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Tata Motors Limited (NSE: TATAMOTORS, BSE: 500570, NYSEmarker: TTM), is a multinational corporation headquartered in Mumbaimarker, India. Part of the Tata Group, it was formerly known as TELCO (TATA Engineering and Locomotive Company). Tata Motors has a consolidated revenue of USD 16 billion after the acquisition of British automotive brands Jaguar and Land Rover in 2008.

It is India's largest company in the automobile and commercial vehicle sector with upwards of 70% cumulative Market share in the Domestic Commercial vehicle segment, and a midsized player on the world market with 0.81% market share in 2007 according to OICA data. The OICA ranked it as the 19th largest automaker, based on figures for 2007. and the second largest manufacturer of commercial vehicles in the world. The company is the world’s fourth largest truck manufacturer, and the world’s second largest bus manufacturer. In India, Tata ranks as the leader in every commercial vehicle segment, and is in the top 3 makers of passenger cars. Tata Motors is also the designer and manufacturer of the iconic Tata Nano, which at INR 100,000 or approximately USD 2300, is the cheapest car in the world.

Established in 1945, when the company began manufacturing locomotives, the company manufactured its first commercial vehicle in 1954 in a collaboration with Daimler-Benz AG, which ended in 1969. Tata Motors is a dual-listed company traded on both the Bombay Stock Exchange(where it is a component of the Sensex index), as well as on the New York Stock Exchangemarker. Tata Motors in 2005, was ranked among the top 10 corporations in India with an annual revenue exceeding INR 320 billion.

In 2004, Tata Motors bought Daewoo's truck manufacturing unit, now known as Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle, in South Korea. It also acquired Hispano Carrocera SA, now a fully-owned subsidiary. In March 2008, it acquired the Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) business from the Ford Motor Company, which also includes the Daimler and Lanchester brands. and the purchase was completed on 2 June 2008.

Tata Motors has auto manufacturing and assembly plants in Jamshedpurmarker, Pantnagarmarker, Lucknowmarker, Ahmedabadmarker and Punemarker in India, as well as in Argentina, South Africa and Thailand.

History

Tata Motors is a part of the Tata Group manages its share-holding through Tata Sons. The company was established in 1945 as a locomotive manufacturing unit and later expanded its operations to commercial vehicle sector in 1954 after forming a joint venture with Daimler-Benz AG of Germany. Despite the success of its commercial vehicles, Tata realized his company had to diversify and he began to look at other products. Based on consumer demand, he decided that building a small car would be the most practical new venture. So in 1998 it launched Tata Indica, India's first fully indigenous passenger car.Designed to be inexpensive and simple to build and maintain, the Indica became an instant hit in the Indian market. It was also exported to Europe namely the UK and Italy. Since then it has never looked back. In 2004 it acquired Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle and in late 2005 it acquired 21% Aragonesemarker Hispano Carrocera giving it controlling rights of the company. It has formed a Joint Venture with Marcopolo of Brazil and introduced low-floor buses in the Indian Market. Recently it had acquired British Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) business, which also includes Daimler and Lanchester brand names.

Expansion

The first generation Tata Indica
After years of dominating the commercial vehicle market in India, Tata Motors entered the passenger vehicle market in 1991 by launching the Tata Sierra, a multi utility vehicle. After the launch of three more vehicles, Tata Estate (1992, a stationwagon design based on the earlier 'TataMobile' (1989), a light commercial vehicle), Tata Sumo (LCV, 1994) and Tata Safari (1998, India's first sports utility vehicle). Tata launched the Indica in 1998, the first fully indigenous passenger car of India. Though the car was initially panned by auto-analysts, the car's excellent fuel economy, powerful engine and aggressive marketing strategy made it one of the best selling cars in the history of the Indian automobile industry. A newer version of the car, named Indica V2, was a major improvement over the previous version and quickly became a mass-favourite. A badge engineered version of the car was sold in the United Kingdom as the Rover CityRover. Tata Motors also successfully exported large quantities of the car to South Africa.The success of Indica in many ways marked the rise of Tata Motors.

Tata brands

Jaguar XF
Land Rover's Range Rover
Tata MarcoPolo released this low-floor bus in India and now it is widely used as public transport in Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore


Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle

With the success of Tata Indica, Tata Motors aimed to increase its presence worldwide. In 2004, it acquired the Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company of South Korea. The reasons behind the acquisition were:

  • Company's global plans to reduce domestic exposure. The domestic commercial vehicle market is highly cyclical in nature and prone to fluctuations in the domestic economy. Tata Motors has a high domestic exposure of ~94% in the MHCV segment and ~84% in the light commercial vehicle (LCV) segment. Since the domestic commercial vehicle sales of the company are at the mercy of the structural economic factors, it is increasingly looking at the international markets. The company plans to diversify into various markets across the world in both MHCV as well as LCV segments.
  • To expand the product portfolio Tata Motors recently introduced the 25MT GVW Tata Novus from Daewoo’s (South Korea) (TDCV) platform. Tata plans to leverage on the strong presence of TDCV in the heavy-tonnage range and introduce products in India at an appropriate time. This was mainly to cater to the international market and also to cater to the domestic market where a major improvement in the Road infrastructure was done through the National Highway Development Project


Tata remains India's largest heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer and Tata Daewoo is the 2nd largest heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer in South Korea. Tata Motors has jointly worked with Tata Daewoo to develop trucks such as Novus and World Truck and buses namely, GloBus and StarBus.

