The Full Wiki

Tashkent: Map

Advertisements
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Tashkent ( ; ) is the capital of Uzbekistanmarker and also of the Tashkent Provincemarker. The officially registered population of the city in 2008 was 2.18 million. According to unofficial data, the population is more than 3 million.

History

In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times the town and the province were known as "Chach". The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi also refers to the city as Chach. Later the town came to be known as Chachkand/Chashkand, meaning "Chach City".(Tash in Turkic language means stone. Kand, qand, kent, kad, kath, kud—all meaning a city—are derived from the Persian/Sogdian, kanda, meaning a town or a city. They are found in city names like Samarkandmarker, Yarkand, Penjikentmarker etc.).

After the 16th century, the name was steadily changed slightly from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand, which, as "stone city", was more meaningful to the new inhabitants than the old name . The modern spelling of Tashkent reflects Russian orthography.

Tashkent started as an oasis on the Chirchik River, near the foothills of the Golestanmarker Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy.

The principality of Chach, whose main town had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some south of the Syr Daryamarker River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had over 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads. The region came under the sway of Islam in the early parts of the 8th century.

Hsien-tsang (Xuanzang) mentioned the name of the city as Zhe-shi. The Chinese chronicles Sujshu, Bejshu and Tanshu mention a possession called Shi or Zheshi with a capital with the same name since the V c. AD [Bichurin, 1950. v. II].

Under the Samanid dynasty, the city came to be known as Binkath. However, the Arabs retained the old name of Chach for the surrounding region, pronouncing it al-Shash instead. The modern Turkic name of Tashkent (City of Stone) comes from Kara-Khanid rule in the 10th century.

Statue of Amir Timur in Tashkent
The city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219, although the great conqueror had found that the Khorezmshah had already sacked the city in 1214. Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties the city revived, despite occasional attacks by the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Persians, Mongols, Oirats and Kalmyks.

In 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokandmarker. At the time, Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia. It prospered greatly through trade to Russiamarker, but chafed under Kokand’s high taxes. The Tashkent clergy also favored the clergy of Bukharamarker over that of Kokand. However, before the Emir of Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived.

Tsarist Period

In May, 1865, Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev (Cherniaev), acting against the direct orders of the tsar, and outnumbered at least 15-1 staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders. While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox priest armed only with a crucifix. Although defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders (including Alimqul, the ruler of the Kokand Khanate). Chernyayev, dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population over. He abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, and appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar Alexander II that the city be made an independent khanate under Russian protection.

The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", and soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman. Far from being granted independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General. A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, and Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdommarker over Central Asia. The Turkestan Military District was established as part of the military reforms of 1874. The Trans-Caspian Railway arrived in 1889, and the railway workers who built it settled in Tashkent as well, bringing with them the seeds of Bolshevik Revolution.

Impact of the Russian revolution

With the fall of the Russian Empiremarker, the provisional government removed all civil restrictions based on religion and nationality, contributing to local enthusiasm for the February Revolution. The Tashkent Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies was soon set up, but primarily represented Russian residents, who made up about a fifth of the Tashkent population. Muslim leaders quickly set up the Tashkent Muslim Council (Tashkand Shura-yi-Islamiya) based in the old city. On 10 March 1917, there was a parade with Russian workers marching with red flags, Russian soldiers singing the La Marseillaise and thousands of local Central Asians. Following various speeches, Governor-General Aleksey Kuropatkin closed the vents with words "Long Live a great free Russia". The First Turketan Muslim Conferencene in Tashkent 16-20 April 1917. Like the Muslim Council this was dominated by the Jadid, Muslim reformers. However, a more conservative faction emerged in Tashkent centered around the Ulema. This faction proved more successful during the local elections of July 1917. They formed an alliance with Russian conservatives, while the Soviet became more radical. The Soviet attempt to seize power in September 1917 proved unsuccessful.

In April 1918, Tashkent became the capital of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR). The new regime was threatened by White forces, basmachi, revolts from within, and purges ordered from Moscowmarker. Tashkent fell within the borders of the Uzbek SSR, and became the capital of the Uzbek SSR in 1930, displacing Samarkandmarker.

