin Prize for this model's success.

Designed for elite troops, the T-64A was constantly updated as available equipment was improved. After only three years in service, a first modernisation occurred, regarding :
  • fire control, by replacing the sights with a TPD-2-49 and a TPN-1-49-23, and stabilisation by mounting a 2E26 system.
  • the radio by mounting a R-123M
  • night vision with a TBN-4PA for the driver and a TNP-165A for the tank leader. His battlepost was transformed by mounting a small stabilised turret with an anti-aircraft NSVT 12.7 mm x108 machine gun, electrically guided through an optical PZU-5 sight, and fed with 300 rounds. It could be used from within the tank so that the tank leader could avoid being exposed (as on previous tanks). The possibility of mounting a KMT-6 anti-mine system was also added.


A derived version appeared at the same time, designed for the commanding officer, and named T-64AK. It comprised a R-130M radio with a 10 m telescopic antenna which could be used only in a static position as it required shrouds, an artillery aiming circle PAB-2AM and TNA-3 navigation station, all of those could be supplied by an auxiliary gasoline-fired generator.

In 1976, the weapons system was improved by mounting a D-81TM (2A46-1), stabilised by a 2E28M2, supplied by an automatic 6ETs10M. The night sight is replaced by a TNPA-65 and the engine can accept different fuels, including diesel fuel, kerosene or gasoline. The production, first carried on the B variant, stopped in 1980.

But the majority of T-64A's were still modernised after 1981, by mounting a six smoke grenade-launcher 81 mm 902A on each side of the gun, and by replacing the gill plates by a rubber skirt for a longer life. Some of them seem to have been fitted after 1985 with reactive bricks (as the T-64BV), or even with laser TPD-K1 telemeters instead of the TPD-2-49 (1981). Almost all T-64's were modernised into T-64R, between 1977 and 1981, by reorganising external storage and snorkels, similar to the T-64A.

T-64B

The design team was carrying on its work on new versions. Problems with the setup of the 5TDF engine occurred as the local production capacity was proven to be insufficient against a production done in three factories (Malyshev in Kharkovmarker, Kirov in Leningradmarker and Uralvagonzavod).

From 1961, and alternative to the obyekt 432 was studied, with 12 V-cylinder V-45 engine : the obyekt 436. Three prototypes were tested in 1966 in the Chelyabinskmarker factory. The order to develop a model derived from the 434 with the same engine gave the obyekt 438, later renamed as obyekt 439. Four tanks of this type were built and tested in 1969, which showed the same mobility as the production version, but mass production was not started. They served however as a basis for the design of the T-72 engine compartment.

In the beginning of the 70's, the design team was trying to improve the tank further. The T-64A-2M study in 1973, with its more powerful engine and its reinforced turret, served as a basis for two projects :
  • Obyekt 476 with a 6TD 1000 hp (735 kW) engine which served as a model for the T-80 combat compartment.
  • Obyekt 447 which featured a new fire control with a laser telemeter, and which was able to fire missiles through the gun.
For the latter, the order was given to start its production under the name T-64B, as well as a derived version (which shared 95% of its components), the obyekt 437, without the missile guidance system for cost reasons. The latter was almost twice as much produced under the designation T-64B1. On September 3, 1976, the T-64B and the T-64B1 were declared good for the service, featuring the improved D-81Tm gun (2A46-2) with a 2E26M stabiliser, a 6ETs40 loader and a 1A33 fire control, including:
  • a 1V517 ballistic calculator
  • a 1G21 sight with laser telemetry
  • a 1B11 cross-wind sensor.
Its ford capacity reaches 1.8 m without equipment. The T-64B had the ability to fire the new 9M112 "Kobra" radio-guided missile (NATO code "AT-8 Songster"). The vehicle then carries 8 missiles and 28 shells. The missile control system is mounted in front of the tank leader small turret and has many changes. The T-64B1 carries only 37 shells and has 2,000 7.62 mm rounds, against 1,250 for the T-64B.

They were modernised in 1981 by the replacement of the gun by a 2A46M1, the stabiliser by a 2E42, and the mounting of a 902A "Tucha-1" smoke grenade launcher in two groups of four, on each side of the gun. Two command versions are realised, very similar to the T-64AK: the T-64BK and the T-64B1K.

The decision, in October 1979, to start the production of the 6TD engine, and its great similarity with the 5TDF engine, allowed after some study to fit it in versions B and B1, but also A and AK, yielding the new models T-64AM, T-64AKM, T-64BM and T-64BAM, entering service in 1983.