Hispano Carrocera

In 2005, sensing an opportunity in the fully-built bus segment, Tata Motors acquired a 21% controlling stake in Hispano Carrocera SA, the leading European bus and coach cabin maker. In 2009, the company picked up the remaining 79% stake in Hispano Carrocera SA for an undisclosed sum, making it a fully-owned subsidiary.

Jaguar Cars and Land Rover

After the acquisition of British Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) business, which also includes the Daimler and Lanchester brand names, Tata Motors became a major player in the international automobile market. On 27 March 2008, Tata Motors reached an agreement with Ford to purchase their Jaguar and Land Rover operations for US$2 billion. The sale was completed on 2 June 2008. Tata has gained the rights to the Daimler, Lanchester, and Rover Company.

In addition to the brands, Tata Motors has also gained access to two design centers and two plants in UK. The key acquisition would be of the intellectual property rights related to the technologies.

Joint ventures

Tata Motors has formed a 51:49 joint venture in bus body building with Marcopolo of Brazil. This joint venture is to manufacture and assemble fully-built buses and coaches targeted at developing mass rapid transportation systems. The joint venture will absorb technology and expertise in chassis and aggregates from Tata Motors, and Marcopolo will provide know-how in processes and systems for bodybuilding and bus body design. Tata and Marcopolo have launched a low-floor city bus which is widely used by Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore Transport Corporations.

Tata Motors also formed a joint venture with Fiatmarker and gained access to Fiat’s diesel engine technology. Tata Motors sells Fiat cars in India and is looking to extend its relationship with Fiat and Iveco to other segments. Fiat's first body-on frame pickup will have the same styling as Tata Xenon and is to be named Fiat Terra. Tata has also formed several JV's with many small companies in various countries around the world.

Important developments

Tata Nano

Tata Nano
In January 2008, Tata Motors launched Tata Nano, the least expensive production car in the world at about Rs. 1,00,000 (US $2,500). The supermini car was unveiled during the Auto Expo 2008 exhibition in Pragati Maidanmarker, New Delhi.

Tata has faced controversy over developing the Nano as some environmentalists are concerned that the launch of such a low-priced car could lead to mass motorization in India with adverse effects on pollution and global warming. Tata has set up a factory in Sanandmarker, Gujaratmarker and the first Nanos are to roll out summer 2009.

Tata Nano Europa has been developed for sale in developed economies and is to hit markets in 2010 while the normal Nano should hit markets in South Africa, Kenya and countries in Asia and Africa by late 2009. A battery version is also planned. Nano has put Tata on the world automobile map.

Tata Ace

Tata Ace was India's first mini truck
Tata Ace, India's first indigenously developed sub-one ton mini-truck, was launched in May 2005. The mini-truck was a huge success in India with auto-analysts claiming that Ace had changed the dynamics of the light commercial vehicle (LCV) market in the country by creating a new market segment termed the small commercial vehicle (SCV) segment. Ace rapidly emerged as the first choice for transporters and single truck owners for city and rural transport. By October 2005, LCV sales of Tata Motors had grown by 36.6 percent to 28,537 units due to the rising demand for Ace. The Ace was built with a load body produced by Autoline Industries. By 2005, Autoline was producing 300 load bodies per day for Tata Motors.Ace is still one of the number maker for TML, TML sold the 2,00,000th Ace in August 2008, within 4 years since its introduction.

Tata Ace has also been exported to several European, South American and African countries. Electric-versions of Tata Ace are sold through Chrysler's Global Electric Motorcars division.

Compressed air car

Tata OneCAT
Motor Development International of Francemarker has developed the world's first prototype of a compressed air car, named OneCAT. In 2007, MDI owner Guy Negre was reported to have "the backing of Tata".

It has airtanks that can be filled in 4 hours by plugging the car into a standard electrical plug. In 2008 MDI planned to also design a gas station compressor, which would fill the tanks in 3 minutes. There are no gasoline costs and no fossil fuel emissions from the vehicle when run in town, but "the compressed air driving the pistons can be boosted by a fuel burner".

