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Tabriz ( , ) is the fourth largest city of Iranmarker and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iranmarker until the late 1960s, one of its former capitals and residence of the crown prince under the Qajar dynasty. The city has proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history. Tabriz is located in a valley to the north of the long ridge of the volcanic cone of Sahandmarker, south of the Eynalimarker mountain. The valley opens out into a plain that slopes down gently to the northern end of Lake Urmiamarker, 60 km to the west.

With a population of about 1,400,000 Tabriz is Iranmarker's fourth largest city, after Tehranmarker, Mashhadmarker and Esfahānmarker and the second industrial city after Tehran. It is a summer resort and a commercial, industrial, and transportation center.

With a very rich history, Tabriz once housed many historical monuments. Unfortunately, many of them were destroyed in repeated invasions and attacks by foreign forces, combined with the negligence of the ruling governments, and natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods. What remains now mostly dates back to the Ilkhanid, the Safavid, and the Qajar periods. Some of the monuments are unrivalled masterpieces of architecture.

Etymology

According to some sources, including Encyclopædia Britannica, the name Tabriz derives from "tap-riz" ("causing heat to flow" in Iranian languages), from the many thermal springs in the area. Other sources claim that in AD 246, to avenge his brother's death, king Khosraw I of Armeniamarker defeated Ardashir I of the Sassanid Empire and changed the name of the city from Shahistan to Tauris, deriving from "ta-vrezh" ("this revenge" in Grabar). In AD 297, it became the capital of Tiridates III, king of Armenia. However, this story has popular origin and no ancient source has recorded such event. This is based on accounts of Vardan, the Armenian historian in 14th century.

History

An old map of Tabriz


Legendary Garden of Eden

According to the researches of prominent archaeologist, David Rohl, the Garden of Eden was located in a vast plain, referred to in ancient Sumerian texts as Eden (lit. "Plain", or "Steppe"), east of the Sahandmarker Mountain, near Tabriz. He cites several geological similarities with Biblical descriptions, and multiple linguistic parallels as evidence. He made a convincing documentary, In Search of Eden, based on his theory, namely Garden of Eden was most likely located next to the Tabriz, that has been broadcast by many channels, e.g. Discovery channel.

Early Accounts

According to The Cambridge History of Iran, Tabriz was founded in early Sassanids times in 3rd or 4th century A.D. or more probably in 7th century.During the Islamic conquest of Iran, Arab armies in Azerbaijan mostly turned attention toward Ardebilmarker and Tabriz was not even listed among the cities of Azerbaijan that Iranian armies were mobilized. These accounts suggest that Tabriz was not more than a small village at this time.Current excavations in Blue Mosquemarker site may lead to new theories about the early history of Tabriz .

Medieval and renaissance history

An old photo of Tabriz


After the conquest of Iran by Muslims, Arab tribe Azd form Yemen resided in Tabriz and development of post-Islamic Tabriz began from this time. Yaqut, the Islamic geographer says that Tabriz was a village before Rawwad from the tribe of Azd came to Tabriz. In AD 791, Zubaidah, the wife of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, rebuilt Tabriz after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder.

After the Mongol invasion, Tabriz came to eclipse Maraghehmarker as the later Ilkhanid capital of Azerbaijan until sacked by Tamerlane in 1392. Chosen as a capital by Arghun Khan, fourth ruler of the Ilkhanate, for its favored location in the northwestern grasslands, in 1295, his successor Ghazan Khan made it the chief administrative center of an empire stretching from Egyptmarker to the Oxus Rivermarker and from the Caucasus to the Indian Oceanmarker. Under his rule new walls were built around the city, and numerous public buildings, educational facilities, and caravansarais were erected to serve traders traveling on the ancient Silk Road. The Byzantine Gregory Choniades is said to have served as the city's Orthodox bishop during this time.

From 1375 to 1468, Tabriz was the capital of Kara Koyunlu state in Azerbaijan, and from 1469 to 1501 the capital of Ak Koyunlu state.

