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Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko ( ; February 4, 1746 – October 15, 1817) was a Polish general and Polish-Lithuanianmarker
military leader during the Kościuszko Uprising. He is a national hero in Polandmarker, Lithuaniamarker, and the United Statesmarker and is also treated as a national hero by many people in Belarusmarker . He led the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising against Imperial Russiamarker and Kingdom of Prussiamarker as Supreme Commander of the National Armed Force (Najwyższy Naczelnik Siły Zbrojnej Narodowej).


Prior to commanding the 1794 Uprising, he had fought in the American Revolutionary War as a colonel in the Continental Army. In 1783, in recognition of his dedicated service, he had been brevetted by the Continental Congress to the rank of brigadier general and had become a naturalized citizen of the United States.

There are several Anglicized spellings of Kościuszko's name. Perhaps the most frequently-occurring is Thaddeus Kosciusko, though the full "Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciusko" is also seen. In Lithuanian, Kościuszko's name is rendered as Tadas Kosciuška or Tadeušas Kosciuška.

Life

Early Life & Education

Kościuszko's birthplace
Kościuszko was born in the village of Mereczowszczyzna ( , Merachoushchyna), now abandoned, near the present-day town of Kosava, Belarusmarker. The area lay within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Kościuszko was the son of a local noble Ludwik Tadeusz Kościuszko and Tekla, née Ratomska. He was the youngest child in a family whose lineages are traced to Lithuanian and Ruthenian nobility and to a 15th–16th–century courtier of Polish King Sigismund I the Old, Konstanty Fiodorowicz Kostiuszko.

At the time of Tadeusz Kościuszko's birth, the family possessed modest holdings in the Grand Duchy. His first language may have been Belarusian, and he was christened in both the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic religions. As a result of the dual baptisms, he bore the names Andrei and Tadeusz.

In 1765 Poland's King Stanisław August Poniatowski created at Warsawmarker, on the grounds of present-day Warsaw Universitymarker, the Szkoła Rycerska (School of Knights) to educate military officers and government officials. Kościuszko enrolled on 18 December 1765, becoming a member of the Corps of Cadets. Since the school emphasized both military subjects and the liberal arts, his courses included world history, the history of Poland, philosophy, Latin, the Polish, German and French languages, and law, economics, geography, arithmetic, geometry and engineering. Upon graduation, he was promoted to captain.

France: Art, War, and Enlightenment

In 1769 Kościuszko and his colleague Orłowski were granted a royal scholarship and on October 5 they set off for Paris. There Kościuszko briefly studied in the Academy of Fine Arts, but soon realized that the career of a painter was not what he dreamed of. As a foreigner he could not apply for any of the French military academies, and he lacked the funds to study engineering. For five years, however, Kościuszko educated himself as an extern, frequenting lectures and the libraries of the Paris military academies. His exposure to the Enlightenment there, coupled with the religious tolerance practiced in the Commonwealth, would have a strong influence on his later career.

First Return: An Officer Without A Command

By the First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in 1772, the adjoining countries of Russiamarker, Prussia and Austria annexed large swaths of Polish-Lithuanian territory and acquired influence over the internal politics of the reduced Poland and Lithuania. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was forced to cut back its Army to 10,000 men, and when Kościuszko finally returned home in 1774, there was no place for him in the Army. He took a position as tutor in the family of a provincial governor and fell in love with his pupil Ludwika Sosnowska. They eloped but were overtaken by her father's retainers. Kościuszko received a thrashing at their hands — an event which may have led to his later antipathy to class distinctions. In autumn of 1775 he decided to emigrate.

Dresden and Paris: A Revolutionary Is Born

In late 1775 Kościuszko arrived in Dresdenmarker, where he wanted to join either the Saxonmarker court or the elector's army. However, he was refused and decided to travel back to Paris. There he was informed of the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, in which the British colonies in North America revolted against the crown and started the fight for independence. The first American successes were well publicized in France and the cause of the revolutionaries was openly supported by the French people, whose government also supported the Americans.





