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Taoism (or Daoism) refers to a variety of related topics such as philosophical and religious traditions and concepts that have influenced East Asia for over two millennia and the West for over two centuries. The word 道, Tao (or Dao, depending on the romanization scheme), means "path" or "way", although in Chinese folk religion and philosophy it has taken on more abstract meanings. Taoist propriety and ethics emphasize the Three Jewels of the Tao: compassion, moderation, and humility. Taoist thought generally focuses on nature, men-cosmos correspondence (天人相应), health, longevity, wu wei (action through inaction), liberty, and spontaneity.

Reverence for ancestor spirits and immortals are also common in popular Taoism. Organized Taoism distinguishes its ritual activity from that of the folk religion, which some professional Taoists (Daoshi) view as debased. Chinese alchemy (including Neidan), astrology, cuisine, several Chinese martial arts, Chinese traditional medicine, feng shui, immortality, and many styles of qigong breath training disciplines have been intertwined with Taoism throughout history.

Spelling and pronunciation

In English, the words Daoism and Taoism are the subject of an ongoing controversy over the preferred romanization. The root Chinese word "way, path" is romanized tao in the older Wade–Giles system and dào in the modern Pinyin system. In linguistic terminology, English Taoism/Daoism is a calque formed from the Chinese loanword tao/dao "way; route; principle" and the native suffix -ism. The sometimes heated arguments over Taoism vs. Daoism involve sinology, phonemes, loanwords, and politics – not to mention whether Taoism should be or .

Daoism is consistently , but English speakers disagree whether Taoism should be or . In theory, both Wade-Giles tao and Pinyin dao are articulated identically, as are Taoism and Daoism. An investment book titled The Tao Jones Averages illustrates this pronunciation's widespread familiarity. In speech, Tao and Taoism are mistakenly pronounced and , reading the Chinese unaspirated lenis ("weak") as the English voiceless stop consonant . Lexicography shows American and British English differences in pronouncing Taoism. A study of major English dictionaries published in Great Britain and the United States found the most common Taoism glosses were in British sources and in American ones.

Categorization

There is debate over how, and whether, Taoism should be subdivided. Livia Kohn divided it into the following three categories:
  1. "Philosophical Taoism" (Daojia 道家) - A philosophical school based on the texts Dao De Jing (道德經) and Zhuangzi (莊子);
  2. "Religious Taoism" (Daojiao 道敎) - A family of organized Chinese religious movements originating from the Celestial Masters movement during the late Han Dynasty and later including the "Orthodox" (Zhengyi 正一) and "Complete Reality" (Quanzhen 全眞) sects, which claim lineages going back to Lao Zi (老子) or Zhang Daoling in the late Han Dynasty;
  3. "Folk Taoism" - The Chinese folk religion.


This distinction is complicated by hermeneutic (interpretive) difficulties in the categorization of Taoist schools, sects and movements. Some scholars believe that there is no distinction between Daojia and Daojiao. According to Kirkland, "most scholars who have seriously studied Taoism, both in Asia and the West, have finally abandoned the simplistic dichotomy of Tao-chia and Tao-chiao, "philosophical Taoism" and "religious Taoism."

Hansen states that the identification of "Taoism" as such first occurred in the early Han Dynasty when dao-jia was identified as a single school. The writings of Laozi and Zhuangzi were linked together under this single tradition during the Han Dynasty, but notably not before. It is unlikely that Zhuangzi was familiar with the text of the Daodejing. Additionally, Graham states that Zhuangzi would not have identified himself as a Taoist, a classification that did not arise until well after his death.

Taoism does not fall strictly under an umbrella or a definition of a distinct organized religion like the Abrahamic traditions, nor can it purely be studied as the originator or a variant of Chinese folk religion, as much of the traditional religion is outside of the tenets and core teachings of Taoism. Robinet asserts that Taoism is better understood as a way of life than as a religion, and that its adherents do not approach or view Taoism the way non-Taoist historians have done. Henri Maspero noted that many scholarly works frame Taoism as a school of thought focused on the quest for immortality.

Beliefs

Taoism has never been a unified religion, but has rather consisted of numerous teachings based on various revelations. Therefore, different branches of Taoism often have very distinct beliefs. Nevertheless, there are certain core beliefs that nearly all the schools share.

Principles

Taoist theology emphasizes various themes found in the Daodejing and Zhuangzi, such as naturalness, vitality, peace, "non-interference/non-resistance" (wu wei), emptiness (refinement), detachment, flexibility, receptiveness, spontaneity, the relativism of human ways of life, ways of speaking and guiding behavior.