The production ended in 1987 for all versions. The total production has reached almost 13,000.

Modernisations in Ukraine

Ukrainian T-64BM Bulat on parade
After the dissolution of the USSRmarker, Ukrainemarker carried on the development of T-64 modernisations, as the original and main factory was in this country.

Two programmes ended in 1999:
  • T-64BM2, with a 57DFM 850 hp (625 kW) engine, a new 1A43U fire control, a new 6ETs43 loader and the possibility to fire the 9M119 missile (NATO code "AT-11 Sniper").
  • T-64U which integrated on top the 1A45 fire control (from the T-80U and T-84), PNK-4SU and TKN-4S optics for the tank commander and PZU-7 for the AA machine gun. The tank leader is then able to drive the tank and to use the gun directly if needed. The tank is also known as BM "Bulat".


The two variants are also protected by Kontakt-5 modular reactive armour, able to resist to kinetic energy projectiles, as opposed to the first models which were efficient only against HEAT shaped-charge ammunition. Those two variants could also be remotorised with the 6TDF 1000 hp (735 kW) engine.

Production history

The T-64 first entered production in 1967, shortly before the T-72. (Serial production begin in 1963. The T-64 formally entered service in army in 1967.) The T-64 was KMDB's high-technology offering, intended to replace the IS-3 and T-10 heavy tanks in independent tank battalions. Meanwhile, the T-72 was intended to supersede the T-55 and T-62 in equipping the bulk of Soviet tank and mechanized forces, and for export partners and east-bloc satellite states.

It introduced a new autoloader, which is still used on all T-64s currently in service, as well as all variants of the T-80 except the Ukrainian T-84-120. The T-64 prototypes had the same 115 mm smoothbore gun as the T-62, the ones put in full-scale production had the 125 mm gun.

While the T-64 was the superior tank, it was more expensive and physically complex, and was produced in smaller numbers. The T-72 is mechanically simpler and easier to service in the field, while it is not as well protected, and its manufacturing process is correspondingly simpler.

The T-64 was never common in Soviet service, except with those units stationed in East Germany. Only a few thousand T-64s were built, and none were exported. Many T-64s ended up in Russian and Ukrainian service after the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Models

  • Obyekt 430 (1957) – Prototype with D-10T 100-mm gun, 120 mm armour, 4TPD 580 hp (427 kW) engine, 36 tonnes.
  • Obyekt 430U – Project, equipped with a 122-mm gun and 160 mm of armour.
  • T-64 or Obyekt 432 (1961) – Prototype with a D-68 115-mm gun, then initial production version with the same features, about 600 tanks produced.
  • T-64R or Obyekt 432R – Redesigned between 1977 and 1981 with external gear from the T-64A but still with the 115-mm gun.
  • T-64A or Obyekt 434 – With 125-mm gun, equipped with “gill” armour skirts, a modified sight, and suspension on the fourth road wheel.
  • T-64T (1963) – Experimental version with a GTD-3TL 700 hp (515 kW) gas turbine.
  • Obyekt 436 – Alternative version for the object 432, with a V-45 engine, three built.
  • Obyekt 438 and Obyekt 439 – Obyekt 434 with a V-45 diesel engine.
  • T-64AK or Obyekt 446 (1972) – Command version, with a R-130M radio and its 10-m telescoping antenna, a TNA-3 navigation system, without antiarcraft machine gun, carrying 38 rounds of main gun ammunition.
  • Obyekt 447 – Prototype of the T-64B. Basically a T-64A fitted with the 9K112 "Kobra" system and a1G21 gunsight . This is the "T-64A" that is displayed in the Kiev museum.
  • T-64B or Obyekt 447A (1976) – Fitted with redesigned armour, 1A33 fire control system, 9K112-1 "Kobra" ATGM system (NATO code "AT-8 Songster"), TPN-1-49-23 sight, 2A46-2 gun, 2E26M stabiliser and 6ETs40 loader. Later B/BV models have more modern systems 1A33-1, TPN-3-49, 2E42 and a 2A46M-1 gun. From 1985 the T-64B was fitted with stronger glacis armour; older tanks were upgraded with a 16-mm armour plate. Tanks, equipped with the 1,000 hp 6DT engine are known as T-64BM.
  • T-64BV – Features "Kontakt-1" reactive armour and "Tucha" 81-mm smoke grenade launchers on the left of the turret.
  • T-64BM2 or Obyekt 447AM-2 – "Kontakt-5" reactive armour, rubber protection skirts, 1A43U fire control, 6ETs43 loader and able to fire the 9K119 missile (NATO code "AT-11A Sniper"), 5TDFM 850 hp (625 kW) engine.
  • T-64U, BM Bulat, or Obyekt 447AM-1 – Ukrainian modernisation, bringing the T-64B to the standard of the T-84. Fitted with "Noj" reactive armour, 9K120 "Refleks" missile (NATO code "AT-11 Sniper"), 1A45 "Irtysh" fire control, TKN-4S commander's sight, PZU-7 antiaircraft machine-gun sight, TPN-4E "Buran-E" night vision, 6TDF 1,000-hp (735 kW) engine.
  • T-64B1 or Obyekt 437 – Same as the B without the fire control system, carrying 37 shells.
  • T-64B1M – T-64Ba equipped with the 1,000-hp 6DT engine.
  • T-64BK and T-64B1K or Obyekt 446B – Command versions, with an R-130M radio and its 10-m telescoping antenna, a TNA-3 navigation system and AB-1P/30 APU, without antiaircraft machine gun, carrying 28 shells.
  • Obyekt 476 – Five prototypes with the 6TDF engine, prototypes for T-80UD development.
  • BREM-64 or Obyekt 447T – Armoured recovery vehicle with a light 2.5-tonne crane, dozer blade, tow bars, welding equipment, etc. Only a small number was built.
  • T-55-64 – Heavily upgraded T-55 with the complete hull and chassis of the T-64, fitted with "Kontakt-1" ERA. Prototype.
  • T-80 and T-84 are further developments of the T-64.