American Revolution: The Glorious Cause of Liberty

Kościuszko came to America on his own, and on August 30, 1776 he presented a Memorial to Congress. He initially served as a volunteer, but on October 18, 1776, Congress commissioned him a Colonel of Engineers in the Continental Army. "He was assigned a black orderly named Agrippa Hull. At the recommendation of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and General Charles Lee, Kościuszko was named head engineer of the Continental Army.

He was sent to Pennsylvaniamarker to work with the Continental Army. Shortly after arriving, he read the United States Declaration of Independence. Kościuszko was moved by the document because it encompassed everything in which he believed; he was so moved, in fact, that he decided to meet Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the Declaration. The two met in Virginiamarker a few months later. After spending the day discussing philosophy and other things they shared in common, they became very close friends. Kościuszko was a guest at Monticellomarker on many occasions, and spent prolonged visits there.

The War In The North: 1776-1780

Kościuszko's first task in America was the fortification of Philadelphiamarker. His first structure was the construction of Fort Billingsportmarker. On September 24, 1776, Kościuszko was ordered to fortify the banks of the Delaware River against a possible Britishmarker crossing. In the spring of 1777 he was attached to the Northern Army under Maj. Gen. Horatio Gates where he directed the construction of several forts and fortified military camps along the Canadianmarker border.

Subsequently posted at Fort Ticonderogamarker, he worked to restore the defenses of what had once been one of the most formidable fortresses in North America. His surveys of the landscape prompted him to strongly recommend the construction of a battery on Sugar Loaf Mtn.marker overlooking the fort. Though a prudent suggestion, and one that carried the agreement of Kościuszko's fellow engineers, garrison commander Brigadier Gen. Arthur St. Clair ultimately declined to carry it out, citing logistical difficulties. This turned out to be an egregious tactical blunder, as, when the British Army under General John Burgoyne arrived in July, he did exactly what Kościuszko would have done and had his engineers place artillery on the hill.

With the British in complete control of the high ground, the Americans realized their situation was hopeless and abandoned the fortress with hardly a shot fired in the battle of Ticonderogamarker. The British advance force nipped hard on the heels of the outnumbered and exhausted Continentals as they fled southward. Maj. Gen. Philip Schuyler, desperate to put distance between his men and their pursuers, ordered scorched earth tactics along the route of retreat. In his crucial rearguard role, Kościuszko carried out these orders by directing the felling of trees, damming of streams, and destruction of all bridges and causeways to deny the Britishmarker use of the roadway. Encumbered by their vast supply train, the British slowly began to bog down, giving the Americans the time needed to safely withdraw across the Hudson River.

Shortly thereafter, General Gates relieved Schuyler, regrouping his forces to try and prevent the Britishmarker from taking Albanymarker. He tapped Kościuszko to survey the countryside between the opposing armies, choose the most defensible position he could, and fortify it. Finding just such a position near Saratogamarker, overlooking the Hudson at Bemis Heightsmarker, Kościuszko proceeded to lay out an excellent array of defenses; nearly impregnable to attack from any direction. His excellent judgment and meticulous attention to every detail in the American defense frustrated the British Armymarker attack during the final battle on October 7th, 1777. Added to the American victory at Freeman's Farm two weeks prior, the dwindling Britishmarker army was dealt a second sound tactical defeat, turning the tide of the campaign.

The Americans were then free and able to pursue and bottle up the tattered remnants of the defeated Britishmarker. Having cut off the last means of escape, Gates accepted General Burgoyne's surrender of his entire expeditionary force at Saratogamarker on October 16th, 1777. This complete and total American victory marked the turning point of the entire war, sealing the alliance with Francemarker on February 6th, 1778. Kościuszko's work at Saratogamarker received great praise from Gen. Gates, who later told his friend Dr. Benjamin Rush "...the great tacticians of the campaign were hills and forests, which a young Polish engineer was skillful enough to select for my encampment".

