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T3
Number built 13,991
Built from 1961 - 1990
Length 14,000 mm

Width 2,500 mm

Height 3,050 mm

Weight 16 t
Maximum power 160 kW
Maximum speed 65 km/h
Passenger capacity 23 seats

87 standing
Manufacturer ČKD Tatra
T3 is the name of a tramcar produced by Tatra. During its period of production, between 1960 and 1989, 13,991 multiple units and 122 sidecars were sold worldwide, mostly in Central and Eastern Europe and Soviet Unionmarker.

Types

T3

The design of the T3 had to meet difficult specifications. The car should have the same capacity as its predecessor (the Tatra T2), but be easier to build. In order to achieve this goal for example the vehicle walls were thinner and were fitted with laminate seats instead of cushioned leatherrette seats the T2 used. The T3 was delivered to all tramway companies in the former Czechoslovakiamarker. It was most numerous in Praguemarker, where over 1.000 vehicles were delivered. The T3 still forms (mostly in various modernised versions) the backbone of the Czech tram fleet.

T3SU

(SU for Soviet Union)

As with the T2SU the first T3SU was delivered with the modification of removing the middle door and replacing it with seats. Later cars, however, were delivered with the third door in place. Again the vehicles had a closed operator's compartment and were adapted for the harsh climatic conditions. Altogether 11 368 T3SU were delivered, making it world-wide the largest production of a single type of streetcar. The disadvantage of this, however, was the fact that by producing so many of one type of unit the replacement by more modern cars was slow.
  • The T3SU was delivered from 1963, (first to Moscowmarker) and later to 33 further Soviet cities.


T3SUCS

Tatra T3SU trams in Odessa, Ukraine
Inside T3SUCS manufactured after 1983
The ceiling of the Tatra-T3 tram, manufactured before 1983
(SUCS for Soviet Union-modified Czechoslovakia)

Originally the production of the T3 was stopped 1976 and production was concentrated on newer vehicles. The Slovak city Košicemarker, however, ordered two motor coaches, as an exception. Starting from 1985 the production of the replacement type KT8D5 should start, however this was by then obsolete. Further production of T3 would have been too expensive, so instead vehicles of the type T3SU were re-imported and adapted. The closed operator's cab was maintained, the vehicles had all three doors in place and differed from the original T3 only in few details. Traction formation with this vehicles is possible and is sometimes practiced.

T3SU Evolution

Looking at T3SU trams manufactured in different times, one can notice minor changes both in exterior appearance and interior design.

Exterior details:
  • Narrow passenger windows - disappeared before the year of 1966
  • The narrow window route designators - disappeared about 1969
  • The illumination of the number of route on top - began in 1980s
  • Oval turn indicator at the front became two rectangular lights. The same lamps began to be fitted to the rear - 1985???
small grid in the forward section of the tram from the left side appeared on all T3SU trams manufactured in 1983 and later.
  • Two small red lamps near the tramcar-to-tramcar "control circuit port" both from the front and from behind - 1985???
  • Additional red horizontal lamps from behind
Interior:
  • sofa-style seats - from the early 1960s until the early 1970s.
  • "toilet"-like seats - from early 1970s until the middle of 1980s.
  • Cream colour of saloon ~ with 1977-1978 (now nevertheless all yellow-dark-blue:))


T3D

(D for Deutschlandmarker, then DDR)

In Germany (and/or in the former GDRmarker) the first three T3D cars operated started operation in 1964 and 1965 in Dresdenmarker. The cars were used in part due to their width of 2.50 m. They operated as single cars or as multiple units (Motor+Motor, Motor+Motor+Trailer) and/or as mini trams (Motor+Trailer). The use of trailer cars was due to the use of original Czech T3 electrical equipment, which had enough power to support trailer cars. However, due to reduced available power, the maximum speed of the streetcar reached only 55 km/h, instead of the usual 65 km/h.

Only German and Yugoslav networks had trailer cars. The car was designated as B3D and had the same body as T3D. Today, only Chemnitzmarker uses T3s in full service, having T3D-M (modified).

T3YU

(YU for Yugoslavia)

From 1967 onwards, vehicles supplied to Yugoslavia differed from the standard type T3 by having different pantograph and trucks. In addition, trailer cars were used, as in the GDR. Beside two Czechoslovakian and one Soviet tram networks, the vehicles were the only narrow profile cars of the type.

T3R

(R for Romaniamarker)

Romania was instructed by Comecon at the end of the 1960s to order RA cars. The first vehicles came in 1967 to the city of Galaţimarker and differed from the Czechoslovak vehicles by having different electrical equipment, necessary for the network's 750 V DC voltage. Since the car boxes were built too wide for use elsewhere, the cars remain in Galaţi.

Same name has type shortly manufactured in 1997.

