The Full Wiki

More info on Taconic State Parkway

Taconic State Parkway: Map

Advertisements
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



The Taconic State Parkway (often called the Taconic or the TSP) is a major part of the New Yorkmarker highway system. For most of its route, the TSP is four lanes. All of the parkway in Westchester Countymarker north of the Sprain Brook Parkway is now a six lane limited-access freeway. At its southern terminus, in Valhallamarker, it reaches a traffic circle with the northern end of the Bronx River Parkway and a connection to New York State Route 22. As with many parkways in the Hudson Valley and Long Island, the character of this highway is largely scenic and winding. It was originally intended for Sunday drivers headed up from New York City to Bear Mountainmarker for a picnic, as opposed to commuting purposes. Other than Interstate 87(also the New York State Thruway) to the west of the state, this is an alternate route for travelers heading north to upstate New York State.

The road is designated New York State Reference Route 987G, an unsigned reference route. Freeway exit numbers are no longer signed, though boulevard intersections are, where the signs still exist.

Today, the Taconic stretches from the Bronx River Parkway in Valhallamarker in the Town of Mount Pleasantmarker, Westchester County northwards to East Chathammarker in Columbia County. The Taconic then ends at the toll plaza preceding the New York State Thruway Berkshire Section (Interstate 90 exit B2). Unpaved alignments can be seen where the parkway was, at one time, planned to continue north. The Taconic built before the Northway was opened in the 1960s was to be planned to extend to the Canadian border. However, there MAY be a plan to continue the parkway further north in the next 15-20 years, which all depends on how the economy is between now and then.

Like many New York parkways, the Taconic is restricted to passenger vehicles only; commercial vehicles are prohibited. Given the state's vehicle-licensing rules, this prohibition became a problem as truck sales increased. In January 2000, the laws were changed such that pickup trucks licensed in New York could obtain passenger plates and be driven on the Taconic.

The Taconic also has a reputation among motorists for being a very fast roadway, and particularly as it courses through Dutchess County, as having numerous police speed traps.

History

Conception

The Taconic was built over a number of years in four sections by two different agencies.

The first was the Westchester County Parks Commission (WCPC), which built an extension of its very successful Bronx River Parkway . Proposed by Robert Moses, the new highway was intended to provide a direct scenic route from the Bronxmarker to the Bear Mountain Bridgemarker, at the time a rare crossing over the Hudson River. The parkway design was largely the work of landscape architect Gilmore Clarke.

The second was a project by the Taconic State Park Commission (TSPC). The TSPC was formed in 1925 to oversee two tasks, develop the proposed Taconic State Park, and a parkway to the park. Franklin Delano Roosevelt first chaired the TSPC, and quickly focused on the parkway presenting a proposal for the path of the parkway at the commissions third meeting:

"approximately mid-way between Albany Post Road and the Harlem River Valley and coming out on the west side of Shenandoah Valley, passing thence east of East Fishkill, east of Hopewell, east of Arthursburg, east of Billings, east of Moores Mill, east of Washington Hollow, east of Stanfordville, west of Bangall to the south end of Stissing Mountain, thence over the top of Stissing Mountain through Silvermalls and past Charlotte Lake, thence approximately in a straight line to Philmont and past Chatham, with the idea that at some point north of Chatham would be divide and one fork would lead northeast to Williamstown and the Mohawk Trail and the other fork northwest passing east of Troy, to the Saratoga Battlefield."

Since Roosevelt's statement, Lake Charlotte has been renamed Lake Taghkanic and became the centerpiece of Lake Taghkanic State Parkmarker.

This was the plan adopted by the TSPC and approved by the State Parks Council, although Roosevelt is reported to have said later the parkway would extend north to the Canadianmarker border.

The WCPC project got off to a quick start and finished just two years later, despite delays due to soil conditions north of Mohansic Park (since renamed Franklin D.marker Roosevelt State Parkmarker). The TSPC project had a much slower start. At the time, Moses was chair of the State Parks Council, which controlled TSPC funding, most of which went to the Long Island Parks Commission, which Moses chaired. Funding to acquire land or even hire TSPC staff was minimal, which Roosevelt frequently complained about.

Although some progress was made acquiring land for a right-of-way through much of Putnam and into Dutchess, primarily through land donations, two of the largest being the Fahnestock and Lake Charlotte donations. It was not until the 1930-31 budget that significant funds became available. Assisted greatly by Roosevelt who by then was governor of New York, and was so fond of the project that he continued to influence it for years after leaving the TSPC.