Thereafter, Kościuszko was regarded as one of the best engineers in American service. George Washington took immediate notice, tasking him with the command of improving defensive works at the stronghold in West Pointmarker. Here he was posted until being granted his request for transfer to the Southern Army in August of 1780. It was Kościuszko's defenses at West Pointmarker that General Benedict Arnold attempted to pass to the Britishmarker when he turned traitor the following month. It was later revealed that the original blueprints had been destroyed before either Arnold or Gen. Washington could get their hands on them.

The War In The South: 1780-1783

Traveling southward through rural Virginiamarker, where he witnessed chattel slavery for the first time up-close and personal, he eventually reported to his former commander Gen. Gates in North Carolinamarker in October. However, following the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Camdenmarker on August 16th, Congress selected Washington's choice of Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene to replace the disgraced Gates as commander of the Southern Department. When Gen. Greene formally assumed command on December 4th, 1780, Kościuszko's services were retained, employed as Greene's chief engineer. In this capacity, he made substantial contributions towards the planning and execution of the general's overall strategy that culminated in the reconquest of the Carolinas & Georgiamarker two years later.

Over the course of this campaign, he was placed in charge of constructing bateaux, siting camps, scouting river crossings, fortifying positions, and developing intelligence contacts. Many of his contributions were instrumental in preventing the destruction of the Southern Army. This was especially true during the famous "Race to the Dan", where Cornwallis and his exhausted troops chased Greene through 200 miles of rough backcountry terrain in the dead of winter. Thanks largely to a combination of Greene's tactics, and Kościuszko's bateaux and accurate scouting of the rivers ahead of the main body, the Continentals safely crossed each one in its path, including the Dan Rivermarker. Cornwallis, having no boats of his own, and finding no way to cross the swollen Danmarker, finally gave up the chase and withdrew back into North Carolinamarker, while the Continentals regrouped south of Halifax, VAmarker, where Kościuszko had earlier established a fortified depot at Greene's request.

During the "Race to the Dan", Kościuszko had contributed to the selection of the site where Gen. Greene eventually returned to fight Cornwallis at Guilford Courthouse. Though tactically defeated, the Americans all but destroyed Cornwallis' army as an effective fighting force and gained a permanent strategic advantage in the South. Thus, as Greene began his reconquest of South Carolinamarker in the spring of 1781, he recalled Kościuszko from Halifaxmarker to rejoin the main body of the Southern Army. It wasn't long before he was back in his engineering element at Ninety Six where, from May 22nd - June 18th, he conducted the longest siege of the Revolutionary War. Kościuszko suffered his only wound in seven full years of service during the unsuccessful siege, as he was bayonetted in his hindquarters during an assault by the Star Fort's defenders on the approach trench he was preparing.

As the combined forces of the Continentals and Southern militia gradually forced the Britishmarker from the backcountry into the coastal ports during the latter half of 1781, Kościuszko began participating in more direct action. He had already fought in the major battles at Hobkirk's Hill in April and Eutaw Springsmarker in September. However, he was most active throughout the final year of hostilities in much smaller actions focused on harassing Britishmarker foraging parties near Charlestonmarker. His only known battlefield command of the war occurred at James Islandmarker on November 14th, 1782. In what is believed by many to be the Continental Army's final armed action of the war, he was very nearly killed as his small force was soundly routed. A month later, he was among the first Continental troops to reoccupy Charlestonmarker following the Britishmarker evacuation of the city. Kościuszko spent the rest of the war there, allegedly conducting a fireworks display to celebrate news of the signing of the Treaty of Paris in April of 1783.