Tao

"Tao" is usually translated as road, channel, path, way, doctrine, or line. Wing-tsit Chan stated that Tao meant system of morality to Confucianists, but the natural, eternal, spontaneous, indescribable way things began and pursued their course to Taoists. Hansen disagrees that these were separate meanings and attributes. Cane asserts Tao can be roughly stated to be the flow of the universe, or the force behind the natural order, equating it with the influence that keeps the universe balanced and ordered. Martinson says that Tao is associated with nature, due to a belief that nature demonstrates the Tao. The flow of qi, as the essential energy of action and existence, is often compared to the universal order of Tao. Tao is compared to what it is not, which according to Keller is similar to the negative theology of Western scholars. It is often considered to be the source of both existence and non-existence. LaFargue asserts that Tao is rarely an object of worship, being treated more like the Indian concepts of atman and dharma.

De (Te)

Tao is also associated with the complex concept of De () "power; virtue; integrity", that is, the active expression of Tao. De is the active living, or cultivation, of that "way".One must drop all sense of ego in order to fulfill their ultimate destiny. By doing this one's inner and outer strength greatens beyond humanly foreseeable limits.

Wu wei

Wu wei ( ) is a central concept in Taoism. The literal meaning of wu wei is "without action". It is often expressed by the paradox wei wu wei, meaning "action without action" or "effortless doing".. The practice and efficacy of wu wei are fundamental in Taoist thought, most prominently emphasized in Taoism. The goal of wu wei is alignment with Tao, revealing the soft and invisible power within all things. It is believed by Taoists that masters of wu wei can observe and follow this invisible potential, the innate in-action of the Way.

In ancient Taoist texts, wu wei is associated with water through its yielding nature. Water is soft and weak, but it can move earth and carve stone. Taoist philosophy proposes that the universe works harmoniously according to its own ways. When someone exerts his will against the world, he disrupts that harmony. Taoism does not identify man's will as the root problem. Rather, it asserts that man must place his will in harmony with the natural universe.

P'u

P'u ( ; lit. "uncut wood") is translated "uncarved block", "unhewn log", or "simplicity". It is a metaphor for the state of wu wei (無爲) and the principle of jian (). It represents a passive state of receptiveness. P'u is a symbol for a state of pure potential and perception without prejudice. In this state, Taoists believe everything is seen as it is, without preconceptions or illusion.

P'u is usually seen as keeping oneself in the primordial state of tao. It is believed to be the true nature of the mind, unburdened by knowledge or experiences. In the state of p'u, there is no right or wrong, beautiful or ugly. There is only pure experience, or awareness, free from learned labels and definitions. It is this state of being that is the goal of following wu wei.

Spirituality

Taoists believe that man is a microcosm for the universe. The body ties directly into the Chinese five elements. The five organs correlate with the five elements, the five directions and the seasons. Akin to the Hermetic maxim of "as above, so below", Taoism posits that man may gain knowledge of the universe by understanding himself.

In Taoism, even beyond Chinese folk religion, various rituals, exercises, and substances are said to positively affect one's physical and mental health. They are also intended to align oneself spiritually with cosmic forces, or enable ecstatic spiritual journeys. These concepts seem basic to Taoism in its elite forms. Internal alchemy and various spiritual practices are used by some Taoists to improve health and extend life, theoretically even to the point of physical immortality.

Pantheon



The traditional Chinese religion is polytheistic. Its many deities are part of a heavenly hierarchy that mirrors the bureaucracy of Imperial China. According to their beliefs, Chinese deities may be promoted or demoted for their actions. Some deities are also simply exalted humans, such as Guan Yu, the god of honor and piety. The particular deities worshipped vary according to geographical regions and historical periods in China, though the general pattern of worship is more constant.

There are disagreements regarding the proper composition of this pantheon. Popular Taoism typically presents the Jade Emperor as the official head deity. Intellectual ("elite") Taoists, such as the Celestial Masters sect, usually present Laozi (Laojun, "Lord Lao") and the Three Pure Ones at the top of the pantheon of deities.

While a number of immortals or other mysterious figures appear in the Zhuangzi, and to a lesser extent in the Tao Te Ching, these have generally not become the objects of worship. Traditional conceptions of Tao are not to be confused with the Western concepts of theism and monotheism. Being one with the Tao does not indicate a union with an eternal spirit in the Hindu sense, but rather living in accordance with nature.