Construction

  • 1929 - 1932: Construction began on the Bronx River Parkway extension in 1929 by the Westchester County Park Commission and was completed two years later with the parkway opening to traffic Sunday, November 14, 1931. The 42' wide undivided roadway featuredg stone arch bridges and a 750' triple hinged steel truss arch bridge over the Croton Lakemarker; at the time, it was the longest bridge of its type in the world. This original section included a branch north to the Westchester County line intended to meet the state's planned Eastern State Parkway.


  • 1932 - 1938: Starting on April 28, 1931, the TSPC began construction, extending the northern branch of the extension in Westchester Countymarker northward into Putnam Countymarker through the Hudson Highlands and into Dutchess Countymarker, reaching Peekskill Hollow Road in 1933, Fahnestockmarker/NY 301 in July 1935, NY 52 in September 1936, and finally NY 55 in December 1938. This section featured three overlooks, one near Bullet Hole Road (former crossing north of Bryant Pond Road) and two on Hosner Mountain, and also a service station on the west side, south of NY 301(now a NYSDOTmarker maintenance shed). As the parkway neared NY 52, the increased safety of medians became known and was incorporated into the design. When first opened, the parkway in Putnam County included bridle paths in the median. Concern over maintenance costs led to their closure in 1940.


As traffic volume increased, two median service stations were built, the Shenandoah station near Hosner Mountain Road and Todd Hill near Todd Hill Road in 1942. Both sold gas and could do minor repairs, quite modest, unlike the full-service Briarcliff Wells station with a garage, restaurant and bar.

  • 1938 - 1955: The next section extending the parkway through the remainder of Dutchess County and into southern Columbia Countymarker was constructed. Construction was deferred due to World War II. Funding being redirected to the new Interstate system and controversy over the planned route near Lake Taghkanicmarker, meant that NY 199 was not reached until September 1949. NY 82 was reached in October 1954 and NY 23 in December 1958. During the construction of this section another large land donation allowed for the creation of James Baird State Park. This section included a median service station in Clinton Cornersmarker and the only east facing overlook at the border of Clintonmarker and Stanfordmarker. Roadway design during construction of this section saw the introduction of mountable curbs. Contracts also allowed for paving with asphalt, but concrete bids were lower until after reaching NY 82.


  • 1955 - 1963: Construction on the final section began in 1955 reaching NY 203 in 1961 and was completed in November 1963, with the parkway's northern terminus at the Berkshire Connector of the New York State Thruway. This is the only section originally paved with asphalt. A median service station was built at Lake Taghkonic, and overlooks near CR 8 and between NY 217 and NY 203. The original terminus was planned to be at the west end of the NY 22/67 concurrency in Buskirk, rather than the toll trap that it is.


After the parkway was completed, an opening ceremony planned for November 25, 1963, was cancelled due to the assassination of then-U.S. president John F. Kennedy and never rescheduled.

Improvements and reconstruction

Even as construction of the final section in Columbia County was nearing completion, increasing traffic volume on the Westchester section was straining the roadway there. While originally built to modern standards of the time, a narrow undivided roadway with an abundance of at-grade crossings proved to be a less-than-ideal design as traffic volume increased.

Pressure grew to improve the safety of the aging roadway, as it was rapidly becoming a major commuter route. Furthermore, a new parkway, the Sprain Brook, was being planned to connect to the Taconic. The TSPC started investigating its options to modernize the parkway, including grade-separating crossings, additional traffic lanes between Hawthorne and Yorktown, and removing the Hawthorne Circle, which had become a known problem as early as 1941. In 1954 the cost of such improvements was estimated at more than $25 million, much more than the thinly spread TSPC could afford.

In 1954, the hazardous at-grade crossing of Underhill Avenue in Yorktownmarker was grade separated with a stone-faced concrete arch bridge designed by Gilmore Clarke, faithful to the parkway's original character.

Funding problems were eventually mitigated in 1960 with the creation of the East Hudson Parkway Authority (EHPA). The EHPA assumed control of the parkway the next year. Unlike the TSPC's recreational vision, the EHPA concentrated on larger scale projects to increase the capacity of the southern end of the parkway.