Before the expansion of Altaic languages in the area, Iranian languages were spoken in Tabriz and Azerbaijan. The 13th century manuscript Safina-yi Tabriz has poems in what its Tabriz-born author has called the Tabrizi dialect (Zaban-i-Tabrizi). Samples of the Tabrizi dialect of the wider Old Azari language include quatrains recorded in Tabrizi dialect by Abd al-Qadir Maraghi, phrases from Baba Faraji Tabrizi and poems in Tabrizi in the Safina-yi Tabriz, and poetry from Homam Tabrizi, Mama Esmat Tabrizi, Maghrebi Tabrizi and others. Before the Safavid revolution, Tabriz was predominantly a Shafi'ite and Sunni city.

In 1501, Shah Ismail I entered Tabriz and proclaimed it the capital of his Safavid state. In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran, Tabriz was temporarily occupied by the Ottomans, but remained the capital of Safavid Iranian empire until 1548, when Shah Tahmasp I transferred it to Qazvinmarker.

Between 1585 and 1603, Tabriz was occupied by the Ottomans but was then returned to the Safavids after which it grew as a major commercial center, conducting trade with the Ottoman Empire, Russiamarker, central Asia, and Indiamarker. In 1724 the city was again occupied by the Ottomans and retaken by Iranian army. The city was held by Russiamarker on 1826 after a series of battles but the Iranian army retook Tabriz in 1828. Tabriz was the residence for Crown Prince within Qajar Dynasty.

Contemporary history



  • Iranian Constitutional Revolution


Advantage of the vicinity to the west and with the benefit of the communications with nearby countries' enlightenment movements, Tabriz became center of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution. This makes Tabriz a major pole for Iranian Constitutional Revolutionary movements between 1905 and 1911 which led to the establishment of a parliament in Iran. Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan two Tabrizi reformists whose led Tabrizi people's solidarity had a great role in achievement of this revolution.

  • Azerbaijan People's Government


After World War II, the Soviets set up the communist Azerbaijan People's Government in north-west Iranmarker with its capital at Tabriz. The new communist government, under the leadership of Ja'far Pishevari, held power for a year from 1946, after which Tabriz returned to Iran after the forced Soviet withdrawal.

  • Iranian presidential election 2009
Protesters after vote fraud, Abressan intersection, Tabriz.


On June 12, 2009, Iran presidential election was held, between Mir-Hossein Mousavi (who is Azeri originally), Mehdi Karroubi the reformist lur candidates, and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (who is Persian originally) the fundamental candidate who was the favourite of supreme leader Ali Khamenei. People asked Where is my vote? which became the motto of huge demonstration against anti-democratic Mullahs regime.International concern and condemnation have been expressed by much of the international media, the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdommarker, Francemarker, Germanymarker, the United Statesmarker, Canadamarker, Australia, Japanmarker, and others at alleged voting fraud, censorship, and the use of police brutality against protestors. Extensive demonstrations have occurred across Iran, particularly in the capital Tehranmarker. According to most of Iranians, it was supreme leather's coup d'état against improvement of democracy in the country.

Historical time-line



  • 4 BC: It is the capital of Media Atropatene ,named after Atropates, an Iranian governor of the province (appointed by Alexander the Great).
  • 297 AD: It becomes the capital of Tiridates III, the king of Armeniamarker.
  • 791: Tabriz is rebuilt by Zubaidah, wife of Harun al-Rashid, after being destroyed by an earthquake.
  • 858: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1041: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • late 1200s: The Mongol Il-Khan Arghun makes Tabriz his capital.
  • 1501: Ismail Safavi crowned as Shah in Tabriz, founding the Safavid dynasty
  • 1548: Tabriz is replaced by Qazvinmarker as the capital of the Safavid kingdom. Tabriz was considered too exposed to a potential Ottoman invasion.
  • 1721: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1780: Another earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1826: Tabriz is occupied by the Russiansmarker.
  • 1828: Qajar army takes back Tabriz.
  • 1850: Báb, the founder of the Bábí Faith and Forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh is executed in Tabriz.
  • 1906 - 1908: Tabriz becomes the centre of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
  • 1927: An earthquake destroyed large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1941: Tabriz occupied by the Sovietmarker troops.
  • 1945: December: Becomes the capital of a short-lived Soviet-backed autonomous Azerbaijan People's Government.
  • 1946: Tabriz University is opened.
  • 1947: Iranian troops take back Tabriz.




Excavation sites

See also: Iron Age museummarker.

