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Tagalog redirects here. For the original users of the language, see Tagalog people. For the script that was formerly used for this language, see Baybayin.


Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippinesmarker by about 22 million people.It is related to Austronesian languages such as Chamorro (of Guammarker and the Northern Mariana Islandsmarker), Indonesian, Malay, Javanese and Paiwan (of Taiwanmarker), Cham (of Vietnammarker and Cambodiamarker), and Tetum (of East Timormarker). It is the first language of the Philippines' Region IV (CALABARZONmarker and MIMAROPA) and is the basis for the national and the official language of the Philippines, Filipino.

History

The word Tagalog derived from tagailog, from tagá- meaning "native of" and ílog meaning "river." Thus, it means "river dweller."Very little is known about the history of the language. However, according to linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust, the Tagalogs originated, along with their Central Philippine cousins, from Northeastern Mindanaomarker or Eastern Visayasmarker.

The first written record of Tagalog is in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, written in the year 900 and uses fragments of the language along with Sanskrit, Malay, and Javanese. Meanwhile, the first known book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Cristiana (Christian Doctrine) of 1593. It was written in Spanish and two versions of Tagalog; one written in the Baybayin script and the other in the Latin alphabet. Throughout the 333 years of Spanish occupation, there were grammar and dictionaries written by Spanish clergymen such as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala by Pedro de San Buenaventura (Pila, Lagunamarker, 1613), Vocabulario de la lengua tagala (1835) and Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la administración de los Santos Sacramentos (1850). Poet Francisco Baltazar (1788–1862) is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer. His most famous work is the early 19th-century Florante at Laura.

Tagalog and Filipino

In 1937, Tagalog was selected as the basis of the national language of the Philippines by the National Language Institute. In 1939, Manuel L. Quezon named the national language "Wikang Pambansâ" ("National Language"). Twenty years later, in 1959, it was renamed by then Secretary of Education, José Romero, as Pilipino to give it a national rather than ethnic label and connotation. The changing of the name did not, however, result in acceptance among non-Tagalogs, especially Cebuano who had not accepted the selection..

In 1971, the language issue was revived once more, and a compromise solution was worked out—a "universalist" approach to the national language, to be called Filipino rather than Pilipino. When a new constitution was drawn up in 1987, it named Filipino as the national language. The constitution specified that as the Filipino language evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.

Classification

Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family. Being Malayo-Polynesian, it is related to other Austronesian languages such as Javanese, Indonesian, Malay,Chamorro (of Guammarker and the Northern Mariana Islandsmarker), Tetum (of East Timormarker), and Paiwan (of Taiwanmarker). It is closely related to the languages spoken in the Bicol and Visayasmarker regions such as Bikol and the Visayan group including Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, and Cebuano.

Languages that have made significant contributions to Tagalog are Spanish, English, Hindi, Arabic, Sanskrit, Old Malay, Chinese, Javanese, Japanese, and Tamil.

Dialects

At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars on various Tagalog dialects. Ethnologue lists Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Tanay-Paete, and Tayabas as dialects of Tagalog. However, there appear to be four main dialects of which the aforementioned are a part; Northern (exemplified by the Bulacanmarker dialect), Central (including Manila), Southern (exemplified by Batangas), and Marinduque.

Some example of dialectal differences are:
  • Many Tagalog dialects, particularly those in the south, preserve the glottal stop found after consonants and before vowels. This has been lost in standard Tagalog. For example standard Tagalog ngayon (now, today), sinigang (broth stew), gabi (night), matamis (sweet), are pronounced and written ngay-on, sinig-ang, gab-i, and matam-is in other dialects.
  • In Teresianmarker-Morongmarker Tagalog, [ ] is usually preferred over [d]. For example, bundók, dagat, dingdíng, and isdâ become bunrok, ragat, ringring, and isra, as well as their expression seen in some signages like "sandok sa dingding" was changed to "sanrok sa ringring".
  • In many southern dialects, the progressive aspect prefix of -um- verbs is na-. For example, standard Tagalog kumakain (eating) is nákáin in Quezon and Batangas Tagalog. This is the butt of some jokes by other Tagalog speakers since a phrase such as nakain ka ba ng pating is interpreted as "did a shark eat you?" by those from Manila but in reality means "do you eat shark?" to those in the south.
  • Some dialects have interjections which are a considered a trademark of their region. For example, the interjection ala e! usually identifies someone from Batangasmarker as does hane?! in Rizal and Quezon provinces.