Between 1965 and 1971, an additional three-lane alignment was added between Campfire Road in Millwoodmarker and Crompond Road (US 202/NY 35) in Yorktownmarker. The original alignment was then reconfigured for 3 lanes in a single direction. This project was completed when the final section between Kitchawan (NY 134) and Baldwin roads was finished in 1971. Along with the additional alignment, a new steel truss bridge was built over the Croton Reservoirmarker to carry southbound traffic. In addition, the Hawthorne traffic circle at the Saw Mill River Parkway was replaced with a three-level interchange that only provides parallel connections (north–north, south–south).

While reconstruction in Westchester county was welcomed, plans to enlarge the parkway in Putnam where not as well received. The parkway through Putnam, with its steep terrain and sharp corners, was especially hazardous, and development had increased the at grade crossing problems, notably at Bryant Pond Road. To help improve the parkway safety, in 1967 a median box beam barrier was installed between Bullet Hole Road (north of Bryant Pond Road) and Pudding Street.

The plan favored by the EHPA would have had a new southbound alignment going through the Wiccopee Valley and Bryant Pond areas of Putnam Valley, creating alignments as much as apart. Not only would this have cut through Fahnestock State Parkmarker, but it also would have isolated a large portion of Putnam Valley and left the Tompkins Corners hamlet marooned in the median. Ultimately, the potential effects on Fahnestock doomed the plan and smaller improvements having less impact on the original character of the parkway were done, such as replacing the not very effective timber guide rails with steel box beam guide rails.

In 1980, the Sprain Brook Parkway was completed, providing a higher-speed, signal-free means of reaching the state-maintained freeway portion of the Bronx River Parkway. Until the completion, it was possible to travel south on the Sprain to the NY 100/Bradhurst Ave exit.

Former Gas Station along NB side, 0.6 mile south of Pleasantville Rd., Lost to widening
The early 1990s saw the completion of the parkway between NY 100/NY 133 in Millwood and the Saw Mill River Parkway in Hawthornemarker being widened to six lanes with a median, in the process removing one of the original stone construction gas stations (examples of which can still be seen farther north) and the infamous "Pleasantville hump" (the bridge over Pleasantville Road had steep ramps on both sides). During this project, the at-grade crossings of Washburn Road, Chappaqua Road, and Campfire Road where removed. The eastern part of Washburn Road became a cul-de-sac, the western part was extended south to Pleasantville Road. A bridge was built over Chappaqua Road, and the eastern part of Campfire Road was extended north to what had been the northbound NY 100/NY 133 exit, while the short western part between the parkway and NY 100 was abandoned. Today it is a parking area for, and what remains is now under, the North County Trailway. The NY 100/NY 133 exit was then reconfigured to exit onto what is now Campfire Road.

In 2000, reconstruction began to widen the parkway between US 202/NY 35 and US 6 from four lanes to six lanes. At the time this project was expected to be completed in 2001. In 2003, the original contractor was replaced and the project is now complete.

In 2001, the grade crossings at Bogardus Lane, Carpenter Road, Arthursburg Road, Todd Hill Road, and Stormville Road were closed to cross traffic as part of a comprehensive safety improvement project, recommendations of which also included closing the Hibernia Road, Hollow Road, Willow Lane, Pumpkin Lane, Nine Partners Road, Willowbrook Road, and Cold Spring Road crossings.

During 2007, work was completed on Ramp X. Located just south of Ramp W, this ramp connecting southbound NY 9A/NY 100 to the southbound parkway in Mount Pleasantmarker was originally part of the earlier widening project, but was postponed to reduce costs.

To this day work continues to remove the remaining at-grade crossings that still exist. Some, like Bryant Pond Road and Miller Hill Road, have been replaced with a bridge and interchange. Others have been closed off to cross traffic. The next at-grade crossing likely to be replaced with an interchange is Pudding Street.

An earlier dream of extending the parkway to the Canadianmarker border died with the Interstate system. Designed for all traffic, the Thruway diverted funding from the extension project; the eventual construction of the Adirondack Northway ultimately removed the need.

Notable dates

  • 1924: New York Statemarker authorizes the Westchester County Parks Commission to begin planning and construction of the Bronx River Parkway Extension.
  • 1925: New York State voters authorize a $15 million bond act to fund state parks.
  • 1941: the Westchester County Parks Commission transfers jurisdiction of its Bronx River extension to the Taconic State Park Commission. The north-south section of the Bronx River Parkway extension was then merged with the Eastern State Parkway and named The Taconic State Parkway. The east-west section of the extension going to the Bear Mountain Bridgemarker became the Bear Mountain State Parkway.