In 2002, during a construction project behind the Blue Mosquemarker (Part of Silk Road Project), an ancient graveyard was uncovered. This was kept secret until a construction worker alerted the authorities. Radiocarbon analysis by Allameh Tabatabi University has shown the background of the graves to be more than 3800 years old. A museum of these excavation with of Museum Site of the Blue Mosque is opened to public on 2006 .

There is another excavation in Abbasi Street at the site of the Rabe Rashidimarker. This academic institution dates back to more than 700 years ago and was established in the Ilkhanid period.

Capital of Iran

Tabriz has been the capital of Iran several times: during Kara Koyunlu dynesty from 1375 until 1468, then during Ak Koyunlu within 1468-1501, Some of the existing historical monuments including Blue Mosque are belong to Kara Koyunlu period. Finally it was capital of the Iranian Empire within the Safavid period from 1501 until their defeat in 1514 .

During the Qajar dynasty Tabriz was used as the residence for the Iranian Crown Prince (1794-1925).


City of firsts

Due to its location as a western gateway for Iran, many modern developments have been adopted first in this city, leading to its moniker as a "city of firsts". These include:
  • Iran's first printing house was founded in Tabriz (1811).
  • Iran's first modern school was founded in Tabriz by Hassan Roshdiehmarker (1888). The language of instruction was Persian and Azari Turkic.
  • The first Iranian special school for deaf children was founded in Tabriz by Jabbar Baghcheban (1924).
  • The first Iranian special school for blind students was founded in Tabriz by a German mission (1926).
  • The first Iranian kindergarten was founded in Tabriz by Jabbar Baghcheban (1923).
  • Iran's first modern-style municipal government was set up in Tabriz.
  • Tabriz Chamber of Commerce was the first of its kind founded in Iranmarker (1906).
  • The first public libraries in modern Iran were founded in Tabriz.
  • Iran's first cinema was founded in Tabriz (1900), while the first cinema in Tehranmarker was founded by a Tabrizi (1921).
  • Tabriz was the first city in Iran to install a telephone system (about 1900).


Geography

Topography

Tabriz is located in northwest of Iranmarker in East Azerbaijanmarker province between Eynalimarker and Sahandmarker mountains in a fertile region beside the Aji River and Ghuri River.The local area is earthquake-prone and during its history the city has been devastated and rebuilt many times.

Climate

Tabriz has continental climate and regular seasons(Köppen BSk). The annual precipitation is around , a good deal of which falls as snow during the winter months and rain in spring and autumn. The city enjoys mild and fine climate in spring, dry and semi-hot in summer, humid and rainy in autumn and snowy cold in winter. The average annual temperature is 13oC. Cool winds blow from east to west direction mostly in summer.

Air pollution

Tabriz is second most polluted city of Iranmarker. The level of pollution increase day after day. The main reasons of air pollution of the city are: vehicles and major factories like refinery, chemicals and petrochemical factories. According to one research 558, 167 ton pollutant ingredients is produced everyday in Tabriz.

Governance

City authority lies with the mayor, who is elected by a municipal board. The municipal board is periodically elected by the city residents.

Municipality of Tabrizmarker is used as the Municipal central office.

Districts

The city is divided into 8 municipal districts.Old neighborhoods of Tabriz:

  • Ahrub
  • Akhmagaya
  • Amiraghiz
  • Bahar
  • Baghmasha
  • Baghshoumal
  • Baron Avak (Barnava)


  • Bazaar
  • Beylankee
  • Charandub
  • Chousdouzan
  • Davachi
  • Gajeel
  • Imamieh


  • Hokmabad
  • Kouchebagh
  • Khateeb
  • Khayyam
  • Khiabun
  • Laklar
  • Lalah


  • Manzaria
  • Maghsoudia
  • Maralan
  • Nobar
  • Gara-aghach
  • Garamalik
  • Rastakhoocha




Demography

Tabriz Population Change.


The city of Tabriz had a population of about 1,4 million people at the time of the last official census in 2006. The majority of Tabriz residents are known as Azeris also some minority groups of Persians, Armenians, Assyrian and Kurds live in Tabriz.

Language

Today the predominant language in the city is Azerbaijani Turkic which is belong to Turkic languages family. Azeri is member of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages and is closely related to Turkish. The Azeri language of today evolved from the Eastern Oghuz dialect of Western (Oghuz) Turkic which spread to Southwestern Asia during medieval Turkic migrations and was heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic. Classical literature in Azeri was formed in 14th century based on the Tabrizi and Shirvani dialects which were used by classical Azeri poets and writers such as Nasimi, Fuzuli and Khatai. Almost all inhabitants of the city also speak the Persian language.

