The headquarters of TAM
Former TAM logo
( ) ( ) is Brazil's flag carrier
. The Southern Hemisphere's busiest airline (in terms of passengers enplaned
and flights operated), Headquartered in the Jardim Aeroporto area of Campo Belo, S√£o Paulo City, TAM operates scheduled services from S√£o Paulo to destinations within Brazil, as well as
international flights to Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, the United States, Portugal, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy and Germany.
company is traded on the S√£o Paulo Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) and New York Stock
Exchange as "TAM S.A."
As of May 2009 TAM is the
leading airline in the domestic market in terms of market share,
with a 49.2% participation, followed by GOL
with a 38.7% market
TAM was founded on February 21 1961
, by five former air-taxi pilots. The company was
named Transportes A√©reos Mar√≠lia, S.A. (Mar√≠lia Air
Transport) after the pilots' hometown of Mar√≠lia, S√£o
Paulo. It began operations with 4 Cessna 180 and a single Cessna 170, ferrying cargo and passengers across
Paran√°, S√£o Paulo and Mato Grosso
In 1964, Orlando Ometto
, owner of
agricultural ventures in the region, purchased a 50% stake in the
company, with the intent to use its aircraft and pilots to support
an agricultural expansion project of his own in central Brazil.
With the capital, TAM purchased aircraft. As the original
pilot-owners left the company, Ometto purchased their share of the
company, eventually owning 100% of the company.
In 1966, the company bought twin-engined aircraft models, including
the Piper Aztec
, Piper Navajo
and the Rockwell Grand Commander
. During this period,
the company also relocated its offices from Mar√≠lia to the
state's capital, S√£o
Captain Rolim Amaro
In 1971, Ometto was losing money. In his search for someone to turn
TAM around, Ometto called Rolim Amaro
former pilot of TAM who had left and had formed an air-taxi
company. Amaro proposed to liquidate his company and purchase a
portion of TAM. While this did not constitute 50% of TAM's capital,
he proposed to Ometto that if he was able to make TAM profitable
within one year, he would be given the remaining portion of the
50%. In case he failed, he would receive nothing. In April, 1972,
the contract between Amaro and Ometto was signed, giving Amaro
operational control over the company.
At the end of 1972, Amaro sold TAM's entire fleet. At the same time, he
travelled to Cessna's Wichita, Kansas facility and
after two months of negotiations with the company, he bought 10
Cessna 402 aircraft.
year, Amaro fulfilled his promise and was given 50% of TAM's
In 1974, TAM added two Learjets
fleet. In exchange for one of these jets, 33% of the company's
stock was given to the jet's owner, Ti√£o
. The three-way split between Maia, Ometto and Amaro would
remain until 1975, when Maia sold his share to Ometto. This
deteriorated the atmosphere between Amaro and Ometto. In 1976,
after 9 months of negotiation for Ometto's 50%, Amaro wrote a check
for $2 million, with the promise to pay it over a period of
Despite selling one of the jets and other assets, he was still
unable to make the payments. For a period of time, Amaro went as
far as cancelling insurance for his planes, in an attempt to reduce
morning after insurance was reinstated, on September 24 1977, one of
TAM's Learjets crashed on approach to
Despite no injuries, the aircraft was a
total loss. However, with the cash from the Lear's insurance and
the proceeds of the sale of a farm, Amaro concluded his purchase of
TAM Transportes A√©reos Mar√≠lia
prior to Amaro's takeover, and following a federal law thatin 1975
created 5 regional airlines in Brazil, TAM had participated in a
joint-venture with VASP (then a state-owned
airline) to create a regional airline that would fly between
Paulo and Mato Grosso.