  • 1961: The East Hudson Parkway Authority took over jurisdiction of the parkway under contract to the Taconic State Park Commission. The next year jurisdiction was officially transferred.




  • 1992: The Taconic State Parkway was designated as a New York State Scenic Byway.




  • July 26, 2009: The 2009 Taconic State Parkway crash - A passenger van traveling southbound in the northbound roadway crashed head-on into an oncoming sport utility vehicle (SUV) approximately 1.7 miles north of the Pleasantville Road exit near Briarcliff Manor, New Yorkmarker. Diane Schuler, the van's driver, and four children in the van were killed as were all three men in the SUV. There were no fatalities in a third vehicle that was involved. It was the worst motor vehicle accident in Westchester County since 1934 when 20 were killed in a bus accident in Ossining. Schuler was determined to have been impaired, driving under the influence of both alcohol and marijuana.


Route description

Westchester County

Looking south at the Legion Drive overpass in North Castle.
Plaque near Baldwin Road.
Starting from its southern terminus, Kensico Circle, at the end of the Bronx River Parkway, and located near the base of the Kensico Dammarker, the Taconic gets off to a start much as it was originally built early in the 20th century. The narrow 4 lane roadway with nothing but a box beam median barrier feels confined and tight, yet the feeling of a country drive is there thanks to the clever use of terrain and vegetation to hide the surrounding urbanized environment. For the first few miles the parkway is very much a surface arterial, complete with traffic lights at nearly every intersection, following the path of the Bronx River.

Just after Stevens Avenue, things begin to change. After passing over a steeply ramped bridge over the Metro-North's Harlem line, one might notice the remains of a small paved circle in the median, the remains of what was once was a turn-around at the end of the parkway. Just past the turn-around, the roadway heads north and takes on the feel of a highway entrance ramp. This tends to prepare one for the dramatic change about to occur, as soon the Taconic widens to a 3 south-4 north lane freeway at the merge with traffic from the northern terminus of the Sprain Brook Parkway. The two-lane exit to the Saw Mill Parkway quickly takes away the 4th lane.

Southbound travelers might have a difficult time following the Taconic at this junction. Although there is the usual small parkway sign, the Taconic narrows to just two lanes just before the 2 lane NY 141/SMP entrance ramp. The much larger overhead sign has the exit labeled as "Bronx (River) Pkwy", and the parkway sign is all the way over along the other side of the ramp.

After Hawthorne, where a dangerous traffic circle once existed, the parkway is very much a freeway and one might get the feeling they are traveling on just another Interstate—a rather curvy one—until reaching Croton Lake where an intimidating bridge entrance seems to appear from nowhere. The bridge, known as AMVETS Memorial Bridge (formerly New Croton Reservoir Bridge until 2003), crosses the Croton Reservoir. After crossing Croton Lake one might start to notice uncommon details of the road and its structures, all designed to blend into the landscape.

Just south of the Baldwin Road exit, there is a plaque on the East side of the roadway set in stone paying tribute to William D. Baldwin, who donated of land to help with the building of the Taconic Parkway back in 1928. Mr. Baldwin was the Westchester Parks Commissioner at the time and his family owned a estate in French Hill at the time.

After US 6, the parkway starts its climb into the start of the Hudson Highlands, preparing one for what is about to come.

Putnam County

The TSP looking north from Peekskill Hollow Road
Upon entering Putnam county, the climb into the Hudson Highlands has begun and the character of the parkway as FDR envisioned starts to become evident. The twisty roadway, narrow and confined with only a box beam median is much like the Westchester boulevard segment but lacking the traffic lights. Tighter curves are noticeable as it passes through the rugged terrain. The former overlooks are long gone, but glimpses of the views to appear later still exist.

After a steep climb, it levels off a bit before plunging down into Peekskill Hollow and crossing Peekskill Hollow road. Then the parkway makes another steep ascent up toward Fahnestock State Parkmarker following the path of Roaring Brook as it makes a dramatic sweeping 180-degree turn, quickly followed by a 90-degree turn in the opposite direction. It passes between two large lakes as it enters Fahnestock and reaches its highest point. The parkway continues its journey, skirting across the top of the Highlands toward the Dutchess County line.