Ethics

The Three Jewels, or Three Treasures, (Chinese: 三寶; pinyin: sānbǎo; Wade-Giles: san-pao) are basic virtues in Taoism. The Three Jewels are compassion, moderation and humility. They are also translated as kindness, simplicity (or the absence of excess), and modesty. Arthur Waley describes them as "[t]he three rules that formed the practical, political side of the author's teaching". He correlated the Three Treasures with "abstention from aggressive war and capital punishment", "absolute simplicity of living", and "refusal to assert active authority".

Sexuality

Compared to a traditional Western perspective, the Taoist view of sexuality is considerably more at ease. The body is not viewed as a dangerous source of evil temptation, but rather as a positive asset. Taoism rejects Western mind-body dualism; mind and body are not set in contrast or opposition with each other. Sex is treated as a vital component to romantic love; however, Taoism emphasizes the need for self-control and moderation. Complete abstinence is frequently treated as equally dangerous as excessive sexual indulgence. The sexual vitality of men is portrayed as limited, while the sexual energy of women is viewed as boundless. Men are encouraged to control ejaculation to preserve this vital energy. Male Taoist sexual practices focus on cultivating the ability to reach orgasm without ejaculating, enabling a man to have multiple orgasms without loss of sexual vitality. Women are encouraged to reach orgasm without restriction. Taoists believe that a man may increase and nourish his own vitality by bringing a woman to orgasm, thereby "activating" her energy and attuning it with himself. This is considered to be of benefit to both partners.

The Chinesemarker government prefers the celibate model of Buddhism for Taoist clergy; Quanzhen clergy take vows of celibacy, but Zhengyi clergy are often married, and often reside at home. They are called sanju Taoshi, or "Taoist priests who live at home." Numbering in the tens of thousands, the sanju Taoshi perform rituals for their local communities.

Natural environment

The Tao Te Jing says: 'Humanity follows the Earth, the Earth follows Heaven, Heaven follows the Tao, and the Tao follows what is natural.' Taoists therefore obey the Earth. The Earth respects Heaven, Heaven abides by the Tao, and the Tao follows the natural course of everything. Humans should help everything grow according to its own way. Therefore human beings should cultivate the way of no-action and let nature be itself.

Biodiversity: Taoism has a unique sense of value in that it judges affluence by the number of different species. If all things in the universe grow well, then a society is a community of affluence. If not, this kingdom is on the decline. This view encourages both government and people to take good care of nature.

Scripture



Tao Te Ching

The Tao Te Ching, or Daodejing, is widely considered to be the most influential Taoist text. It is a foundational scripture of central importance in Taoism purportedly written by Lao Tzu sometime in the 3rd or 4th centuries BCE. However, the precise date that it was written is still the subject of debate: there are those who put it anywhere from the 6th century BCE to the 3rd century BCE. It has been used as a ritual text throughout the history of religious Taoism.

Taoist commentators have deeply considered the opening lines of the Tao Te Ching. They are widely discussed in both academic and mainstream literature. A common interpretation is similar to Korzybski's observation that "the map is not the territory". The opening lines, with literal and common translation, are:
道可道,非常道。 (Tao (way or path) can be said, not usual way)

"The Way that can be described is not the true Way."

名可名,非常名。 (names can be named, not usual names)

"The Name that can be named is not the constant Name."

Tao literally means "path" or "way" and can figuratively mean "essential nature", "destiny", "principle", or "true path". The philosophical and religious "Tao" is infinite, without limitation. One view states that the paradoxical opening is intended to prepare the reader for teachings about the unteachable Tao. Tao is believed to be transcendent, indistinct and without form. Hence, it cannot be named or categorized. Even the word "Tao" can be considered a dangerous temptation to make Tao a limiting "name".

The Tao Te Ching is not thematically ordered. However, the main themes of the text are repeatedly expressed using variant formulations, often with only a slight difference. The leading themes revolve around the nature of Tao and how to attain it. Tao is said to be unnameable and accomplishing great things through small means. There is significant debate regarding which English translation of the Tao Te Ching is preferred, and which particular translation methodology is best. Discussions and disputes about various translations of the Tao Te Ching can become acrimonious, involving deeply entrenched views.

Ancient commentaries on the Tao Te Ching are important texts in their own right. The Heshang Gong commentary was most likely written in the second century AD, and as perhaps the oldest commentary, contains the edition of the Tao Te Ching that was transmitted to the present day. Other important commentaries include the Xiang'er, one of the most important texts from the Way of the Celestial Masters, and Wang Bi's commentary.