Religion

The majority of people in Tabriz are followers of Shia Islam. Some Armenians and Assyrian live in Tabriz who have their own churches and organisations. There was also a small Jewish community but they mostly have moved to Tehranmarker.

Culture and Art




Literature

The music and folk songs of Tabriz are popular and traditions have a long history. Prominent Iranian Azeri poet Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar was born in Tabriz. The handicrafts in the Bazaar of Tabrizmarker, and in particular the Tabriz rug are famous worldwide. The culture, social values, language and the music is a mixture of what exists in rest of Iranmarker.

Tabriz also has a special place in Persian literature, as the following sample of verses from some of Iran's best poets and authors illustrates:



ساربانا بار بگشا ز اشتران

شهر تبريز است و کوی دلبران

Oh Sārbān, have camels' cargo unloaded,

For Tabriz is neighborhood of the beloved.

Molana

عزیزی در اقصای تبریز بود

که همواره بیدار و شبخیز بود

A beloved lived in Tabriz away from sight,

who was always alert and awake at night

Bustan of Sadi

تا به تبریزم دو چیزم حاصل است

نیم نان و آب مهران رود و بس

As long as I live in Tabriz, two things I need not worry of,

The half loaf of bread and the water of Mehranrud [river] are enough!

Khaqani

اين ارك بلند شهر تبريز است

افراشته قامتِ رسايش را

This is the tall Arg of Tabriz City,

Raised it's outstanding height there!

Maftun



Music

The professional music of Azari people are divided into two "distinct types", the music of "ashyg" and the "mugam". Mugam "is not common" among Iranian azaris who "prefer the School of Tabriz".
On the other hand the music of the ashyg is found in most places in northwestern Iran and particularly in Tabriz, Maraghe, Khoy, and Orumïye (Rezaye). In Iran the primarily distinct styles of Mugam and the music of the ashyg "still share common characteristics" including "the initial range, which is restricted to a pentachord (jins), readily identifiable modes, melodic lines consisting predominantly of sequential notes, time signatures (4/4, 6/8, 3/4), brevity of compositions, arrangements of dance melodies, tone colour, the dragging of the voice and vocal techniques which are similar to those of popular singing and small instrumental ensembles (three or four musicians)."Ashighs are traveling bards who sing and play the saz or qopuz, a form of lute. Their songs are partly improvised around a common base.

Painting

One of the Iranian painting styles is called "Tabrizian style" which has been shaped in the era of Ilkhanids, Kara Koyunlu and the Safavids.

Cuisine

Sample of Tabrizi traditional foods.
see also: Iranian Cuisine, Azerbaijani Cuisine

Ash is a kind of soup which are prepared with bouillonmarker, different vegetables, carrot, noodle and spices.

Chelow kabab - is the national dish of Iran, prepared with kebab and tomato on a plate of rice. Tabriz is famous for its Chelow kabab in Iran.

Dolma is traditionally a Turkic food, delicious and special. It is prepared with eggplant, capsicum, tomato or zucchini filled with a mixture of meat, split pea, onion and different spices.

Garniyarikh (Lit."the torn abdomen" in Azeri) is a kind of Dolma filled with meat, garlic, almonds and spices.

Kofta (Koufteh) Tabrizi is a special food prepared in Tabriz. The word kofta is derived from Persian kūfta: In Persian, کوفتن kuftan means "to beat" or "to grind".

There are also delicious confections, biscuits and cookies, some of which are Tabriz specialities including Ghorabiye, Eris, Nugha, Tasbihi, Latifeh, Ahari, Lovadieh, Lokum and many others.

Monuments and Landmarks

Tabriz was devastated by several earthquakes during history (e.g., in 858, 1041, and 1721) and as a result, from numerous monuments only few of them or part of them have survived until now. Moreover, some of the historical monuments have been destroyed fully or partially within construction projects (e.g. Ark of Tabriz is in a real hazard of destruction now, because of ongoing construction project of "Mosal'laye Emam" close to it). Nonetheless, there are still numerous monuments remaining until now which are listed as follows:.