Mustering Out: Preparing to Return Home

After seven years of faithful and uninterrupted service to the American cause, on October 13, 1783, Kościuszko was promoted by Congress to the rank of brigadier general. He also received American citizenship, a grant of land near present day Columbus, OH, and was admitted to both the prestigious Society of the Cincinnatimarker and the American Philosophical Societymarker. When he was leaving America, he wrote a last will, naming Thomas Jefferson the executor and leaving his property in America to be used to buy the freedom of black slaves, including Jefferson's, and to educate them for independent life and work. Several years after Kosciuszko's death, Jefferson pled an inability to act as executor, an action deprecated by the abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison and Jefferson historian Merrill Peterson. The U.S. Supreme Court awarded the estate to Kosciuszko's descendants in 1852, ruling that he had died intestate despite the four wills he had made. During the legal proceedings between the date of his death and the Supreme Court decision, the value of his estate decreased significantly; this was attributed by a case attorney to Colonel George Bomford's use of the estate for his own purposes. None of the monies Kosciuszko had earmarked for the manumission and education of African-Americans were ever used for that purpose.

Commonwealth Again: Back Home In A Troubled Land



In July 1784 Kościuszko set off for Poland, where he arrived on August 12. He settled in his home village of Siechnowicze. The property, administered by his brother-in-law, brought a small but stable income, and Kościuszko decided to limit the servitude of his peasants (corvée) to two days a week, while completely exempting female serfs. This move was seen by local szlachta (nobility) as a sign of Kościuszko's dangerous liberalism.

By that time the internal situation in Poland was changing rapidly. A strong, if still informal, group of politicians advocated for reforms and for strengthening the state. Notable political writers such as Stanisław Staszic and Hugo Kołłątaj argued for granting the serfs and burghers more rights and for strengthening the central authorities. These ideas were supported by a large part of the szlachta, who also wanted to curb foreign meddling in Poland's internal affairs.

Finally the Great Sejm of 1788–92 opened the necessary reforms. One of its first acts was to approve the creation of a 100,000-man army to defend the Commonwealth's borders against its aggressive neighbors. Kościuszko saw this as a chance to return to military service and serve his country in the field that he knew best. He applied to the army and on October 12, 1789, received a royal commission as a major general. As such, he began receiving the high salary of 12,000 złotys a year, which ended his financial difficulties.

The Commonwealth's internal situation and the reforms initiated by the Constitution of May 3, 1791, the first constitution written in the modern era in Europe and second in the world after the American, were seen by the surrounding powers as a threat to their influence over Polish politics. On May 14, 1792, conservative magnates created the Targowica Confederation, which asked Russian Tsarina Catherine II for help in overthrowing the constitution. On May 18, 1792, a 100,000-man Russian army crossed the Polish border and headed for Warsawmarker, thus opening the Polish-Russian War of 1792.

Defense of the Constitution: A Patriot In His Native Land



Although the plan to create a 100,000-man Polish Army was not accomplished due to economic problems, the Polish Army was well-trained and prepared for war.

Before the Russians invaded Poland, Kościuszko was appointed deputy commander of Prince Józef Poniatowski's 3rd Crown Infantry Division. When the Prince became Commander in Chief of the entire Polish Army in May 1792, Kościuszko automatically assumed command of the Division.

After Prussia's betrayal of her Polish ally, the Army of Lithuania did not oppose the advancing Russians. The Polish Army was too weak to oppose the enemy advancing into Ukrainemarker and withdrew to the western side of the Bug River, where it regrouped and counterattacked. Victorious in the Battle of Zieleńce (June 18, 1792), Kościuszko was among the first to receive the newly-created Virtuti Militari medal, Poland's highest military decoration even today.

In the ensuing Battles of Włodzimierz (July 17, 1792) and Dubienka (July 18) Kościuszko repulsed the numerically superior enemy and came to be regarded as one of Poland's most brilliant military commanders of the time. On August 1, 1792, King Stanisław August promoted him to Lieutenant General. But before the nomination arrived at Kościuszko's camp in Sieciechów, the King had joined the ranks of the Targowica Confederation and surrendered to the Russians.