Zhuangzi

The Zhuangzi (莊子) was named after its author, who also appears as a character in the book's narrative. It is more in the form of a collection of stories than the short aphorisms and maxims of the Tao Te Ching. Also among the cast of characters in the Zhuangzi's stories is Laozi of the Tao Te Ching, as well as Confucius.

Daozang

The Daozang (道藏, Treasury of Tao) is sometimes referred to as the Taoist canon. It was originally compiled during the Jin, Tang, and Song dynasties. The version surviving today was published during the Mingmarker dynasty. The Ming Daozang includes almost 1500 texts. Following the example of the Buddhist Tripitaka, it is divided into three dong (洞, "caves", "grottoes"). They are arranged from "highest" to "lowest":

  1. The Zhen ("real" or "truth"眞) grotto. Includes the Shangqing texts.
  2. The Xuan ("mystery"玄) grotto. Includes the Lingbao scriptures.
  3. The Shen ("divine"神) grotto. Includes texts predating the Maoshan (茅山)revelations.


Daoshi generally do not consult published versions of the Daozang, but individually choose, or inherit, texts included in the Daozang. These texts have been passed down for generations from teacher to student.

The Shangqing school has a tradition of approaching Taoism through scriptural study. It is believed that by reciting certain texts often enough one will be rewarded with immortality.

Other texts

While the Tao Te Ching is most famous, there are many other important texts in traditional Taoism. Taishang Ganying Pian ("Treatise of the Exalted One on Response and Retribution") discusses sin and ethics, and has become a popular morality tract in the last few centuries. It asserts that those in harmony with Tao will live long and fruitful lives. The wicked, and their descendants, will suffer and have shortened lives. Both the Tai Ping Jing ("Scripture on Great Peace") and the Bao Pu Zi ("Book of the Master Who Keeps to Simplicity") contain early alchemical formulas that early Taoists believed could lead to immortality.

Additionally, the Huainanzi is a compilation of the writing of eight scholars from Han dynasty that blends Daoist, Confucianist, and Legalist concepts, including theories such as Yin-Yang and the Five Phases. Patron Liu An (c. 180 - 122 BCE) was ruler of the state of Huainan and the grandson of the founder of the Han dynasty whose discourse at his court favored Taoist thought and who brought philosophers, poets and masters of esoteric practices to his court. This resulted in the Huainanzi.

History

White Cloud Monastery, Beijing
Some forms of Taoism may be traced to prehistoric folk religions in China that later coalesced into a Taoist tradition. Laozi is traditionally regarded as the founder of Taoism and is closely associated in this context with "original", or "primordial", Taoism. Laozi received imperial recognition as a divinity in the mid second century AD. Taoism gained official status in China during the Tang Dynasty, whose emperors claimed Laozi as their relative. Several Song emperors, most notably Huizong, were active in promoting Taoism, collecting Taoist texts and publishing editions of the Daozang. Aspects of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were consciously synthesized in the Neo-Confucian school, which eventually became Imperial orthodoxy for state bureaucratic purposes. The Qing Dynasty, however, much favored Confucian classics and rejected Taoist works. During the eighteenth century, the imperial library was constituted, but excluded virtually all Taoist books. By the beginning of the twentieth century, Taoism had fallen so much from favor, that only one complete copy of the Daozang still remained, at the White Cloud Monastery in Beijing. Taoism is one of five religions recognised by the PRC, and regulates its activities through a state bureaucracy (the China Taoist Association).

Adherents

The number of Taoists is difficult to estimate, due to a variety of factors including defining Taoism. The number of people practicing Chinese folk religion is estimated to be just under four hundred million. Most Chinese people and many others have been influenced in some way by Taoist tradition. Estimates for the number of Taoists worldwide range from twenty to over fifty million.

Taoism as with other religions in China have been oppressed and discouraged during the Cultural Revolution, thus the number of Taoists today greatly declined from the pre-Communist China.

Recently, there have been some efforts to revive the practice of Taoist religion. In 1956, the Chinese Taoist Association was formed, and received official approval in 1957. It was disbanded during the Cultural Revolution under Mao, but reestablished in 1980. The headquarters of the Association are at Baiyun guan, or White Cloud Temple, of the Longmen branch of Quanzhen.

Geographically, Taoism flourishes best in regions populated by Chinese people: mainland China, Taiwanmarker, Malaysiamarker, Singaporemarker, and various Chinese diaspora communities. Taoist literature and art has influenced the cultures of Koreamarker, Japanmarker, and Vietnammarker. Organized Taoism seems not to have attracted a large non-Chinese following, except in Korea (e.g. see Kouk Sun Do) and Vietnam, until modern times. In Taiwanmarker 7.5 million people (33% of the population) identify themselves as Taoists. In Singaporemarker, 8.5% of the population identify themselves as Taoist. There are also small numbers of Taoists in the Western world.