Perhaps the most divergent Tagalog dialects are those spoken in Marinduquemarker. Linguist Rosa Soberano identifies two dialects, western and eastern with the former being closer to the Tagalog dialects spoken in the provinces of Batangas and Quezon.

One example are the verb conjugation paradigms. While some of the affixes are different, Marinduque also preserves the imperative affixes, also found in Visayan and Bikol languages, that have mostly disappeared from most Tagalog dialects by the early 20th century; they have since merged with the infinitive.

Manileño Tagalog English
Susulat sina Maria at Fulgencia kay Juan. "Maria and Fulgencia will write to Juan."
Mag-aaral siya sa Maynila. "He will study in Manila."
Magluto ka! "Cook!"
Kainin mo iyan. "Eat that."
Tinatawag nga tayo ni Tatay. "Father is calling the two of us."
Tutulungan ba kayó ni Hilario? "Will Hilario help you (pl.)?"


Northern and Central Dialects have influences from Kapampangan while those near the Bicol have influences from Daet Bikol.

Features

Geographic distribution

The Tagalog homeland, or Katagalugan, covers roughly much of the central to southern parts of the island of Luzonmarker - particularly in Auroramarker, Bataanmarker, Batangasmarker, Bulacanmarker, Camarines Nortemarker, Cavitemarker, Lagunamarker, Metro Manilamarker, Nueva Ecijamarker, Quezonmarker, Rizalmarker, and large parts of Zambalesmarker. Tagalog is also spoken natively by inhabitants living on the islands, Marinduquemarker, Mindoromarker, and large areas of Palawanmarker. It is spoken by approximately 64.3 million Filipinos, 96.4% of the household population. 21.5 million, or 28.15% of the total Philippine population, speak it as a native language.

Tagalog speakers are found in other parts of the Philippines as well as throughout the world, though its use is usually limited to communication between Filipino ethnic groups. 2003, the US Census bureau reported (based on data from the 2000 census) that it was the fourth most-spoken language in the United Statesmarker, with over 1.2 million speakers.

Official status



Tagalog was declared the official language by the first constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in 1897.

In 1935, the Philippine constitution designated English and Spanish as official languages, but mandated the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages. After study and deliberation, the National Language Institute, a committee composed of seven members who represented various regions in the Philippines, chose Tagalog as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. President Manuel L. Quezon then, on December 30, 1937, proclaimed the selection of the Tagalog language to be used as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. In 1939 President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as wikang pambansâ (national language). In 1939, the language was further renamed as "Pilipino".

The 1973 constitution designated the Tagalog-based "Pilipino", along with English, as an official language and mandated the development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino. The 1987 constitution designated Filipino as the national language, mandating that as it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.

As Filipino, Tagalog has been taught in schools throughout the Philippines. It is the only one out of over 170 Philippine languages that is officially used in schools and businesses, (info from culturegrams) though Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines does specify, in part:
Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system.
The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.


Other Philippine languages have influenced Filipino, primarily through migration from the provinces to Metro Manilamarker of speakers of those other languages.

Besides the Philippines, the language enjoys relative minority status in Canadamarker, the United Kingdommarker, and also Hong Kongmarker, where street signs commonly display the language. In the United Statesmarker, the language is used in censuses and elections.

Code-switching

Taglish and Englog are portmanteaus given to a mix of English and Tagalog. The amount of English vs.Tagalog varies from the occasional use of English loan words to outright code-switching where the language changes in mid-sentence. Such code-switching is prevalent throughout the Philippines and in various of the languages of the Philippines other than Tagalog.

Nasirà ang computer ko kahapon!
"My computer broke yesterday!"


Huwág kang maninigarilyo, because it is harmful to your health.
"Don't smoke cigarettes, ..."