Dutchess County

As the Taconic enters Dutchess Countymarker, it steeply descends the western side of Hosner Mountain and moves into the rolling hills of the Hudson Highlands. Major cross routes within the county include Interstate 84, New York State Route 55, U.S. Route 44, and New York State Route 82, with which the Taconic first intersects in Southern Dutchess. There is a second exit for Route 82 in Columbia County, which causes much confusion for those traveling north, as the Taconic's exits are not numbered.

Approaching the northern end of the parkway
At-grade crossings were eliminated for most of the Taconic's run though Dutchess County because of high traffic volume and a history of accidents. So far, one overpass has been built, and an exit has been added (northbound at Noxon Road in the Town of Lagrange) to complement the closures.

Columbia County

The parkway terrain in Columbia is similar to that in Dutchess, with some additional features. First, the larger green mile markers disappear at the county line (the highest one is Mile 72.6). There are also many more at-grade crossings, which lack exit and entry ramps. Unlike Interstate 87 to the west, there are no commercialized rest stops. However, there are at least two scenic overlooks (parking area)in both directions, that provides a view for miles on a clear day. Plus, at an at-grade intersection with Rigor Hill Road (between New York State Route 217 and New York State Route 203), a Diner, and a Mobil gas/fuel station are available for travelers to stop and eat, get gas, or go to the restroom. It is clearly seen if the traveler is traveling southbound, and may be difficult for people to see it northbound. This is considered a rest area to the travelers. It is not uncommon to see deer, wild turkey, groundhogs, or other wildlife along the grassy sides of the parkway. Towards the end of the parkway, one can see the Albany city lights in the distance at the Ghent overlook.

The parkway terminates at a three-lane tollbooth to the Berkshire Extension of the New York State Thruway, which enters at exit B2.

Exit list

Intersections (as opposed to freeway-style exits) were numbered; however, most are no longer posted. Numbering is not necessarily sequential; many exits have been removed, and some have been added.