Practices

At certain dates, food may be set out as a sacrifice to the spirits of the deceased and/or the gods, such as during the Qingming Festival. This may include slaughtered animals, such as pigs and ducks, or fruit. Another form of sacrifice involves the burning of Joss paper, or Hell Bank Notes, on the assumption that images thus consumed by the fire will reappear—not as a mere image, but as the actual item—in the spirit world, making them available for revered ancestors and departed loved ones. At other points, a vegan diet or full fast may be observed.

Also on particular holidays, street parades take place. These are lively affairs which invariably involve firecrackers and flower-covered floats broadcasting traditional music. They also variously include lion dances and dragon dances; human-occupied puppets (often of the "Seventh Lord" and "Eighth Lord"); tongji (童乩 "spirit-medium; shaman") who cut their skin with knives; Bajiajiang, which are Kungfu-practicing honor guards in demonic makeup; and palanquins carrying god-images. The various participants are not considered performers, but rather possessed by the gods and spirits in question.

Fortune-telling—including astrology, I Ching, and other forms of divination—has long been considered a traditional Taoist pursuit. Mediumship is also widely encountered in some sects. There is an academic and social distinction between martial forms of mediumship (such as tongji) and the spirit-writing that is typically practiced through planchette writing.

Many Taoists also participate in the study, analysis and writing of books. Taoists of this type tend to be civil servants, elderly retirees, or in modern times, university faculty. While there is considerable overlap with religious Taoism, there are often important divergences in interpretation. For example, Wang Bi, one of the most influential philosophical commentators on the Laozi (and Yijing), was a Confucian.

A number of martial arts traditions, particularly T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Bagua Zhang, Wing Chun, Won Yuen Yat Hey Jueng, Bak Mei Pai, Bok Fou Pai, Yaw Gong Moon and Xing Yi Quan, embody Taoist principles to a greater or lesser extent, and some practitioners consider their art to be a means of practicing Taoism.

Taoist symbols and images



The Taijitu ("yin and yang") symbol 太極圖 as well as the Bagua 八卦 ("Eight Trigrams") are associated with Taoist symbolism. While almost all Taoist organizations make use of the yin and yang symbol, one could also call it Confucian, Neo-Confucian or pan-Chinese. The yin and yang make a backwards "S" shape, with yin (black or red) on bottom. One is likely to see this symbol as decorations on Taoist organization flags and logos, temple floors, or stitched into clerical robes. According to Song Dynasty sources, it originated around the 10th century. Previously, yin and yang were symbolized by a tiger and dragon.

Taoist temples may fly square or triangular flags. They typically feature mystical writing or diagrams and are intended to fulfill various functions including providing guidance for the spirits of the dead, to bring good fortune, increase life span, etc. Other flags and banners may be those of the gods or immortals themselves.

A zigzag with seven stars is sometimes displayed, representing the Big Dipper (or the "Bushel", the Chinese equivalent). In the Shang dynasty the Big Dipper was considered a deity, while during the Han dynasty, it was considered a qi path of the circumpolar god, Taiyi.

Taoist temples in southern China and Taiwan may often be identified by their roofs, which feature Chinese dragons and phoenixes made from multi-colored ceramic tiles. They also stand for the harmony of yin and yang (with the phoenix being yin). A related symbol is the flaming pearl which may be seen on such roofs between two dragons, as well as on the hairpin of a Celestial Master. In general though, Chinese Taoist architecture has no universal features that distinguish it from other structures.

Relations with other religions and philosophies



The terms Tao and De are religious and philosophical terms shared between Taoism and Confucianism. The authorship of the Tao Te Ching is assigned to Laozi, who is traditionally held to have been a teacher of Confucius. However, some scholars believe the Tao Te Ching arose as a reaction to Confucianism. Zhuangzi, reacting to the Confucian-Mohist ethical disputes in his "history of thought", casts Laozi as a prior step to the Mohists by name and the Confucians by implication.

Early Taoist texts reject the basic assumptions of Confucianism which relied on rituals and order, in favour of the examples of "wild" nature and individualism. Historical Taoists challenged conventional morality, while Confucians considered society debased and in need of strong ethical guidance.