Code switching also entails the use of foreign words that are Filipinized by reforming them using Filipino rules, such as verb conjugations. Users typically use Filipino or English words, whichever comes to mind first or whichever is easier to use.

Magshoshopping kami sa mall. Sino ba ang magdadrive sa shoppingan?
"We will go shopping at the mall. Who will drive to the shopping center anyway?"


Although it is generally looked down upon, code-switching is prevalent in all levels of society; however, city-dwellers, the highly educated, and people born around and after World War II are more likely to do it. Politicians as highly placed as President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo have code-switched in interviews.

The practice is common in television, radio, and print media as well. Advertisements from companies like Wells Fargo, Wal-Martmarker, Albertsons, McDonald's, and Western Union have contained Taglish.

The Chinese and the non-Tagalog communities in the Philippines also frequently code-switch their language, be it Cebuano or Min Nan Chinese, with Taglish.

Phonology

Tagalog has 32 phonemes: 21 of them are consonants, 5 are vowels, and 6 are dipthongs. Syllable structure is relatively simple. Each syllable contains at least a consonant and a vowel,, and begins in at most one consonant, except for borrowed words such as trak which means "truck", or tsokolate meaning "chocolate".

Vowels

Before appearing in the coastal region of Manila, Tagalog had three vowel phonemes: , , and . This was later expanded to five vowels with the introduction of Kapampangan and Spanish words.

They are:

There are six main diphthongs; , , , , , and .

Consonants

Below is a chart of Tagalog consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Table of consonant phonemes of Tagalog
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Alveolo-palatal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Tap
Approximant


Stress

Stress is phonemic in Tagalog. Primary stress occurs on either the last or the next-to-the-last (penultimate) syllable of a word. Vowel lengthening accompanies primary or secondary stress except when stress occurs at the end of a word. Stress on words is highly important, since it differentiates words with the same spellings, but with different meanings, e.g. ta'yo(to stand) and tayo(us; we)

Sounds

Vowels

  • is raised slightly to in unstressed positions and also occasionally in stressed positions (inang bayan )
  • Unstressed is usually pronounced as in English "bit"
  • At the final syllable, can be pronounced , as is an allophone of in final syllables.
  • Unstressed and can sometimes be pronounced and , except in final syllables. and were also former allophones.
  • Unstressed is usually pronounced as in English "book"
  • The diphthong and the sequence have a tendency to become .
  • The diphthong and the sequence have a tendency to become .
  • or before s-consonant clusters have a tendency to become silent.


Consonants

  • /k/ between vowels has a tendency to become as in Spanish "José" or Arabic "Khadijah", whereas in the initial position it has a tendency to become [kx].
  • Intervocalic and tend to become (see preceding), as in Arabic "ghair".
  • and are sometimes interchangeable as and were once allophones in Tagalog.
  • A glottal stop that occurs at the end of a word is often omitted when it is in the middle of a sentence, especially in the Metro Manila area. The vowel it follows is then usually lengthened. However, it is preserved in many other dialects.
  • tends to become in stressed positions.
  • , , , and may be pronounced , , and , respectively, especially in everyday vernacular.
  • may be pronounced , especially in but not limited to rural areas.
  • and can be in free variation in the end of the word.
  • can be pronounced .
  • can be pronounced .


Historical changes

Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel . In Bikol & Visayan, this sound merged with and . In Tagalog, it has merged with . For example, Proto-Philippine (adhere, stick) is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot.

Proto-Philippine , , and merged with but is between vowels. Proto-Philippine (name) and (kiss) became Tagalog ngalan and halík.

Proto-Philippine merged with . (water) and (blood) became Tagalog tubig and dugô.

Grammar

Writing system

Baybayin

Tagalog was written in an abugida, or alphasyllabary, called Baybayin prior to the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, in the 16th century. This particular writing system was composed of symbols representing three vowels and 14 consonants. Belonging to the Brahmic family of scripts, it shares similarities with the Old Kawi script of Java and is believed to be descended from the script used by the Bugis in Sulawesimarker.

Although it enjoyed a relatively high level of literacy, Baybayin gradually fell into disuse in favor of the Latin alphabet taught by the Spaniards during their rule.