Emigré: Biding Time

The King's capitulation was a hard blow for Kościuszko, who had not lost a single battle in the campaign. Together with many other notable Polish commanders and politicians he fled to Dresdenmarker and then to Leipzigmarker, where the émigrées began preparing an uprising against Russian rule in Poland. The politicians, grouped around Ignacy Potocki and Hugo Kołłątaj, sought contacts with similar opposition groups formed in Poland and by spring 1793 had been joined by other politicians and revolutionaries, including Ignacy Działyński.

On August 26, 1792, the French Legislative Assembly awarded Kościuszko with honorary citizenship of France in honor of his fight for freedom of his fatherland and the ideas of equality and liberty. After two weeks in Leipzig, Kościuszko set off for Paris, where he tried to gain French support of the planned uprising in Poland.

On January 13, 1793, Prussia and Russiamarker signed the Second Partition of Poland, which was ratified by the Sejm of Grodno on June 17. Such an outcome was a giant blow for the members of Targowica Confederation who saw their actions as a defense of centuries-old privileges of the magnates, but now were regarded by the majority of the Polish population as traitors. After the partition Poland became a small country of roughly 200,000 square kilometres and a population of approximately 4 million. The economy was ruined and the support for the cause of an uprising grew significantly, especially since there was no serious opposition to the idea after the Targowica Confederation was discredited.

In June of 1793 Kościuszko prepared a plan of an all-national uprising, mobilization of all the forces and a war against Russia. The preparations in Poland were slow and he decided to postpone the outbreak. However, the situation in Poland was changing rapidly. The Russian and Prussian governments forced Poland to again disband the majority of her armed forces and the reduced units were to be drafted to the Russian army. Also, in March the tsarist agents discovered the group of revolutionaries in Warsaw and started arresting notable Polish politicians and military commanders. Kościuszko was forced to execute his plan earlier than planned and on March 15, 1794 he set off for Krakówmarker.

Kościuszko's Uprising: Poland's Own Washington



During the Uprising, Kościuszko was made Naczelnik (Commander-in-Chief) of all Polish-Lithuanian forces fighting against Russian occupation, and issued the famous Proclamation of Połaniec. After initial successes following the Battle of Racławicemarker, he was wounded in the Battle of Maciejowice and taken prisoner by the Russians, who imprisoned him in Saint Petersburgmarker—Kościuszko was held at Prince Orlov's Marble Palacemarker. The uprising ended soon afterwards with the Siege of Warsaw.

Later Life: Unfulfilled Dream of a Poland Resurrected



In 1796 Tsar Paul I of Russia pardoned Kościuszko and set him free. In exchange for his oath of loyalty, Paul I also freed some 20,000 Polish political prisoners held in Russian prisons and forcibly settled in Siberiamarker. The Tsar granted Kościuszko 12,000 roubles, which the Polish leader attempted in 1798 to return; the Tsar refused to accept it back as "money from a traitor".

Kościuszko emigrated to the United States, but the following year returned to Europe and in 1798 settled in Breville, near Paris. Still devoted to the Polish cause, he took part in creating the Polish Legions. Also, on October 17 and November 6, 1799 he met with Napoleon Bonaparte. However, he failed to reach any agreement with the French leader, who regarded Kościuszko as a "fool" who "overestimated his influence" in Poland (letter from Napoleon to Fouché, 1807).

Kościuszko remained politically active in Polish émigré circles in France and in 1799 was a founding member of the Society of Polish Republicans. However, he did not return to the Duchy of Warsawmarker and did not join the reborn Polish Army allied with Napoleon. Instead, after the fall of Napoleon's empire in 1815 he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I in Braunau. In return for his prospective services, Kościuszko demanded social reforms and territorial gains for Poland, which he wished to reach as far as the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east.
Alexander asked him to go to Warsaw. However, soon afterwards, in Viennamarker, Kościuszko learned that the Kingdom of Polandmarker created by the Tsar would be even smaller than the earlier Duchy of Warsaw. Kościuszko called such an entity "a joke"; and when he received no reply to his letters to the Tsar, he left Vienna and moved to Solothurnmarker, Switzerlandmarker, where his friend Franciszek Zeltner was mayor. Suffering from poor health and old wounds, on October 15 1817 Kościuszko died there of typhoid fever. Two years earlier, he had emancipated his serfs.