Bazaars

Bridges (Historical)

Churches & mosques

Gates (historical)

Hamams (Old Turkish bath)

Monuments

Streets (famous)



Museums & historical houses



Schools (Madrasah)

Shrines & Tombs

Parks and Gardens

Shahgholi park


Tabriz has 132 parks including 97 small parks, 31 regional and 4 city parks. According to 2005 statistics, area of parks in Tabriz is 2,595 km2 also area of green spaces of Tabriz is 8,548 km2 which means 5.6 sq.m per person. The oldest park in Tabriz called Golestan Parkmarker established at first Pahlavi's era in city center. Tabriz has 8 traveller-parks with capacity of 10.000 travellers as well.



Panoramic view of Shah gholi park


Tourism

Souvenirs of Tabriz



handcrafts: Rug (well known worldwide), pottery and ceramics, silverware, Ghalamzani (toreutics) , Moarraq, Monabbat, embroider, wood engraving.

confections: Ghorabiye, Latifa, Nugha, Eris, Lokum (turkish delight), Baklava.

also: dry nut, shoe, local clothes, spices.

Regional Tourist Attractions

Villages, Towns: Herbi&Bera, Jolfamarker (St. Stepanous Cathedral), kandovanmarker (famous for its strange architecture), Kerghe, Lighvan, Seydava, Sharaf khanah (near Lake Urmiamarker), Zonouzmarker.

Lakes: Ammand dam-lake, Ghouri lake, Lake Urmiamarker.

Mountains: Arasbaran forests, Eynalimarker, Sahandmarker (ski complex near Sahandmarker mountain), Yum (ski complex of Mishomarker mountains)

Economy

Silver handcrafts of Tabriz


Industries

Tabriz is second most important industrial city of Iranmarker. Modern industries of the city include the manufacturing of machinary, vehicles, chemicals and petrochemical, refinery, cement, electrical and electronical equipments, home appliances, textiles and leather, nutrition and dairy factories and woodcraft..

  • Iran Tractor Manufacturing Complex:
This complex is the largest manufacturer of tractor in the Iran which has some branches in other cities inside and outside Iran. This complex produces not only the tractor but also automotive parts, forging and casting products for all related industries and a Camionet which called Azarash. The largest forging press of middle est is located in this complex which has 8000Tones capacity.

Small businesses



Handcrafts ateliers





Tabriz is the major center for production of the famous Iranian Rugs. Their high quality is greatly valued in world markets. Tabrizi rugs and carpets usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. They often have very symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded with vines and palmettos.One of the main quality characteristics of Tabriz rugs is the weaving style, using special ties that guarantee the durability of the rug in comparison for example with Kashanmarker rugs.



Tabriz International Exhibition


Shopping

Shopping locations in the city center including the Grand Bazaar of Tabrizmarker, the pedestrian mall on Tarbiyat streetmarker, Shahnaz and Ferdowsi streetsmarker also Abressan intersection and Kouy Valiasr have lots of traditional and modern boutiques of jewelry, rug, clothes, handcrafts, confectionary and drynuts shops, home appliances and many others.

Tabriz International Exhibition

Tabriz has annual international exhibitions at different times of a year that companies from all around the world bring their products.

Education

Danesh Sara (faculty of education)


Tabriz is site for some of Iran's most prominent universities, the main university of the city is University of Tabrizmarker established in 1947. University of Tabriz is the most prestigious university in north western part of Iran. Other than University of Tabriz five public universities operating primarily in the city: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Sahand University of Technologymarker, Tabriz Arts University, Payam-e Noor University of Tabriz, Tarbiat Moallem University of Azarbaijan

Behind this few of Iranian universities have their branches in Tabriz including: Imam Hossein Universitymarker, Shahid Beheshti Training Teacher Center of Tabriz

Also private universities are: Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Seraj Higher Education Institute, University College of Nabi Akram, Khajeh Rashid University.

There are few technical colleges which serving to the students as well: Elmi Karbordi University of Tabriz, Tabriz college of Technology, Roshdiyeh Higher Education Institute of Tabriz, Jahad Daneshgahi Higher Education Institute,East Azarbaijan branch, Azzahra College of Technology, State Organization of Technical and Vocational Training

Research Centres: East Azarbaijan Park of Science & Technology, Islamic Azad University- Science and Research Unit of East Azerbaijan.