There has been confusion of how to use Baybayin, which is actually an abugida, or an alphasyllabary, rather than an alphabet. Not every letter in the Latin alphabet is represented with one of those in the Baybayin alphasyllabary. Rather than letters being put together to make sounds as in Western languages, Baybayin uses symbols to represent syllables.

A "kudlit" resembling an apostrophe is used above or below a symbol to change the vowel sound after its consonant. If the kudlit is used above, the vowel is an "E" or "I" sound. If the kudlit is used below, the vowel is an "O" or "U" sound. A special kudlit was later added by Spanish missionaries in which a cross placed below the symbol to get rid of the vowel sound all together, leaving a consonant. Previously, the final vowel was just left out, leaving the reader to use context to determine the final vowels.

Example:


Baybayin is encoded in Unicode version 3.2 in the range 1700-171F under the name "Tagalog".

Latin alphabet

Until the first half of the 20th century, Tagalog was widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography. When the national language was based on Tagalog, grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced a new alphabet consisting of 20 letters called ABAKADA in school grammar books called balarilà:
A B K D E G H I L M N Ng O P R S T U W Y.
In 1987 the department of Education, Culture and Sports issued a memo stating that the Philippine alphabet had changed from the Pilipino-Tagalog Abakada version to a new 28-letter alphabet:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ Ng O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
to make room for loans, especially family names from Spanish and English.

ng and mga

See also: ng
The genitive marker ng and the plural marker mga are abbreviations that are pronounced nang and mangá . Ng, in most cases, roughly translates to "of" (ex. Siya ay kapatid 'ng nanay ko. She is the sibling of my mother) while nang usually means "when" or can describe how something is done or to what extent, among other uses. Mga (pronounced as "muh-NGA") denotes plurality as adding an s, es, or ies does in English (ex. Iyan ang mga damit ko. (Those are my clothes')).

  • Nang si Hudas ay madulas. - When Judas slipped.


  • Gumising 'nang maaga siya. - He woke up early.


  • Gumaling 'nang todo si Juan dahil nagensayo siya. - Juan improved greatly because he practiced.


In the first example, nang is used in lieu of the word noong (when; Noong si Hudas ay madulas). In the second, nang describes that the person woke up (gumising) early (maaga); gumising nang maaga. In the third, nang described up to what extent that Juan improved (gumaling), which is "greatly" (nang todo). In the latter two examples, the ligature na and its variants -ng and -g may also be used (Gumising na maaga/Maagang gumising; Gumaling na todo/Todong gumaling).

The longer nang may also have other uses, such as a ligature that joins a repeated word:

  • Sumalita 'nang sumalita sila. - They kept talking and talking.


Vocabulary and borrowed words

Spanish is the language that has bequeathed the most loan words to Tagalog. According to linguists, Spanish (5,000) has even surpassed Malayo-Indonesian (3,500) in terms of loan words borrowed. About 40% of everyday (informal) Tagalog conversation is practically made up of Spanish loanwords.

Tagalog vocabulary is composed mostly of words of Austronesian origin with borrowings from Japanese, Tamil, Sanskrit, Min Nan Chinese (also known as Hokkien), Javanese, Malay, Arabic, Persian, Kapampangan, languages spoken on Luzonmarker, and others, especially other Austronesian languages.

Due to trade with Mexico via the Manila galleon from the 16th to the 19th centuries, many words from Nahuatl, a language spoken by Native Americans in Mexico, were introduced to Tagalog.

English has borrowed some words from Tagalog, such as abaca, adobo, aggrupation, barong, balisong, boondocks, jeepney, Manila hemp, pancit, ylang ylang, and yaya, although the vast majority of these borrowed words are only used in the Philippines as part of the vocabularies of Philippine English.

Tagalog words of foreign origin chart

For the Min Nan Chinese borrowings, the parentheses indicate the equivalent in standard Chinese.