OneCAT is a five seat vehicle with a trunk. With full tanks it is said to run at for range in urban cycle.There are severe physical arguments pleading against those figures.

Electric vehicles

Tata Motors unveiled the electric versions of passenger car Tata Indica and commercial vehicle Tata Ace. Both run on lithium batteries. The company has indicated that the electric Indica would be launched locally in India in about 2010, without disclosing the price. The vehicle would be launched in Norway in 2009.

Tata Motors' UK subsidiary, Tata Motors European Technical Centre, has bought a 50.3% holding in electric vehicle technology firm Miljøbil Grenland/Innovasjon of Norway for US$1.93 M, which specialises in the development of innovative solutions for electric vehicles, and plans to launch the electric Indica hatchback in Europe next year.

Operations

The Tata Safari DiCOR is one of Tata's best selling vehicles in India and also has been fairly successful in the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe
Tata has tried to revamp all its models in order to satisfy the consumer
The purchase of Jaguar and Land Rover is expected to help give Tata Motors gain a foothold in the European and American markets.


Tata in India

Tata Motors Limited is India’s largest automobile company, with revenues of Rs. 35651.48 crores (USD 8.8 billion) in 2007-08. It is the leader in commercial vehicles in each segment, and among the top three in passenger vehicles with winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle segments. Tata Motors’ presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India. Over 4 million Tata vehicles ply on Indian roads, since the first rolled out in 1954.The company’s manufacturing base in India is spread across Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Pune (Maharashtra), Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) and Dharwad (Karnataka). Following a strategic alliance with Fiat in 2005, it has set up an industrial joint venture with Fiat Group Automobiles at Ranjangaon (Maharashtra) to produce both Fiat and Tata cars and Fiat powertrains. The company is establishing a new plant at Sanand (Gujarat). The company’s dealership, sales, services and spare parts network comprises over 3500 touch points; Tata Motors also distributes and markets Fiat branded cars in India.

Tata's global operations

Tata Motors has been aggressively acquiring foreign brands to increase its global presence. Tata Motors has operations in the UK, South Korea, Thailand and Spain. Among them is Jaguar Land Rover, a business comprising the two iconic British brands that was acquired in 2008. Tata Motors has also acquired from Ford the rights of Rover. In 2004, it acquired the Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company, South Korea’s second largest truck maker. The rechristened Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company has launched several new products in the Korean market, while also exporting these products to several international markets. Today two-thirds of heavy commercial vehicle exports out of South Korea are from Tata Daewoo.In 2005, Tata Motors acquired a 21% stake in Hispano Carrocera, a reputed Spanish bus and coach manufacturer, giving it controlling rights of the company. Hispano’s presence is being expanded in other markets. On Tata's journey to make an international foot print, it continued its expansion through the introduction of new products into the market range of buses (Starbus & Globus) as well as trucks (Novus). These models were jointly developed with its subsidiaries Tata Daewoo and Hispano Carrocera. In May, 2009 Tata unveiled the Tata World Truck range jointly developed with Tata Daewoo They will debut in South Korea, South Africa, the SAARC countries and the Middle-East by the end of 2009 In 2006, it formed a joint venture with the Brazil-based Marcopolo, a global leader in bodybuilding for buses and coaches to manufacture fully-built buses and coaches for India and select international markets. Tata Motors has expanded its production and assembly operations to several other countries including South Korea, Thailand, South Africa and Argentina and is planning to set up plants in Turkeymarker, Indonesiamarker and Eastern Europe. Tata also franchisee/joint venture assembly operations in Kenya, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Russia and Senegal. Tata has dealorships in 26 countries across 4 continents. Though Tata is present in many counties it has only managed to create a large consumer base in the Indian Subcontinent namely India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Nepal and has a growing consumer base in Italy, Spain and South Africa

Present and future challenges

The popular myth that Tata Motors have some distinct advantages in comparison to other multi-national competitors especially a cost advantage as labor costs are not true as Tata Motors has 8-9 percent of sales as compared similar percent for most multinational companies http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_much_does_labor_cost_to_build_a_new_car. Also employee productivity in Tata Motors is less than 1/3rd (in $million sales / employee) than Toyota. Another advantage in the increasing demand in its own backyard, India due to infrastructure developments and rising GDP. India remains one of the few developing auto markets where domestic brands have managed to keep a large presence, Tata and fellow compatriots account for more than 60% of the passenger vehicle sales and 95% of commercial vehicle sales. There are also favorable Government polices and regulations in place in order to help boost the auto industry. However, Tata has not been able to capitalize on its global presence. Tata relies heavily on its sales in India and has not yet managed to create a foothold in international markets even though it has a number of well reputed subsidiaries. However, Tata Nano may boost its international presence, at least in developing economies.