The entry of Buddhism into China was marked by interaction and syncretism, with Taoism in particular. Originally seen as a kind of "foreign Taoism", Buddhism's scriptures were translated into Chinese using the Taoist vocabulary. Chan Buddhism was particularly modified by Taoism, integrating distrust of scripture, text and even language, as well as the Taoist views of embracing "this life", dedicated practice and the "every-moment". Taoism incorporated Buddhist elements during the Tang period, such as monasteries, vegetarianism, prohibition of alcohol, the doctrine of emptiness, and collecting scripture in tripartite organisation. During the same time, Chan Buddhism grew to become the largest sect in Chinese Buddhism. Christine Mollier concluded that a number of Buddhist sutras found in medieval East Asia and Central Asia adopted many materials from earlier Taoist scriptures.

Ideological and political rivals for centuries, Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism deeply influenced one another. They also share some similar values, with all three embracing a humanist philosophy emphasizing moral behavior and human perfection. In time, most Chinese people identified to some extent with all three traditions simultaneously. This became institutionalised when aspects of the three schools were synthesised in the Neo-Confucian school.

See also



Footnotes

  1. Miller (2003), p. ix.
  2. Goodspeed (1983).
  3. Carr (1990, pp. 63-65). Converting the various pronunciation respelling systems into IPA, British dictionaries (1933-1989, Table 3) give 9 , 2 , and 1 ; American dictionaries (1948-1987, Table 4) give 6 , 2 , 2 , and 1 .
  4. Kohn (2000), pp. XI, XXIX.
  5. Mair (2001) p. 174
  6. Robinet (1997), p. 3.
  7. Kirkland (2004) p. 2.
  8. Kohn (2000), p. 44.
  9. Graham (1989) p. 170–171
  10. Robinet (1997), p. 103.
  11. Robinet (1997), p. 3–4.
  12. Maspero (1981), p. 211.
  13. Robinet (1997), p. 1.
  14. DeFrancis (1996) p. 113
  15. Chan (1963) p. 136
  16. Hansen (1992), p. 206.
  17. Cane (2002), p. 13.
  18. Martinson (1987), pp. 168–169.
  19. Keller (2003), p. 289.
  20. LaFargue (1994) p. 283.
  21. Sharot (2001), pp. 77–78, 88.
  22. Maspero (1981), p. 32.
  23. Kirkland (2004), p. 60.
  24. Jones (2004), p. 255.
  25. Oldmeadow (2007), p. 109.
  26. Faching & deChant (2001), p. 35.
  27. Slingerland (2003), p. 233.
  28. Kraemer (1986), p. 286.
  29. Carr & Zhang (2004), p. 209.
  30. Martin (2005), p. 15.
  31. Kohn (2000), p. 825.
  32. Occhiogrosso (2004), p. 171.
  33. Kohn (2000), p. 672.
  34. Robinet (1993) p. 228.
  35. Maspero (1981), p. 92.
  36. Segal (2006), p. 50.
  37. Maspero (1981), p. 41.
  38. Robinet (1997), p. 63.
  39. Waley (1958), p. 225.
  40. Pas and Leung (1998), pp. 280–81.
  41. Patheos Library - Taoism: Modern Age
  42. Miller (2003), p. ix
  43. Patheos Library - Taoism
  44. Eliade (1984), p. 26
  45. Kohn & LaFargue (1998), p. 158.
  46. Barrett (2006), p. 40.
  47. Kim (2003), pp. 21–22
  48. Kohn & LaFargue (1998), pp. 104.
  49. Kim (2003), p. 13
  50. Van Voorst (2005), p. 165
  51. Kohn & LaFargue (1998), pp. 185–86.
  52. Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 73.
  53. Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 74–77.
  54. Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 1.
  55. Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 30.
  56. Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 36.
  57. Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 15.
  58. Litte (2000), p. 46
  59. Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 44.
  60. Robinet (1997), p. 132.
  61. Jordan: The Taoist Canon
  62. Schipper & Verellen (2004), p. 70–71.
  63. Robinet (1997), p. 73.
  64. Patheos Library - Taoism: Early Developments
  65. Demerath (2003), p. 149.
  66. Hucker (1995), pp. 203–04.
  67. Robinet (1997), p. 63.
  68. Robinet (1997), p. 50.
  69. Robinet (1997), p. 184.
  70. Robinet (1997), p. 213.
  71. Kohn (2000), p. XVII.
  72. Schipper (1993), p. 19.
  73. Schipper (1993), p. 220.
  74. An address given to the Delegation EU-China of the European Parliament.
  75. Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents
  76. Taoism
  77. Religious adherent statistics
  78. Patheos Library - Taoism: Modern Age
  79. International Religious Freedom Report 2006: China (includes Taiwan only)
  80. Singapore Demographics Profile 2008
  81. Schipper (1993), p. 28–29.
  82. Silvers (2005), p. 129–132.
  83. Schipper (1993), p. 192.
  84. Silvers (2005), pp. 135–137
  85. Little (2000), pp. 131–139
  86. Little (2000), p. 131
  87. Kohn (2004), p. 116.
  88. Kohn (2004), p. 119
  89. Little (2000), p. 128
  90. Schipper (1993), p. 21.
  91. Little (2000), p. 74
  92. Markham & Ruparell (2001). Pg 254.
  93. Hansen (2000). Pp 202, 210.
  94. Fisher (1997). Pg 167.
  95. Maspero (1981). Pg 39.
  96. Maspero (1981). Pg 46.
  97. Prebish (1975). Pg 192.
  98. Dumoulin, Heisig & Knitter (2005). Pp 68, 70–73, 167–168.
  99. Dumoulin, Heisig & Knitter (2005). Pp 166–167, 169–172.
  100. Mollier (2008).
  101. Markham & Ruparell (2001). Pp 248–249.
  102. Windows on Asia Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University.
  103. Moore (1967). Pp 133, 147.