Tagalog meaning language of origin original spelling
kumustá how are you? (general greeting) Spanish cómo está
kabayo horse Spanish caballo
silya chair Spanish silla
kotse car Spanish coche
reló wristwatch Spanish reloj
litrato picture Spanish retrato
tsismis (chis-mis) gossip Spanish chismes
Ingglés English Spanish inglés
tsinelas (si-ne-las) slippers Spanish chinelas
karne meat Spanish carne
sapatos shoes Spanish zapatos
arina/harina flour Spanish harina
bisikleta bicycle Spanish bicicleta
baryo village Spanish barrio
swerte luck Spanish suerte
piyesta/pista feast Spanish fiesta
garáhe garage Spanish garaje
ahente agent/salesman Spanish agente
ensaymada (en-se-ma-da) a kind of pastry Catalan ensaïmada
kamote sweet potato Nahuatl camotli
sayote (sa-yo-te) chayote, choko Nahuatl hitzayotli
sili chili pepper Nahuatl chili
tsokolate (cho-co-la-te) chocolate Nahuatl cocolatl
tiangge market Nahuatl tianquiztli
sapote chico (fruit) Nahuatl tzapotl
nars nurse English nurse
bolpen ballpoint pen English ballpen
bwisit annoyance, expletive English bullshit
pulis police English police
suspek suspect English suspect
tráysikel tricycle English tricycle
lumpia (/lum·pyâ/) spring roll Min Nan Chinese 潤餅 (春捲)
siopao (/syó·paw/) steamed buns Min Nan Chinese 燒包 (肉包)
pansít (/pan·set/) noodles Min Nan Chinese 扁食 (麵)
susì (su-se) key Min Nan Chinese 鎖匙
kuya (see Philippine kinship) older brother Min Nan Chinese 哥亞 (哥仔)
ate (/ah·te/) (see Philippine kinship) older sister Min Nan Chinese 亞姐 (阿姐)
bakyâ wooden shoes Min Nan Chinese 木履
hikaw earrings Min Nan Chinese 耳鈎 (耳環)
kanan right Malay kanan
tulong help Malay tolong
sakit sick, pain Malay sakit
pulo island Malay pulau
anak child,son&daughter Malay anak
pinto door Malay pintu
tanghalì afternoon Malay tengah hari
dalamhatì grief Malay dalam + hati
luwalhatì glory Malay luar + hati
duryán durian Malay durian
rambután rambutan Malay rambutan
batík spot Malay batik
saráp delicious Malay sedap
asa hope Sanskrit आशा
salitâ speak Sanskrit चरितँ (cerita)
balità news Sanskrit वार्ता (berita)
karma karma Sanskrit कर्म
alak liquor Persian عرق (arak)
manggá mango Tamil மாங்காய்(mángáy)
bagay thing Tamil வகை(vagai)
hukóm judge Arabic حكم
salamat thanks Arabic سلامة
bakit why Kapampangan obakit
akyát climb/step up Kapampangan ukyát/mukyat
at and Kapampangan at
bundók mountain Kapampangan bunduk
huwág don't pangasinan ag
aso dog South Cordilleran or Ilocano aso
tayo we (inc.) South Cordilleran or Ilocano tayo
ito,nito it. pangasinan to


Austronesian comparison chart

Below is a chart of Tagalog and twenty other Austronesian languages comparing thirteen words; the first thirteen languages are spoken in the Philippines and the other seven are spoken in Indonesiamarker, East Timormarker, New Zealandmarker, Hawaiimarker, and Madagascarmarker.

English one two three four person house dog coconut day new we what fire
Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy
Bikol saro duwa tulo apat tawo harong ayam niyog aldaw ba-go kita ano kalayo
Cebuano usa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo
Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Kinaray-a sara darwa tatlo apat taho balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita, taten ano kalayo
Maranao isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
Kapampangan metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu ngungut aldo bayu ikatamu nanu api
Pangasinan sakey dua, duara talo, talora apat, apatira too abong aso niyog ageo balo sikatayo anto pool
Ilokano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso niog aldaw baro datayo ania apoy
Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Indonesian satu dua tiga empat orang rumah/balai anjing kelapa/nyiur hari baru kita apa/anu api
Buginese sedi dua tellu eppa tau bola asu kaluku esso baru idi aga api
Bataknese sada dua tolu opat halak jabu biang harambiri ari baru hita aha api
Tetum ida rua tolu haat ema uma asu nuu loron foun ita saida ahi
Maori tahi rua toru wha koiwi whare kuri kokonati ra hou taua aha ahi
Hawaiian kahi lua kolu kanaka hale 'īlio niu ao hou kākou aha ahi
Malagasy isa roa telo efatra olona trano alika voanio andro vaovao isika inona afo


Contribution to other languages

Tagalog itself has contributed a few words into English.