Modernisations

T-64
  • 1977–1981 – brought to the T-64R standard, reorganisation of external equipment as on the T-64A.


T-64A/AK
  • 1972 redesign, fire control improvement (TPD-2-49 and TPN-1-49-23), inclusion of the NSVT machine gun on an electrical turret, R-123M radio.
  • 1975 redesign, new 2E28M stabiliser, 6ETs10M loader, multi-fuel engine, 2A46-1 gun and TNPA-65 night vision.
  • 1981 redesign, two sets of six 902A smoke grenade launchers, rubber skirts on the suspension instead of the Gill protection.
  • 1983 T-64AM,T-64AKM, some tanks were equipped with the 6TDF engine during maintenance.


T-64B/B1/BK/B1K
  • 1981 redesign, 2 sets of four 902B2 smoke grenade launchers, 2A26M1 gun.
  • 1983 T-64BM,T-64B1M,T-64BMK and T-64B1MK: some tanks were equipped with the 6TDF engine during maintenance.
  • 1985 T-64BV,T-64B1V,T-64BVK and T-64B1VK: with "Kontakt" reactive armour, smoke grenade launchers on the left of the turret.
  • BM Bulat – T-64 modernization by the Malyshev Factory in Ukraine.[28475] 56 were inducted into the Ukrainian army in 2009.


Variants

  • BMPV-64 – Heavy infantry fighting vehicle, based on the chassis of the T-64 but with a completely redesigned hull with a single entry hatch in the rear. Armament consists of a remote-controlled 30-mm gun. Combat weight is 34.5 tons. The first prototype was ready in 2005. Т-64: Чи піде «під ніж» унікальна техніка? (T-64: Will Unique Technology go "Under the Knife"?) at Військо України (Ukrainian Army)
  • BTRV-64 – Similar APC version.
  • UMBP-64 – Modified version that will serve as the basis for several (planned) specialized vehicles, including a fire support vehicle, an ambulance and an air-defence vehicle.
  • BMPT-K-64 – This variant is not tracked but has a new suspension with 4 axles, similar to the Soviet BTR series. The vehicle is powered by a 5TDF-A/700 engine and has a combat weight of 17.7 tons. It is fitted with a RCWS and can transport 3+8 men. Prototype only.
  • BAT-2 – Fast combat engineering vehicle with the engine, lower hull and "small roadwheels" suspension of the T-64. [28476] The 40-ton tractor sports a very large, all axis adjustable V-shaped hydraulic dozer blade at the front, a single soil ripper spike at the rear and a 2-ton crane on the top. The crew compartment holds 8 persons (driver, commander, radio operators plus a five-man sapper squad for dismounted tasks). The highly capable BAT-2 was designed to replace the old T-54/AT-T based BAT-M, but WARPAC allies received only small numbers due to its high price and the old and new vehicles served alongside during the late Cold War.


Service history

The tank remained secret for a long time, the West often confusing it with the less-evolved T-72 tank. The T-64 was never exported, and has seen only limited combat experience—in the campaigns against Chechen separatists.