References

  • Balfour, Frederic Henry, tr. The Divine Classic of Nan-Hua; Being the Works of Chuang Tsze, Taoist Philosopher (Kelly & Walsh, 1881).
  • Barrett, Rick. Taijiquan: Through the Western Gate (Blue Snake Books, 2006). ISBN 1583941398.
  • Cane, Eulalio Paul. Harmony: Radical Taoism Gently Applied (Trafford Publishing, 2002). ISBN 1412247780.
  • Carr, Michael. "Whence the Pronunciation of Taoism?". Dictionaries (1990) 12:55-74.
  • Carr, David T. & Zhang, Canhui. Space, Time, and Culture (Springer, 2004). ISBN 1402028237.
  • Chan Wing-tsit. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (Princeton, 1963). ISBN 0-691-01964-9.
  • Chang, Stephen T. The Great Tao (Tao Longevity LLC, 1985). ISBN 0942196015.
  • Demerath, Nicholas J. Crossing the Gods: World Religions and Worldly Politics (Rutgers University Press, 2003). ISBN 0813532078.
  • Dumoulin, Heinrich, Heisig, James W. & Knitter, Paul. Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) (World Wisdom, Inc, 2005). ISBN 0941532895.
  • Eliade, Mircea. A History of Religious Ideas, Volume 2. Translated by Willard R. Trask. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
  • Fasching, Darrell J. & deChant, Dell. Comparative Religious Ethics: a narrative approach (Blackwell Publishing, 2001). ISBN 0631201254.
  • Fisher, Mary Pat. Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths (I.B. Tauris, 1997). ISBN 1860641482.
  • Goodspeed, Bennett W. The Tao Jones Averages: A Guide to Whole-Brained Investing (E. P. Dutton, 1983).
  • Graham, Angus. Disputers of the Tao (Open Court, 1989) ISBN 0-8126-9087-7.
  • Hansen, Chad D. A Daoist Theory of Chinese Thought: A Philosophical Interpretation (Oxford University Press, 2000). ISBN 0195134192.
  • Hucker, Charles O. China's Imperial Past: An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture (Stanford University Press, 1995). ISBN 0804723532.
  • Jones, Richard H. Mysticism and Morality: a new look at old questions (Lexington Books, 2004). ISBN 0739107844.
  • Keller, Catherine. The Face of the Deep: A Theology of Becoming (Routledge, 2003). ISBN 0415256488.
  • Kim, Ha Poong. Reading Lao Tzu: A Companion to the Tao Te Ching With a New Translation (Xlibris Corporation, 2003). ISBN 1401083161.
  • Kirkland, Russel. Taoism: The Enduring Tradition (Routledge, 2004). ISBN 0415263220.
  • Kohn, Livia, ed. Daoism Handbook (Leiden: Brill, 2000).
  • Kohn, Livia. The Daoist Monastic Manual: A Translation of the Fengdao Kejie (New York: Oxford University Press 2004)
  • Kohn, Livia & LaFargue, Michael, ed. Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching (SUNY Press, 1998). ISBN 0791435997.
  • Kraemer, Kenneth. World Scriptures: An Introduction to Comparative Religions (Paulist Press, 1986). ISBN 0809127814.
  • LaFargue, Michael. Tao and Method: A Reasoned Approach to the Tao Te Ching (SUNY Press. 1994) ISBN 0791416011.
  • Little, Stephen and Shawn Eichman, et al. Taoism and the Arts of China (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2000). ISBN 0-520-22784-0
  • Mair, Victor H. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature (Columbia University Press, 2001). ISBN 0231109849
  • Mair, Victor H. Experimental Essays on Chuang-tzu (Hawaii, 1983) ISBN 0-88706-967-3.
  • Markham, Ian S. & Ruparell, Tinu. Encountering Religion: an introduction to the religions of the world (Blackwell Publishing, 2001). ISBN 0631206744.
  • Martin, William. A Path And A Practice: Using Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching as a Guide to an Awakened Spiritual Life (Marlowe & Company, 2005). ISBN 1569243905.