  • boondocks: meaning "rural" or "back country," was imported by American soldiers stationed in the Philippines following the Spanish American War as a mispronounced version of the Tagalog bundok, which means "mountain."
  • cogon: a type of grass, used for thatching. This word came from the Tagalog word kugon (a species of tall grass).
  • ylang-ylang: a type of flower known for its fragrance.
  • Abaca: a type of hemp fiber made from a plant in the banana family, from abaká.
  • Manila hemp: a light brown cardboard material used for folders and paper usually made from abaca hemp.
  • Capiz: also known as window oyster, is used to make windows.


Yo-yo is reportedly a Tagalog word; however, no such word exists in Tagalog.

Tagalog has contributed several words to Philippine Spanish, like barangay (from , meaning barrio), the abacá, cogon, palay, etc.

Religious literature

Religious Literature remains to be one of the most dynamic contributors to Tagalog literature. In 1970, the Philippine Bible Society translated the Bible into Tagalog, the first full translation to any of the Philippine languages. Even before the Second Vatican Council, devotional materials in Tagalog had been circulating. At present, there are three circulating Tagalog translations of the Holy Bible—the Magandang Balita Biblia (a parallel translation of the Good News Bible), which is the ecumenical version; the Ang Biblia, which is a more Protestant version published in 1909; and the Bagong Sinlibutang Salin ng Banal na Kasulatan, one of about sixty parallel translations of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures published by Jehovah's Witnesses. The latter was released in the year 2000. Jehovah's Witnesses previously published a hybrid translation: Ang Biblia was used for the Old Testament, while the Bagong Sinlibutang Salin was used for the New Testament.

When the Second Vatican Council, (specifically the Sacrosanctum Concilium) permitted the universal prayers to be translated into vernacular languages, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines was one of the first to translate the Roman Missal into Tagalog. In fact, the Roman Missal in Tagalog was published as early as 1982, while not published in English until 1985.

Jehovah's Witnesses were printing Tagalog literature at least as early as 1941 and The Watchtower (the primary magazine of Jehovah's Witnesses) has been published in Tagalog since at least the 1960s. New releases are now regularly released simultaneously in a number of languages, including Tagalog. The official website of Jehovah's Witnesses also has some publications available online in Tagalog. [5469]

Tagalog is quite a stable language, and very few revisions have been made to Catholic Bible translations. Also, as Protestantism in the Philippines is relatively young, liturgical prayers tend to be more ecumenical.

Examples

The Lord's Prayer (Ama Namin)

Ama namin, sumasalangit Ka,
Sambahin ang ngalan Mo.
Mapasaamin ang kaharian Mo.
Sundin ang loob Mo
Dito sa lupa, para nang sa langit.
Bigyan Mo kami ngayon ng aming kakanin sa araw araw.
At patawarin Mo kami sa aming mga sala,
Para nang pagpapatawad namin
Sa mga nagkakasala sa amin.
At huwag Mo kaming ipahintulot sa tukso,
At iadya Mo kami sa lahat ng masama.
Sapagkat Iyo ang kaharian, at kapangyarihan,
At ang kadakilaan, magpakailanman.
Amen.


Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Isinilang na malaya at pantay-pantay sa karangalan at mga karapatan ang lahat ng tao. Pinagkalooban sila ng katwiran at budhi at dapat magpalagayan ang isa't isa sa diwa ng pagkakapatiran.

(Every person is born free and equal with honor and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they must always trust each other for the spirit of brotherhood.)