The company, dubbed TAM Transportes A√©reos Regionais S/A (IATA code
KK) (TAM Regional Airlines), flew Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirantes
first. These, however, proved grossly inadequate for the task at
hand, and even at full capacity needed to be subsidized by the
government in order to be profitable.
on to purchase three used Fokker F27
turboprops, which were then refurbished by Fokker in Holland.
order to obtain the import authorization for the aircraft, a deal
was struck with the government where TAM was forced to maintain 3
, as well as removing 5 seats from
each one, bringing the F27
down to 40 passengers. A fourth F27
previously owned by Air New Zealand
was incorporated in 1981. TAM would eventually own 10 F27
By 1981, TAM had flown 1 million passengers, and 2 million by
TAM (KK) and TAM (JJ)
In August 1986 the company, under financial stress, went public and
began floating stock in the market. The same year, TAM - Transportes A√©reos
Regionais (KK) acquired another regional airline, VOTEC, which operated in areas of northern and central
VOTEC was renamed Brasil Central Linhas
. TAM and Brasil Central, were both regional airlines and
operated in different designated areas. They however operated as a
with integrated networks and
fleet, being the most notable differences the flight-number IATA
codes, the color scheme of the aircrafts and the areas where they
were authorized to operate: whereas TAM - Transportes A√©reos
Regionais flights had the IATA code KK, Brasil Central operated
with the code JJ inherited from Votec; each one kept a different
color scheme and operated in their own designated areas.
On May 15
Brazilian Government lifted restrictions on operational areas of
regional airlines allowing them to fly anywhere in Brazil. As a
consequence, Brasil Central was renamed TAM - Transportes A√©reos
Meridionais, acquired the same color scheme of TAM (KK) but
maintained the IATA code JJ. In 2000 TAM (KK) was merged into TAM
(JJ) and TAM (JJ) was renamed TAM Transportes A√©reos. The IATA code
KK ceased to be used.
In 1988, TAM flew its 3 millionth passenger.
A TAM Fokker 100 in Curitiba in the
Despite TAM's success in the market, it was evident the airline
would not last long when competing against airlines such as
already possessed Boeing 737s
fleet. Amaro then tried to buy VASP
, about to
be privatized, and called the project "Revolution". Having lost the
bid, he opted for a slower growth with a gradual addition of new
aircraft, re-dubbed "Evolution".
On September 15 1989
, TAM arranged for the acquisition of two Fokker 100
jets, which had originally been
ordered by the now-bankrupt Pan American World Airways
before them, TAM did not actually
purchase them, but used Amaro's credibility to arrange for a
third-party asset management company, Guinness Peat Aviation
them and subsequently lease them back to TAM. Two more were added
in 1991. In 1992, TAM carried its eight millionth passenger.
through the use of the Fokker 100 fleet
which now numbered at 14, TAM was serving 56 cities in Brazil.
Transportes A√©reos del Mercosur S.A. TAM (PZ)
In 1996, TAM bought another air company, Helisul
, which used the trade name of TAM. In 1997,
TAM ordered its first large jets; the airline ordered 45 planes
, including 10 A330
, 4 A319s
and 34 A320s
. In 1997, the Airbuses
began to be delivered and the airline flew its first international
service, from S√£o
Paulo to Miami International Airport.
later, in 1999, services to Europe were
inaugurated through a code share
service with Air France, to Paris-Charles de Gaulle
In 2000 the airline was renamed TAM
in Portuguese. Long running discussions to merge
ended in 2004. The airline is owned
by the Amaro family (69%), the Bank
(22%), and others (7%). It employs 10,471
has an extensive
networking covering Europe, South and North America.
Many other destinations are operated trough code-share
agreements, most of them by its
partners airlines from Star Alliance
(as TAM will join the alliance next april), but also from others
airlines such as LAN Airlines
provides cargo services.
TAM Viagens provides vacation package services for Brazilians,
while TAM Vacations provides vacation package services for
TAM Jatos Executivos provides air services for business
Cine TAM is a theater in S√£o Paulo owned by the airline company.
The passenger fleet consists of the following aircraft (as of
On June 16
announced the purchase of 20 additional Airbus A320 family
all the models A319, A320 and
), plus an additional 20 options. These are expected to be
delivered between late 2007 and 2010, adding to the already
scheduled delivery of 6 A320
between 2006 and 2008. At the same time, the company signed a
memorandum of understanding with Airbus
stating its intent to buy 10 of the new Airbus A350-900
(plus 5 options), with
deliveries due to commence at the end of 2012. These are expected to
replace the A330 on the Paris and Miami routes as
they become available.