Modernized Tatra-T3 trams

Modernized tram in Brno, Czech Republic
In most Czech cities and in some foreign cities such as Bratislavamarker, Moscowmarker, Rigamarker and Odessamarker, Tatra-T3 trams became very common pieces of equipment. As a result the service personnel and maintenance workers became very good with repairing and servicing the equipment. This served as one of the reasons (the other being the expense of buying new vehicles) for modifying the existing Tatra-T3 trams, rather they buying newer cars.

The modernization normally includes:
  • Restoration of the car body
  • Digital/Electronic destination sign installation
  • Acoustic information system
  • Installation of new traction motors
  • Thyristor-Controlled traction system for the motors.
  • Re-design of the interior, which varies by city and transit authority.
  • Pantograph replacements (also depends on the transport authority)


More radical modernization includes insertion of a low floor section.

Production

14,113 trams were produced and delivered to :

City Year T3 T3SUCS T3SU T3D B3D T3YU B3YU T3R Total
Barnaulmarker 1967-1985 0 0 444 0 0 0 0 0 444
Bratislavamarker 1964-1989 58 130 0 0 0 0 0 0 188
Brnomarker 1963-1989 109 53 0 0 0 0 0 0 162
Karl-Marx-Stadtmarker (today Chemnitzmarker) 1966-1988 0 0 0 132 62 0 0 0 194
Dnipropetrovskmarker 1968-1987 0 0 370 0 0 0 0 0 370
Dniprodzerzhynskmarker 1972-1986 0 0 183 0 0 0 0 0 183
Donetskmarker 1967-1987 0 0 251 0 0 0 0 0 251
Galatimarker 1971-1974 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 50
Groznymarker 1981-1986 0 0 70 0 0 0 0 0 70
Irkutskmarker 1967-1968 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 30
Izhevskmarker 1966-1986 0 0 270 0 0 0 0 0 270
Kharkivmarker 1967-1987 0 0 735 0 0 0 0 0 735
Kievmarker 1964-1987 0 0 923 0 0 0 0 0 923
Košicemarker 1963-1989 97 89 0 0 0 0 0 0 184
Kramatorskmarker 1967 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
Krasnodarmarker 1980-1986 0 0 115 0 0 0 0 0 115
Kryvyi Rih 1986-1987 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 50
Kurskmarker 1966-1987 0 0 278 0 0 0 0 0 278
Liberecmarker 1965-1987 20 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 54
Mariupolmarker 1967-1975 0 0 32 0 0 0 0 0 32
Moscowmarker 1963-1987 0 0 2069 0 0 0 0 0 2069
Mostmarker 1967-1987 9 67 0 0 0 0 0 0 76
Nizhny Novgorodmarker 1978-1986 0 0 220 0 0 0 0 0 220
Novokuznetskmarker 1967-1986 0 0 215 0 0 0 0 0 215
Odessamarker 1966-1987 0 0 484 0 0 0 0 0 484
Olomoucmarker 1966-1987 30 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 69
Oryolmarker 1976-1985 0 0 85 0 0 0 0 0 85
Osijekmarker 1966-1982 0 0 0 0 0 26 4 0 30
Ostravamarker 1965-1987 97 127 0 0 0 0 0 0 224
Pilsenmarker 1964-1989 48 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
Praguemarker 1960-1989 901 292 0 0 0 0 0 0 1193
Pyatigorskmarker 1967-1987 0 0 117 0 0 0 0 0 117
Rigamarker 1974-1987 0 0 243 0 0 0 0 0 243
Rostov-on-Donmarker 1967-1987 0 0 405 0 0 0 0 0 405
Samaramarker 1964-1986 0 0 619 0 0 0 0 0 619
Sarajevomarker 1967-1969 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 20
Schwerinmarker 1973-1988 0 0 0 115 56 0 0 0 171
Tashkentmarker 1983-1985 0 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 18
Ufamarker 1966-1987 0 0 360 0 0 0 0 0 360
Ulyanovskmarker 1966-1986 0 0 401 0 0 0 0 0 401
Tulamarker 1965-1986 0 0 401 0 0 0 0 0 401
Tvermarker 1967-1986 0 0 306 0 0 0 0 0 306
Vladikavkazmarker 1972-1987 0 0 129 0 0 0 0 0 129
Volgogradmarker 1967-1987 0 0 425 0 0 0 0 0 425
Volzhsky 1967-1980 0 0 75 0 0 0 0 0 75
Voronezhmarker 1977-1986 0 0 209 0 0 0 0 0 209
Yekaterinburgmarker 1964-1986 0 0 530 0 0 0 0 0 530
Zaporizhiamarker 1966-1987 0 0 304 0 0 0 0 0 304
Total 1369 911 11368 247 118 46 4 50 14113


Note: This is production list. Public transport companies may sell used trams to other companies, thus number of cities where are (or were) these trams may be higher.

References



External links




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