According to David Isby the T-64 first entered service in 1967 with the 41st Guards Tank Division in the Kiev Military District, the suggestion being that this was prudent due to the proximity of the division to the factory, and significant teething problems during induction into service that required constant presence of factory support personnel with the division during acceptance and initial crew and service personnel training on the new type.

T-64s belonging to the 59th Guards Motor Rifle Division in Moldova deployed in combat in May 1992, this being the first combat deployment of the tank. [28477]

The USSRmarker deployed it with its high-readiness units, independent tank regiments, and divisions based in the GDRmarker and Hungary, and also in many lower-readiness units.

Operators

  • - T-64BVs were used in small numbers by the Dnestr Separatists.
  • – Around 100 are in reserve and 4,000 are probably in storage.
  • – 2,345 were in service as of 1995, 2,277 as of 2000 and 2,215 as of 2005. Currently 2,281 are in service and most are modified.
  • – 100 were in service as of 2000 and 2005.


Former operators

  • – Passed on to successor states.


T-64BV technical information

Limitations

The T-64 did not share many drawbacks with the T-72, even if it is often confused with it:
  • The automatic loader, hydraulic and not electric, is much faster (loading cycle of 6 to 13 seconds) and more reliable, and less sensitive to jolting when running off-road. It also has a "sequence" fire mode which feeds the gun with shells of the same type in less than 5 seconds. It is also able, in the modern versions, to turn backwards to keep a good speed at the end of the load.
  • Driving seems much less exhausting for the crew, thanks to assisted controls and a more flexible suspension. (Perrett 1987:43)
  • The ammunition is transported at the lower point of the turret shaft, minimizing the risks of destruction by self-detonation.
  • Protection, excellent from the beginning and constantly updated, remains able to stop modern shells thanks to the reactive armor.
  • The fire control on the B version is very modern.
  • The tank leader's small turret has good sights, the AA machine gun can be operated from inside the turret; he can also control the gun sight in case of emergency.


The T-64 suffers from two usual weaknesses of Soviet tanks:
  • The maximum gun depression angle is limited to -6°, preventing it from using fire positions on unprepared hill crests (firing "hull-down"), a disadvantage in defensive situations.
  • The crew compartments are very small, precluding tall crew members and demanding the use of external storage for equipment. The limited interior space also makes long missions tiring.


Additionally, the adoption of the autoloader was highly controversial for several reasons:
  • Early versions of the autoloader lacked safety features and were dangerous to the tank crews (especially the gunner, who sits nearby): Limbs could be easily caught in the machinery, leading to horrible injuries and deaths. A sleeve unknowingly snagged on one of the autoloader's moving parts could also drag a crewman into the apparatus upon firing. (Perrett 1987:42)
  • The turret was poorly configured to allow the human crew to manually load the gun should the autoloader break. In such situations, rate of fire usually slowed to an abysmal one round per minute as the gunner fumbles with the awkward task of working around the broken machine to load the gun. Perrett 1987:42)
  • While having smaller tank crews (three vs. the usual four) is advantageous since more tanks can theoretically be fielded using the same number of soldiers, there are also serious downsides. Tanks require frequent maintenance and refueling, and much of this is physically demanding work that several people must work together to accomplish. Most of the time, these duties are also performed at the end of a long day of operations, when everyone in the tank is exhausted. Having one less crewman for these tasks increases the strain on the remaining three men and increases the frequency of botched or skipped maintenance. This problem worsens if the tank's commander is also an officer who must often perform other duties such as higher-level meetings, leaving only two men to attend to the tank. (Perrett 1987:42-43) All of this means that tanks with three-man crews are more likely to suffer from performance-degrading human exhaustion, and mechanical failures that take longer to fix and that keep the tank from reaching the battlefield. These problems are exacerbated during prolonged time periods of operations.
  • The T-64 was criticized for being too mechanically complex, which resulted in a high breakdown rate. Problems were worst with the suspension system, which was of an entirely new and advanced design on the tank. Due to these problems, teams of mechanics from the T-64 factories were "semi-permanent residents" of Soviet tank units early. (Perrett 1987:43-44)


Dimensions

  • Length (gun to the front): 9.295 m.
  • Length (without the gun): 6.54 m.
  • Breadth: 3.6 m.
  • Height: 2.17 m.
  • Weight: 42.4 t.