Soviet period

The city began to industrialize in the 1920s and 1930s, but industry increased tremendously during World War II, with the relocation of factories from western Russia to preserve the Soviet industrial capacity from the invading Nazis. The Russianmarker population increased dramatically as well, with evacuees from the war zones increasing the population to well over a million. (The Russian community would eventually comprise nearly half of the total residents of Tashkent. )

On April 26, 1966, Tashkent was destroyed by a huge earthquake (7.5 on the Richter scale) and over 300,000 were left homeless. Some 78,000 poorly engineered homes were destroyed mainly in the densely packed areas of the old city where traditional adobe housing predominated. The Soviet republics and some other countries such as Finland sent "battalions of fraternal peoples” and urban planners to help rebuild devastated Tashkent. They created a “model Soviet city” of wide shady streets, parks, immense plazas for military parades, fountains, monuments, and acres of apartment blocks. About 100,000 new homes were built by 1970, many of which were filled with the families of the builders. Further development in the following years increased the size of the city with major new developments in the Chilonzar area, north-east and south-east of the city.

At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Unionmarker in 1991, Tashkent was the fourth largest city in the country and a center of learning in the science and engineering fields.

Tashkent was a very Soviet city, with few reminders of its position on the Silk Road or its 2000+ years of history.

Capital of Uzbekistan

At the moment, it is the most cosmopolitan city in Uzbekistan, with large ethnic Russianmarker minority. The city is noted for its tree lined streets, numerous fountains, and pleasant parks. As capital of the nation, it has also been the target of several terrorist attacks since Uzbekistan gained independence, which the government has attributed to Islamic fundamentalists.

Since 1991, the city has changed economically, culturally, and architecturally. The largest statue ever erected for Lenin was replaced with a globe, complete with a geographic map of Uzbekistan over it. Buildings from the Soviet era have been replaced with new, modern buildings. One example is the "Downtown Tashkent" region, which includes the 22-story NBU Bank building, an Intercontinental Hotel, International Business Center, and the Plaza Building.

In 2007, Tashkent was named the cultural capital of the Islamic world as the city is home to numerous historic mosques and religious establishments.File:Tashkent History 1860.jpg|c1865File:Tashkent History 1913.jpg|1913File:Tashkent History 1940.jpg|1940File:Tashkent History 1965.jpg|1965File:Tashkent History 1967.jpg|1966 Earthquake and subsequent redevelopmentFile:Tashkent History 1981.jpg|1981File:Tashkent History 2000.jpg|2000

Geography

Tashkent in a well-watered plain to the west of the last Altai mountainsmarker on the road between Shymkentmarker and Samarkandmarker. Tashkent sits at the confluence of the Chirchik river and several of its tributaries and is built on deep alluvial deposits up to . It is a lively tectonic area suffering large numbers of tremors and some earthquakes. One earthquake in 1966 measured 7.5 on the Richter scale. The local time in Tashkent is UTC/GMT +5 hours.

Climate

Tashkent has a semi-arid continental climate with long, hot and dry summers from June to September and short but cold winters from December to February. The temperatures in Tashkent can be extremely hot during July and August. With the average annual rainfall ranging from 100 to 200 mm, the country is largely arid and dry. Most precipitation occurs in the months of winter and spring, while the period between July and September is dry.

Districts

Districts of Tashkent City
A street in Tashkent


Tashkent is currently divided into the following districts (Uzbek tuman):

  1. Bektemir
  2. Chilanzar
  3. Hamza
  4. Mirobod
  5. Mirzo Ulugbek
  6. Sergeli
  7. Shaykhontohur
  8. Sobir Rakhimov
  9. Uchtepa
  10. Yakkasaray
  11. Yunusabad


At the time of the Tsarist take over it had four districts (Uzbek daha):
  1. Beshyoghoch
  2. Kukcha
  3. Shaykhontokhur
  4. Sebzor


In 1940 it had the following districts (Russian район):
  1. Oktyabr
  2. Kirov
  3. Stalin
  4. Frunze
  5. Lenin
  6. Kuybishev


By 1981 they had reorganized into:
  1. Bektemir
  2. Akmal-Ikramov (Uchtepa)
  3. Khamza
  4. Lenin (Mirobod)
  5. Kuybishev (Mirzo Ulugbek)
  6. Sergeli
  7. Oktober (Shaykhontokhur)
  8. Sobir Rakhimov
  9. Chilanzar
  10. Frunze (Yakkasaray)
  11. Kirov (Yunusabad)


Sights

Due to the destruction of most of the ancient city during 1917 revolution and, later, to the 1966 earthquake, little remains of Tashkent's traditional architectural heritage. Tashkent is, however, rich in museums and Soviet-era monuments.