County Location Mile # Destinations Notes
Westchestermarker Valhallamarker 0.00 Southbound exit and northbound entrance
Broadway
W1 South Kensico Avenue
W2 Legion Dr No longer accessible from the TSP
W3 Lakeview Avenue
W5 Commerce Avenue
Hawthornemarker W6 Stevens Avenue
Southern terminus of freeway section
2.85 Southbound exit and northbound entrance
Northbound exit and southbound entrance
3.30 Northbound exit and southbound entrance
3.30 Southbound exit and northbound entrance
Mount Pleasantmarker 4.00 Northbound exit and entrance
Briarcliff Manormarker 4.67 Northbound exit and southbound entrance
5.63 W10 Pleasantville Road (CR 401) - Pleasantvillemarker
New Castlemarker 8.50
W11 Pines Bridge Road (CR 1323) Northbound exit and southbound entrance
Yorktownmarker 10.84 - Ossiningmarker
Bridges over the New Croton Reservoirmarker
Underhill Avenue (CR 131) - Croton-on-Hudsonmarker, Yorktown Heightsmarker Former NY 131
Baldwin Road Former NY 132A
Mohansic Avenue Southbound entrance only; no exit from Taconic
Franklin D.marker Roosevelt State Parkmarker
17.14
17.36 No northbound entrance
19.76 Northbound exit and southbound entrance
20.13
Northern terminus of freeway section
Putnammarker Putnam Valleymarker Artery to Dring Road Southbound-only at-grade intersection, signed only at intersection.
23.2 P1 Bryant Pond Road
P2 Bullet Hole Road Northbound only, closed mid-1990s
25.65 P3 CR 21 (Peekskill Hollow Road)
28.2 P4 Pudding Street At-grade intersection.
P5 Wiccopee Lane Southbound only, closed mid-1990s.
Kentmarker 31.14 P6 NY 301 - Carmelmarker, Cold Springmarker To Fahnestock State Parkmarker (east).
P7 Hortontown Hill Road At-grade intersection. Median closed early 2000s.
P8 Knapp Road Northbound only. Southbound closed mid 1990s, median closed early 2000s.
Dutchessmarker East Fishkillmarker D1 Miller Hill Road Location of Appalachian Trail crossing.
36.92 D2 I-84 Exit 16 N-S (I-84)
Hosner Mountain Road Exit closed 2000s.
38.39 NY 52 - Fishkillmarker, Carmelmarker
CR 29 (Carpenter Road) At-grade intersection.
North-to-east and south-to-west connections.
CR 9 (Beekman Road) - Hopewell Junctionmarker, Sylvan Lakemarker
Bogardus Lane Northbound only. Closed 2000s.
43.69 NY 82 - Hopewell Junctionmarker, LaGrangemarker, East Fishkillmarker
LaGrangemarker CR 42 (Arthursburg Road) Southbound only. Recently upgraded from an intersection. Northbound closed mid-1980s.
CR 21 (Noxon Road) - Noxon, LaGrangeville Northbound exit only. To southbound Taconic, use CR 42.
Todd Hill Road Median Closed.
47.05 NY 55 - Pawlingmarker, Poughkeepsiemarker Mid-Hudson Bridgemarker - use NY 55 west.
James Baird State Park Northbound: left-hand exit. Southbound: right-hand exit.
Pleasant Valley 54.72 US 44 - Poughkeepsiemarker, Millbrookmarker To NY 82.
Clintonmarker CR 14 (Hollow Road) At-grade intersection, northbound only.
Median closed July 24, 2002.
58.30 NY 115/CR 17 (Salt Point Turnpike) To Hyde Park.
Stanfordmarker D19 Nine Partners Road (median closed in early 2000s)
D20 CR 19 (Bulls Head Road)
Milanmarker D22 Cold Spring Road At-grade intersection.
Median closed August 15, 2002.
67.75 D23 NY 199 - Pine Plainsmarker, Red Hookmarker; Milan Wilcox Recreational Park
Columbiamarker Gallatinmarker 72.24 Columbia CR 2/Dutchess CR 50 (Jackson Corners Road) Interchange partly straddles the county line.
CR 8 At-grade intersection.
Taghkanicmarker 78.30 Lake Taghkanic State Parkmarker Southbound: no exit, make U-turn at CR 8.
79.72 NY 82 - Ancrammarker, Hudsonmarker Rip Van Winkle Bridgemarker - use NY 82 west.
CR 10 At-grade intersection.
Post Hill Rd At-grade intersection.
Snydertown Rd At-grade intersection.
Claverackmarker 87.77 NY 23 - Claverackmarker, Hillsdalemarker
Ghentmarker 91.34 NY 217 - Harlemville, Philmontmarker
Austerlitzmarker 99.25 NY 203 - Austerlitzmarker, Chathammarker
Chathammarker 101.88 NY 295 - Chathammarker, East Chathammarker Northbound: last exit before toll. Southbound: access via Hartigan Road.
Rock City Road Northbound entrance only.
Upper Cady Road Southbound exit only. Commercial traffic must exit.
Toll booth. Southbound: pay toll. Northbound: get ticket for the New York State Thruway.
104.12 I-90/Thruway east Northbound exit only.
Exit B2 (I-90/Thruway).
Northbound traffic defaults onto I-90/Thruway west.


References

  1. Taconic State Parkway (NYCROADS.com)
  2. Bear Mountain Bridge (NYCROADS.com)
  3. Parkway Access For Pick-Up Trucks Page not available. Archived version
  4. Historic American Engineering Record - Taconic State Parkway, Poughkeepsie vicinity, Dutchess County, NY
  5. The Preservationist (NYS Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation) Spring 2005
  6. The Taconic: Gateway To A New Yorktown by Martin Wilbur, North County News, June 22-28, 1988
  7. NYS governors office press release July 12, 2000
  8. Reed Construction Data January 17, 2005
  9. Taconic State Parkway phase two recommendations (NYSDOT)
  10. The Journal News December 31, 2003 and July 17, 2006
  11. Taconic State Parkway/Miller Hill Road Interchange (NYSDOT)
  12. Taconic Task Force Report, Part 1
  13. Taconic Task Force Report, Part 2
  14. Traffic Safety Board Calls for Upgrade of Pudding Street... The Putnam County News and Recorder February 25, 2004
  15. New York Scenic Byways
  16. National Register of Historic Places Listings, December 12, 2005 (National Park Service)
  17. http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2009/08/04/2009-08-04_diane_schuler_mom_who_drove_van_wrong_way_on_the_taconic_killing_8_was_drunk_on_.html
  18. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/08/04/AR2009080401917.html?hpid=moreheadlines
  19. http://assembly.state.ny.us/member_files/090/20031202/


External links




Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message