Numbers

  Cardinal Ordinal
1 isá / uno una
2 dalawá / dos pangalawá / ikalawa
3 tatló / tres pangatló / ikatlo
4 apat/cuatro pang-apat / ika-apat
5 limá panlimá / ikalima
6 anim pang-anim / ika-anim
7 pitó pampitó / ikapito
8 waló pangwaló / ikawalo
9 siyám pansiyám / ikasiyam
10 sampû pansampû / ikasampu
11 labíng-isá / onse (Spanish numbers are commonly used above 10) panlabíng-isá / pang-onse / ikalabing-isa
12 labindalawá / dose panlabindalawá / pandose / ikalabindalawa
20 dalawampu / bente pandalawampu/ pambente / ikadalawampu
50 limampu / singkwenta
100 (i)sán(g)daán / syento pan(g)-(i)sán(g)daán / pansyento / ika-(i)san(g)-daan
200 dalawáng daán / dos syentos pandalawang daan / ikadalawang-daan
400 apat na raán / kwatro syentos pang-apat na raán/ ika-apat na raán
600 anim na raán / saís syentos  
1,000 isáng libo (sanlibo) / mil  
2,000 dalawáng libo / dos mil  
10,000 (i)san(g)laksa / sampung libo / dyes mil  
100,000 (i)sangyuta / (i)sán(g)daáng libo / syento mil  
1,000,000 isáng milyón  
2,000,000 dalawáng milyón  
10,000,000 sampung milyón  
100,000,000 (i)sán(g)daáng milyon


Common phrases

  • Filipino: Pilipino
  • English: Ingglés
  • Tagalog: Tagalog
  • What is your name?: Anó ang pangalan ninyo? (plural) , Anó ang pangalan mo?(singular)
  • How are you?: kumustá
  • Good morning!: Magandáng umaga!
  • Good noontime! (from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m.): Magandáng tanghali!
  • Good afternoon! (from 1 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.): Magandáng hapon!
  • Good evening!: Magandáng gabí!
  • Good-bye: paálam (literal - "with your blessing")
  • Please: Depending on the nature of the verb, either pakí- or makí- is attached as a prefix to a verb. ngâ is optionally added after the verb to increase politeness.
  • Thank you: salamat
  • That one: iyan
  • How much?: magkano?
  • Yes: oo
  • No: hindî
  • Sorry: pasensya pô (literally - "patience") or paumanhin po patawad po (literally - "forgiveness")
  • Because: kasí
  • Hurry!: Dalí! , Bilís!
  • Again: mulí , ulít
  • I don't understand: Hindî ko maintindihan
  • Where's the bathroom?: Nasaán ang banyo?
  • Generic toast: Mabuhay! [literally - "long live"]
  • Do you speak English? Marunong ka bang magsalitâ ng Ingglés?
  • It is fun to live. Masaya ang mabuhay!
  • Magasawa sina Renz at Lalaine. "Renz and Lalaine are married"
  • Tao ba si Richard Relloso? "Is Richard Relloso human?"
  • Si Clarisse ay mahilig kumain. "Clarisse loves to eat"


Proverbs

Ang hindî marunong lumingón sa pinanggalingan ay hindî makaráratíng sa paroroonan. (José Rizal)
He who does not look back to his origin will never reach his destination.


Ang hindî magmahál sa kanyang sariling wika ay mahigít pa sa hayop at malansang isdâ. (José Rizal)
One who does not love his own language is worse than an animal and a putrid fish.


Hulí man daw at magalíng, nakákahábol pa rin. (Hulí man raw at magalíng, nakákahábol pa rin.)
It was said that even if he is late and excellent, he still catches up.


Magbirô ka na sa lasíng, huwág lang sa bagong gising.
Make fun of a drunk person, not to one who just woke up.


Ang sakít ng kalingkingan, ramdám ng buong katawán.
The pain of a small finger is felt by the whole body.


Nasa hulí ang pagsisisi.
Regret is in the end.


Pagkáhába-haba man ng prusisyón, sa simbahan pa rin ang tulóy.
Even the procession is long, its ending is the church.


Kung dî mádaán sa santong dasalan, daanin sa santong paspasan.
If it cannot be done through holy prayer, do it through holy speeding.


See also



References

External links




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