  • Kukeldash Madrassa


Dating back to the reign of Abdullah Khan (1557-1598) it is currently being restored by the provincial Religious Board of Mawarannahr Moslem. There is talk of making it into a museum, but it is currently being used as a mosque.

  • Chorsu Bazaar


Near the Kukeldash Madrassa, this huge open air bazaar is the center of the old town of Tashkent. Everything imaginable is for sale.

  • Telyashayakh Mosque (Khast Imam Mosque)


Contains the Uthman Qur'an, considered to be the oldest extant Qur'an in the world. Dating from 655 and stained with the blood of murdered caliph, Khalifatur RASOOL ALLAH,Amir ul Momeneen, Hazrat Syedna Uthman Razi Allahu Taalha Anhu, it was brought by Timur to Samarkandmarker, seized by the Russians as a war trophy and taken to Saint Petersburgmarker. It was returned to Uzbekistan in 1989.

Prince Romanov Palace
  • Yunus Khan Mausoleum


A group of three 15th century mausoleums, restored in the 19th century. The biggest is the grave of Yunus Khan, grandfather of Mughal Empire founder Babur.

  • Palace of Prince Romanov


During the 19th century Grand Duke Nikolai Konstantinovich (1850-1918), a first cousin of Alexander III of Russia was banished to Tashkent for some shady deals involving the Russian Crown Jewels. His palace still survives in the centre of the city. Once a museum, it has been appropriated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The Bolshoi Navoi Theater
  • Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre


Built by the same architect who designed Lenin's Tombmarker in Moscow, Aleksey Shchusev, and built with Japanesemarker prisoner of war labor in World War II, this theatre hosts Russian ballet and opera.

  • Fine Arts Museum of Uzbekistan


Contains a major collection of art from the pre-Russian period, including Sogdian murals, Buddhist statues and Zoroastrian art, along with a more modern collection of 19th and 20th century applied art, such as suzani embroidered hangings. Of more interest is the large collection of paintings "borrowed" from the Hermitagemarker by Grand Duke Romanov to decorate his palace in exile in Tashkent, and never returned. Behind the museum is a small park, containing the neglected graves of the Bolsheviks who died in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and to Ossipov's treachery in 1919, along with first Uzbekistani President Yuldush Akhunbabayev.

  • Museum of Applied Arts


Housed in a traditional house originally commissioned for a wealthy tsarist diplomat, the house itself is the main attraction, rather than its collection of 19th and 20th century applied arts.

Museum of Applied Arts


  • History Museum


Tashkent's largest museum, housed in the ex-Lenin Museum.
The Amir Timur Museum




An impressive building with brilliant blue dome and ornate interior (see photo to the right). Inside, the exhibits of Timur and of President Islam Karimov vie for the visitor's attention. The gardens outside contain a statue of Timur on horseback, surrounded by some of the nicest gardens and fountains in the city.

  • Navoi Literary Museum


A commemoration of Uzbekistan's adopted literary hero, Alisher Navoi, with replica manuscripts, Persian calligraphy and 15th century miniature paintings.

City built environment



Education



Media



Transportation



Sport

Tashkent's most prominent football club is Pakhtakor Tashkent, which competes in the Uzbek League.

Famous cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov and footballer Vassilis Hatzipanagis were born in the city. Tennis player Denis Istomin was born and lives in the city.

Famous gymnast Alina Kabayeva was also born in Tashkent.

International relations

Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Uzbekistan

Twin towns — Sister cities

Tashkent is twinned with:

See also



References

  1. Invest Uzbekistan (rus.), but unofficial estimations (including unregistered temporal migrants) are 2.6 - 3 million
  2. Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1963. "The consonantal system of Old Chinese." Asia Major 9 (1963), p. 94.
  3. Russian Colonial Society in Tashkent by Jeff Sahadeo, Indiana University Press, 2007, p188
  4. The Russian Revolution, 1917 by Rex A. Wade, Cambridge University Press, 2005


External links




Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message