Famous high schools

Former Roshdieh school


Old schools
  • Memorial School (American School of Tabriz) was opened on 1891 and is one of the most famous schools of its type. After World War II the school's name was changed to Parvin High School under Iranmarker education ministry's management. Currently it is divided into three separate high schools and the original building is under reconstruction.


  • Roshdieh School is the first modern Iranianmarker school which was established by Haji-Mirza Hassan Roshdiehmarker. Currently its building is used as the Tabriz branch of the National Iranianmarker Documents and Library Office.


  • Vahdat Technical College is another famous school in Tabriz. It was developed by the Germans during World War II. The main building has the shape of an 'A'.


  • Ferdowsi High School is one of the largest and most prominent academic high schools in Tabriz. The original building was constructed by German Engineers before World War II (to serve as Hospital). The building is in the shape of a letter 'H'.


New Ones
  • Mansoor High School (Now divided into 2 high schools with new names) is one of the most highest ranking schools in Tabriz which was established about 50 years ago. One of the high schools is named as Taleqani and the other as Motahhari.


  • Tizhoushan School (Shahid Madani) (Farzanegan) (SAMPAD/NODET) middle and high schools established in 1989 for high I.Q. talented students.


Religious centres

  • Valiasr religious school
  • Talebieh Islamic Sciences School
Tabriz Art University

Libraries

Tabriz National Library, also known as Central Library of Tabriz, is the most prestigious library in Tabriz, and its numerous unique handwriting old books made it a vulnerable source for researchers in Iranian literature. There are other libraries behind National library which are serving to public some of which are: Tarbiat Library, Library of Helal Ahmar, Library of Shahid Motahhari, Library of Shahriyar, Library of Jafarieh and Farhangsara Tabriz.

Infrastructure

Health systems

The Government of Iran operates the public hospitals in the Tabriz metropolitan region some of which are aligned with medical faculties. There are also a number of private hospitals and medical centers in the city.

Daneshgah Boulevard
BRT of Tabriz.
Shahgholi metro Station.
Tabriz bus terminal.


Transportation

Inner City:

Most Tabriz residents travel by car through the system of roads and highways. Tabriz is also served by taxi and bus. Tabriz has taxi and public bus network. There are also some private groups which provide services called Phone-taxi.

Tabriz is the second city in Iranmarker After Tehranmarker that B.R.T system has been established in. It includes a distance about 18 km from Baseej square in the east to railway station in the west of the city. There is 50 bus stop in the path of B.R.T.

  • Metro Network (Subway Train Network)
Tabriz subway train network is still under construction and is not complete. The government of Iranmarker had planned to finish 6 km of line No.1 of the network in 2006 but this was not achieved due to financial problems.

International:

  • Roads
Tabriz is linked to Europe through Turkeymarker's roads and Bazarganmarker (Azerbaijani, Persian: بازرگان ) border, also Tehranmarker-Tabriz freeway is almost complete except for the last 20 km between Tabriz and Bostan Abadmarker.

  • Railways
The city is linked to Iranmarker National Railways (IRIR,Persian: رجا ) also to Europe by Turkeymarker's railways via Ghotour (Azerbaijani, Persian قطور) bridge in West Azarbaijanmarker province of Iran. Tabriz was the first city in Iranmarker to be served by railways with the construction of the Tabriz-Jolfamarker line. Tabriz Railway station is located in the west part of the city at the end of Khomeyni street.

  • Airport
Tabriz International Airportmarker opened in 1950 and is the only international airport in East Azarbaijanmarker (since 1991). Recently, it became the first Iranianmarker airport to gain ISO9001-2000.Its international air routes are to the following cities:







Domestic air routes to:Tehranmarker, Mashhadmarker, Kish Island, Bandar Abbasmarker, Mahshahrmarker, Asalouyehmarker, Isfahanmarker, Ahvazmarker, Shirazmarker, Rashtmarker.

Sport

Sport is an important part of Tabriz's culture. The most popular sport in Tabriz is soccer. Tabriz is home to four Iranianmarker major soccer teams: Machine Sazi Tabriz F.C., Teraktor Sazi F.C. (ITMCO), Shahrdari Tabriz F.C., Petrochimi Tabriz F.C.