  • Martinson, Paul Varo. A theology of world religions: Interpreting God, self, and world in Semitic, Indian, and Chinese thought (Augsburg Publishing House, 1987). ISBN 0806622539.
  • Maspero, Henri. Translated by Frank A. Kierman, Jr. Taoism and Chinese Religion (University of Massachusetts Press, 1981). ISBN 0-87023-308-4
  • Miller, James. Daoism: A Short Introduction (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003). ISBN 1-85168-315-1
  • Mollier, Christine. Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face: Scripture, Ritual, and Iconographic Exchange in Medieval China. (University of Hawai'i Press, 2008). ISBN 0-82483-169-1.
  • Moore, Charles Alexander. The Chinese Mind: Essentials of Chinese Philosophy and Culture (University of Hawaii Press, 1967). ISBN 0824800753.
  • Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects (Doubleday, 1994). ISBN 0385425643
  • Pas, Julian F. & Leung, Man Kam. Historical Dictionary of Taoism (Scarecrow Press, 1998). ISBN 0810833697.
  • Prebish, Charles. Buddhism: A Modern Perspective (Penn State Press, 1975). ISBN 0271011955.
  • Robinet, Isabelle. Taoist Meditation: The Mao-shan Tradition of Great Purity (Albany: SUNY Press, 1993 [original French 1989]).
  • Robinet, Isabelle. Taoism: Growth of a Religion (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997 [original French 1992]). ISBN 0-8047-2839-9
  • Segal, Robert Alan. The Blackwell Companion to the Study of Religion (Blackwell Publishing, 2006). ISBN 0631232168.
  • Schipper, Kristopher. The Taoist Body (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993 [original French version 1982]).
  • Schipper, Kristopher and Franciscus Verellen. The Taoist Canon: A Historical Companion to the Daozang (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2004).
  • Sharot, Stephen. A Comparative Sociology of World Religions: virtuosos, priests, and popular religion (New York: NYU Press, 2001). ISBN 0814798055.
  • Silvers, Brock. The Taoist Manual (Honolulu: Sacred Mountain Press, 2005).
  • Slingerland, Edward Gilman. Effortless Action: Wu-Wei as Conceptual Metaphor and Spiritual Ideal in Early China (Oxford University Press, 2003). ISBN 0195138996.
  • Van Voorst, Robert E. Anthology of World Scriptures (Thomson Wadsworth, 2005). ISBN 0534520995.
  • Waley, Arthur. The Way and Its Power: A Study of the Tao Te Ching and Its Place in Chinese Thought (Grove Press, 1958). ISBN 0802150853.


Further reading

  • Kohn, Livia. The Taoist Experience: An Anthology (Albany: SUNY Press, 1993).
  • Miller, James. Daoism: A Short Introduction (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003). ISBN 1-85168-315-1
  • Saso, Michael R. Taoism and the Rite of Cosmic Renewal (2nd ed., Washington State University Press, 1990). ISBN 978-0-87422-054-4
  • Sivin, Nathan. Chinese Alchemy: Preliminary Studies (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968)
  • Sommer, Deborah. Chinese Religion: An Anthology of Sources (Oxford University Press, 1995) ISBN 0-19-508895-6
  • Welch, H. and Seidel, A., Facets of Taoism (Yale University Press, 1979)


Popular (non-academic) interpretations of Taoism
  • Dyer, Wayne. Change Your Thoughts, Change Your Life: Living the Wisdom of the Tao (Hay House, 2007). ISBN 978-1401917500
  • Hoff, Benjamin. The Tao of Pooh (Penguin, 1983). ISBN 978-0140067477
  • Wilde, Stuart. Infinite Self: 33 Steps to Reclaiming Your Inner Power (Hay House, 1995). ISBN 978-1561703494


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