Though it has an advantage in India, thanks to low costs and government policies it soon faces stiff competition from it multinational competitors all eyeing for a share in the ever growing Indian auto sector. Earlier, a policy required majority-owned subsidiaries of foreign car firms to invest at least US$50 million in equity if they wished to set up manufacturing projects in India and mere car assembling operations were not welcomed. An Indian cabinet panel has since announced a new automobile policy that sets fresh investment guidelines for foreign firms wishing to manufacture vehicles in the country. Investments in making auto parts by a foreign vehicle maker will also be considered a part of the minimum foreign investment made by it in an auto-making subsidiary in India. The move is aimed at helping India emerge as a hub for global manufacturing and sourcing for auto parts. The policies adopted by Government will increase competition in domestic market, motivate many foreign commercial vehicle manufactures to set up shops in India, whom will make India as a production hub and export to nearest market. Thus Tata Motors will have to face tough competition in near future, which might affect its growth negatively.

Currently, the presence of Suzuki through its subsidiary, Maruti Suzuki in the Indian market may also be alarming. Maruti has aggressively launched family cars to undermine the Tata models. Tata has continued to be strong in the MUV and SUV sector due to lack of competition and correct pricing. However, Tata now faces stiff competition from fellow compatriot Mahindra as well as multinational brand like Toyota and Chevrolet. In addition, the growing presence of fellow Indian competitors, Mahindra and Force Motors not only in the Indian but also in the Global market may effect Tata's sales. Mahindra and Force have formed joint ventures with Renault and MAN respectively. Mahindra has also formed a 51:49 JV called Mahindra Navistar with ITEC, USA (parent Navistar International), to manufacture commercial vehicles and to bolster its position in the CV business Ashok Leyland, which is the second largest commercial manufacturer in India has remained Tata's biggest competitor in the Indian heavy commercial vehicle market and with its aquistion of Czech Republic-based Avia it may manage to increase its presence in neighbouring markets such as Sri Lanka, Nepal where Tata Motors has a monopoly. To counter the growth of these various companies Tata has come up with revised or new models like Indica Vista, Indigo Vista, Xenon, Tata World Truck and a aggressive marketing policy.

Products

Passenger cars and utility vehicles

Tata 1616 Starbus
Military Trucks


Concept vehicles



Commercial vehicles



Military vehicles

  • Tata LSV (Light Specialist Vehicle)
  • Tata 2 Stretcher Ambulance
  • Tata 407 Troop Carrier, available in hard top, soft top, 4x4, and 4x2 versions
  • Tata LPTA 713 TC (4x4)
  • Tata LPT 709 E
  • Tata SD 1015 TC (4x4)
  • Tata LPTA 1615 TC (4x4)
  • Tata LPTA 1621 TC (6x6)
  • Tata LPTA 1615 TC (4x2)
  • Tata Winger Passenger Mini Bus


Tata Motors technology and design subsidiaries

Tata has dozens of technology and design subsidiaries. These include the main ones.

Telco Construction Equipment (TCE)

TCE is a joint venture between Tata Motors and Hitachi, which focuses on excavators and other construction equipment.

HV Transmission (HVTL) and HV Axles (HVAL)

HVAL and HVTL are 100% subsidiary companies of Tata Motors engaged in the business of manufacture of gear boxes and axles for heavy and medium commercial vehicles, with production facilities and infrastructure based at Jamshedpur.

Tata Technologies Limited (TTL)

TTL provides Engineering and Design (E&D) solutions to the Automotive Industry. Tata Motors holds 86.91% of TTL’s share capital. TTL is based in Pune (Hinjawadi) and operates in the US and Europe through its wholly owned subsidiaries in Detroit and London respectively. It also has a presence in Thailand. Tata Technologies is a software service provider in the IT services and BPO space. Its global client list includes Ford, General Motors, Toyota and Honda, to name a few. It bought over the British engineering and design services company, Incat International Plc for Rs4b in August 2005. Incat specializes in engineering & design services and product lifecycle management in the international automotive, aerospace and engineering markets. With this acquisition, Tata Motors will have closer proximity to its global customers and be able to provide a wider range of services.

Tata Motor European Technical Centre

Tata Motor European Technical Centre is Tata's subsidiary based in the UK. It was the joint developer of the World Truck.

References

  1. Tata Group | Tata Motors | Driving the dream
  2. H I S P A N O
  3. Tata's TL Sprint previews Fiat pickup.(News) | Article from Automotive News Europe | HighBeam Research
  4. Autoline Website, http://web.archive.org/web/20080209022809/http://www.autolineind.com/our_story.htm
  5. Autoline
  6. Error - LexisNexis Publisher
  7. Error - LexisNexis® Publisher
  8. Tata Motors’ presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India. Over 4 million Tata vehicles ply on Indian roads, since the first rolled out in 1954.
  9. Tata Marcopolo tie up.


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