Tabriz also has two stadiums for soccer: Bagh Shomal Stadiummarker, with capacity of 20,000 and Yadegar-e-Emam Stadiummarker with 71,000.

Azerbaijan Cycling Tour is a professional cycling tour, which is held annually in part of Iranian Azerbaijan, is starting from Tabriz. Tabriz also have an UCI Continental cycling team thatcompeting UCI-sanctioned competitions through Asian continents. The team is: Tabriz Petrochemical Cycling Team

The city has several swimming pools that are parts of sport complexes, both public and private: Takhti swimming pool, Tabriz Petrochemical Company's sports complex, Bargh swimming pool, Sahand swimming pool, Bagh Shomal swimming pool, Kargaran sports complex, Hotel Elgoli swimming pool, Hotel Shahryar swimming pool, Azarsatrup sports complex, Sauna Tabriz, Azaran sauna & pool, Zamzam swimming pool, Aseman residential complex swimming pool.

Media

Sahand TV main building


Television

Tabriz has one television Channel called "Sahand TV" that broadcasts in both Persian and Azerbaijani languages and is government-run. It broadcasts internationally through satellite Intelsat 902.

Radio

Tabriz has one government-controlled radio channel broadcasting in both Persian and Azerbaijani languages.

Press

Tabriz has 14 weekly magazines and eight main newspapers: Amin, Asr Azadi , Fajr Azarbaijan, Saeb tabriz, Peyam noor, Navaye misho and Saheb.

Major notable people from Tabriz

For a complete list see: List of people from Tabriz

Artists



Military figures



Religious figures



Poets and writers



Politicians and reformists



Scientists



Sufi



Sister cities and twin towns

Tabriz is twinned with the following cities:


Consulates

Flag Country Address
Azerbaijanmarker Aref st., Valiasr, Tabriz, Iran
Turkeymarker Homafar st., Valiasr, Tabriz, Iran


Photo Gallery of Tabriz

For More Photos Go To:Tabriz City Photo Gallery.


Image:Bazaar of Tabriz10.jpg| The Grand BazaarImage:Masjed+imamzadeh tabriz.jpg|Seyed Hamzeh shrinemarker& mosqueImage:Eternal Love.jpg| Iron Age museummarkerImage:Bazaar of Tabriz07.jpg| Exterior design in Bazaar of TabrizmarkerImage:Amir nezam house03.jpg|Amir Nezam Housemarker (Qajar museum)Image:Nobar bath03.jpg| Nobar bath

Image:House historical tabriz1.jpg| A historical houseImage:Pol sanghi02.jpg| Pol SanghiImage:Musée mesures tabriz.jpg| Measure museum of TabrizImage:A building in Tabriz.JPG| Ghadaki HouseImage:Ghari Bridge03.jpg| Ghari bridgemarkerImage:Khaneh mashrouteh02.jpg| Constitutional Revolution House of Tabrizmarker

Image:Azarbaijan musuem01.jpg| Museum of AzarbaijanmarkerImage:Shohada Mosque.jpg| Shohada MosquemarkerImage:Tabriz-FireFightingTower.jpg| Tabriz Fire Fighting TowermarkerImage:Mansoor street1.jpg| An old house door in Mansoor St.Image:Tarbiyat street19.jpg| Tarbiyat streetmarker's architectureImage:Tarbiyat street11.jpg| A mosque in Tarbiyat streetmarker

Image:Governorship Building.jpg| Governorship Building of East Azerbaijanmarker provinceImage:Gonga bashi03.jpg| Gonga bashi placeImage:Khagani park01.jpg| Khaqani ParkmarkerImage:Shahgholi02.jpg| Shah-golimarker parkImage:Mashrouteh park03.jpg| Statue of Sattar khanImage:Roshdieh05.jpg| A view of Roshdiyeh quarter

Image:Abressan01.jpg| Abressan intersectionImage:Modern tabriz03.jpg| Saman Bank Corp. headquarter buildingImage:Borj Bolour.jpg| Bolour skyscraper.Image:Modern tabriz05.jpg| Roshdiyeh monumentImage:Modern tabriz06.jpg| Bank Sepah buildingImage:Tabriz02.jpg| Daneshgah boulevard



See also



References

North, S.J.R., Guide to Biblical Iran, Rome 1956, p. 50

External links




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