TAM has signed a firm contract with Airbus
acquire 37 additional aircraft. The order comprises 12 A319
, 16 A320
, 3 A321
and 3 A330
and includes 12 unspecified extra options.
This would bring TAMs fleet, acquired directly from Airbus
to 115 aircraft The commitments are separate
from deals last year for 29 firm-ordered A320
and 20 options. The deliveries are
to be concluded by 2010.
On October 31
TAM announced an order for 4 Boeing
wide-body planes plus options for another 4 planes of
the same type. Deliveries of the 370-seat 777s
will commence in 2008. On June 19
, TAM exercised its
options for the last 4 777s, bringing the total number of firm
orders to 8 aircraft.
announced that on November 30, 2007, it would offer a new daily flight to Frankfurt am
Main, Germany after receiving its second Airbus A340-500.
maintenance is partly conducted at the technology center at
TAM formerly operated the following types:
Image:Avioes da tam.jpg|TAM Airlines Airbus A319
aircraft at Congonhas
AirportImage:TAM Airbus.jpg|TAM Airlines Airbus A320Image:TAM A340-500 PT-MSN FRA.jpg|TAM
Airlines Airbus A340-500 used on the
route to/from Milan, Italy
Image:TAM.jpg|TAM Airbus A320
Gale√£o Airport, Rio de Janeiro,
BrazilImage:McDonnell Douglas MD-11 PT-MSH.jpg|TAM
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 it
was used on the route to/from Milan, Italy and Paris, France
Accidents and incidents
February 8 1979, a
Bandeirante crashed near the town of Agudos killing all
18 people aboard. This was the first accident with loss of
life for TAM.
July 4, 1984 a second
Bandeirante crashed in poor weather on approach near Maca√©, killing all 17 people aboard.
February 12, 1990 a
F-27 aborted its landing, striking houses
and a car outside the airport of Bauru. The
2 occupants of the car were killed.
- On October 31, 1996, TAM Transportes
A√©reos Regionais Flight 402 crashed shortly after take-off from
Congonhas, striking an apartment building and several houses. All
90 passengers and 6 crew members on board died. Three people were
killed on ground. The crash was attributed to a faulty
thrust-reverser in the right engine deploying after take-off.
- " TAM Airlines." TAM Airlines. Retrieved on
February 2, 2009.
- " TAM Press Release (PDF)," TAM
- " Contact Us." TAM Airlines. Retrieved on
September 21, 2009.
- " TAM S.A.," NYSE Euronext
- Infobox pp. 156-157 print edition 2114, year 42, no. 21 (see
detailed Brazilian domestic market share here).
- Home Page on October 13, 1999. TAM Transportes A√©reos Regionais
- Fleet Ref
World January 2007
- TAM Press Release
- TAM Press Release," TAM Airlines
- " TAUME.COM Business News," Taume.com - World
- " Centro Tecnol√≥gico de S√£o Carlos," TAM
- " Aeronaves" as of November 19, 1996. TAM Airlines
- TAM Linhas A√©reas Flight 283, Airdisaster.com
- Video of Flight 3084 after landing YouTube. Retrieved
July 18, 2007.
- TAM says damage assessment is still not
possible. Folha Online. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- 'Many dead' in Brazil plane crash. BBC News.
Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- TAM Airplane loses control and hits warehouse.
Folha Online. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- Fiery plane crash at S√£o Paulo airport kills at
- " Acidente com o Airbus da TAM √© o pior da Am√©rica
Brasil. July 18, 2007. Retrieved on June 5, 2009.
-  (2007). TAM magazine.
-  (2007). TAM confirms purchase of 02
Airbus A340-500. S√£o Paulo.
- Thales Guaracy(2003). O Sonho Brasileiro. S√£o
Paulo : A Girafa.
- (2005). TAM confirms purchase of 20
Airbus A319/A320/A321. S√£o Paulo.
- (2006) . Airbus customer turns to Boeing
with billion-dollar 777 order. The Seattle Times.