Kościuszko's body was embalmed and placed in a crypt at Solothurn's Jesuit Church. His viscera, removed in the process of embalming, were separately interred in a graveyard at Zuchwilmarker, near Solothurn, except for the heart, for which an urn was fashioned. In 1818 Kościuszko's body was transferred to Krakówmarker, Poland, and placed in a crypt at Wawel Cathedralmarker, a pantheon of Polish kings and national heroes. Kościuszko's heart, which had been preserved at the Polish Museummarker in Rapperswilmarker, Switzerland, was in 1927, along with the rest of the Museum's holdings, repatriated to Warsawmarker, where the heart now reposes in a chapel at the Royal Castlemarker. Kościuszko's other viscera remain interred at Zuchwil, where a large memorial stone was erected in 1820 and can be visited today, next to a Polish memorial chapel.

Commemorations: Ultimate Legacy of the Purest Son Of Liberty

Kosciuszko statue, Lafayette Square, Washington, D.C.


As a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States, Kościuszko has given his name to many places around the world. The Polish explorer Count Paweł Edmund Strzelecki named the highest mountain in continental Australia, Mount Kosciuszkomarker, for him; the mountain is now the central point of Kosciuszko National Parkmarker.

He has also given his name to Kosciusko, Mississippimarker and Kosciusko, Texas; Kosciusko County, Indianamarker; Kosciusko Islandmarker in Alaska; New York State's two Kosciuszko Bridge (in Lathammarker on I-87 just north of Albanymarker; and on the Brooklyn Queens Expressway); Kosciuszko Street marker; the Kosciuszko Bridge that crosses the Naugatuck River in Naugatuck, Connecticutmarker; Kosciuszko Street in Brooklyn, New Yorkmarker; Kosciuszko Street in Manchester, New Hampshiremarker; Kosciuszko Street in Nanticoke, Pennsylvaniamarker; Kosciuszko Way in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvaniamarker; Kosciuszko Park in Stamford, Connecticutmarker; Kosciuszko Street in South Bend, Indianamarker, Kosciusko Street in Woburn, Massachusettsmarker, and Thaddeus Kosciusko Way in downtown Los Angeles, Californiamarker.

Monmouth, Illinois, was to be called Kosciuszko after that name was drawn from a hat around 1831. It was decided that Kosciuszko would be too hard to pronounce, so Monmouth was selected as an alternative.

There is a Kościuszko Monument at the entrance to Krakówmarker's Wawel Castlemarker, where he was laid to rest. Its replica was erected in Detroit, Michiganmarker in 1978 (pictured). There is an equestrian statue of him at Kosciuszko Park in Milwaukee, Wisconsinmarker, across from the Polish Basilica of St. Josaphatmarker, and other statues, in Boston Public Gardenmarker; Scranton, Pennsylvaniamarker; Chicago's Museum Campus on Solidarity Drive; Lafayette Parkmarker in Washington, D.C.marker; the United States Military Academymarker at West Pointmarker; Williams Park in St. Petersburg, Floridamarker; and Red Bud Springs Memorial Park in Kosciusko, Mississippimarker; in Kosciuszko Park in East Chicago, Indiana; and (with Kazimierz Pułaski) in Poland, Ohiomarker, a village named in honor of the two heroes of the American Revolution.
Kosciuszko statue, Boston Public Garden, Boston, Massachusetts


In Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniamarker, his Revolutionary War home is preserved as Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorialmarker, administered as part of Independence National Historical Parkmarker; and a monument to him stands at the corner of Benjamin Franklin Parkwaymarker and 18th Street. Hamtramck, Michiganmarker, has a Kosciuszko Middle School; Winona, Minnesotamarker has Washington-Kosciuszko Elementary School; Chicago, a public park named for him in Logan Squaremarker; and East Chicagomarker, Indianamarker, a public park (with statue), a school and a neighborhood, all bearing Kosciuszko's name. Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvaniamarker has a Polish Falcons Sportsman's Club named after Kosciuszko. There is a Kosciusko Way in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvaniamarker. In Grand Rapids, Michiganmarker, there is a club called Kosciuszko Hall.