Crew

Three men:
  • commander
  • driver
  • gunner


Propulsion

  • Engine: 5DTF multi-fuel (diesel, kerosene and petrol) with 5 opposed cylinders, 13.6 litres cylinders. Developing 700 hp (515 kW) at 2,800 rpm, consumption of 170 to 200 litres per 100 km.
  • Transmission: two lateral gearboxes with seven forward and one backward gear.
  • Three internal tanks for a 740 litres fuel capacity, two on the mudguards with 140 litres and two droppable 200 litres tanks on the aft end of the chassis.


Performance

  • max. road speed: 60.5 km/h.
  • max off-road speed: 35 km/h.
  • power-to-weight ratio: 16.2 hp/t (11.9 W/kg).
  • range: 500 km, 700 km with additional tanks.
  • ground pressure: 0.9 kgf/cm² (88 kPa, 12.8 psi).
  • able to ford in 1.8 m of water without preparation and 5 m with snorkel.
  • crosses a 2.8 m wide trench.
  • crosses a 0.8 m high obstacle.
  • max. slope 30°.


Armament

  • 125 mm smoothbore 2A46M-1 gun (D-81TM) with carousel 6ETs40 loader, 28 shots, fire rate 8 shots per minute, 36 embedded shots (8 x 9M112M "Kobra" (NATO code "AT-8 Songster"), 28 shells). Available shells are all fin-stabilised:
    • anti-personnel (APERS) version of the 3UOF-36, 3OVF-22, with several perforating abilities.
    • armour-piercing shells (APFSDS) 3UBM-17 or 3UBM-19 or older ones with a supplementary charge giving them an initial speed of about 1800 m/s.
    • hollow charge shells, 3VUK-25 or 3UBK-21.
  • coaxial machine gun 7.62 mm PKT with 1,250 rounds.
  • remote-controlled air-defence machine gun 12.7 mm NSVT "Utyos" with 300 rounds.
  • 4+4 (T-64B) or 6+6 (T-64A) 81 mm smoke mortars 902B "Tucha-2".


Equipment

  • The 1A33 fire control system, with:
    • Radio control of the 9K112 "Kobra" missiles (NATO code "AT-8 Songster") launched from the gun.
    • The 2E28M hydraulic stabiliser (vertical range -5°20' to +15°15')
    • The gunner day sight 1G42 with embedded laser telemeter.
    • The TPN-1-49-23 active IR night sight.
    • The L2G IR projector left of the gun for illumination.
    • The 1V517 ballistic calculator.
    • The 1B11 anemometric gauge.
  • The tank commander's cupola is equipped with:
    • The PKN-4S combined day and night sight which allows a 360° vision and to fire the main weapons.
    • The PZU-6 AA sight.
    • The 2Z20 2-axis electrical stabiliser (vertical range -3° to +70°).
  • The TPN-3-49 or TPN-4 and TVN-4 night vision for the driver.
  • A R-173M radio.
  • An NBC protection, with radiation detectors and global compartment overpressure.


  • Two snorkel for crossing rivers with a depth up to 5m.
  • A KMT-6 mine clearing plough can be fitted at the front.


Protection

  • 3-layer composite armour (K formula), with a thickness between 450 and 20 mm:
    • front: 120 mm steel, 105 mm glass fibre, 40 mm steel.
    • sides: 80 mm steel.
    • front of the turret: 150 mm steel, 150 mm glass fibre, 40 mm steel
  • lateral rubber skirts protecting the top of the suspension.
  • Kontact-1 reactive bricks covering:
    • the front and the side of the turret
    • the glacis
    • the lateral skirts


See also



Notes

  1. Три танкиста (Three Tankers)
  2. Perrett 1987:42
  3. http://www.meshwar.vistcom.ru/tech/t-64.htm Main battle tank T-64 (Основной боевой танк Т-64)
  4. p.13, Isby, per "Victor Suvorov"
  5. T-64 MBT at Warfare.ru
  6. Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine
  7. Uzbek-Army Equipment


References

  • Isby, D.C. (1988). Ten million bayonets: inside the armies of the Soviet Union, Arms and Armour Press, London. ISBN 9780853687740
  • Perrett, Bryan (1987). Soviet Armour Since 1945. London: Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-1735-1.
  • Saenko, M., V. Chobitok (2002). Osnovnoj boevoj tank T-64, Moscow: Eksprint. ISBN 5-94038-022-0.
  • Sewell, Stephen ‘Cookie’ (1998). “Why Three Tanks?” in Armor vol. 108, no. 4, p. 21. Fort Knox, KY: US Army Armor Center. ISSN 0004-2420. (PDF format)
  • Zaloga, Steven (1992), T-64 and T-80, Hong Kong: Concord, ISBN 962-361-031-9.


External links




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