In Poland, every major town has a street or square named for Kościuszko. Between 1820 and 1823, the people of Krakówmarker built the Kościuszko Moundmarker ( ) to commemorate the Polish leader. A similar mound was built in 1861 at Olkuszmarker.

He is the patron of Kraków University of Technology, Wrocław Military University, and countless other schools and gymnasia throughout Poland.



He was the patron of the 1st Regiment of the Polish 5th Rifle Division, and of the 1st Division of the Polish 1st Army. After World War I the Kościuszko Squadron, and during World War II the 303rd Polish Squadron, were named for him. Two ships have been named for him: SS Kościuszko, and ORP Generał Tadeusz Kościuszko (a former United States Navy frigate that was transferred to Poland).

There are also streets named for Kościuszko in Saint Petersburgmarker, Russia; downtown Belgrademarker, Serbiamarker (Ulica Tadeuša Košćuška); Budapestmarker, Hungary (Kosciuszkó Tádé utca); and Vilniusmarker, Lithuaniamarker (Kosciuškos gatvė). There is a Kosciusko Avenue in Geelong, Victoriamarker and one in Canberramarker in Australia. There is even a small street named after him in Rio de Janeiromarker, Brazilmarker. A Kosciuszko monument in Minsk, Belarusmarker was dedicated in 2005.

Kosciusko mustards are distributed in the United States by Plochman's.

Thomas Jefferson called Kościuszko "as pure a son of liberty as I have ever known."

Mikael Dziewanowski claims he was a "pioneer of emancipation and a spokesman for racial democracy and justice in eighteenth-century America."

The home in Philadelphia, which is part of Independence National Historical Park, was actually his post-Revolutionary home. He lived there when he returned briefly to the USA.

See also



Notes

  1. R Morfill. The Story of Poland. 2009, p.239
  2. Aleksandra Piłsudska, Jennifer Ellis. Pilsudski. 1971, p.72
  3. Gordon McLachlan. Lithuania. 2008, p.20
  4. for instance, see series of Belarusian postage stamps with T. Koscciuszko from the early 1990s
  5. Bartłomiej Szyndler, Powstanie kościuszkowskie 1794, Warszawa 1994, passim.
  6. Tadeusz Korzon, Kościuszko, biografia z dokumentów wysnuta. Kraków, Warszawa, 1894.
  7. Kościuszko's American last will and testament, in English translation in Manfred Kridl, ed., For Your Freedom and Ours.
  8. Feliks Koneczny - "Święci w dziejach Narodu Polskiego".
  9. For your freedom and ours, the Kościuszko squadron, Olson&Cloud, pg 22, Arrow books ISBN 0-09-942812-1
  10. Gemeinde Zuchwil (German)
  11. Kościuszko Mound: Biography
  12. Rick Steves, Cameron Hewitt, Rick Steves' Best of Eastern Europe 2007 by Avalon
  13. Zacharias, Pat, The Monuments of Detroit, September 5, 1999. Detroit News
  14. Kosciusko Mustards
  15. Mikael Dziewanowski's "Tadeuz Kościuszko, Kazimierz Puaski, and the American War of Independence," in Jaraslaw Pelenki, ed., The American and European Revolutions, 1776-1848: Sociopolitical and Ideological Aspects; Proceedings of the Second Bicentennial Conference of Polish and American Historians, September 29 — October 1 1976 (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1980).


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