Tehran (Persian: تهران
Tehrān, ) is the capital and largest city of Iran, and the
administrative center of Tehran Province.
Tehran is a sprawling city at the foot of
the Tochal mountain range with an immense network of highways
unparalleled in Western Asia
. The city
is famous for its numerous resorts on the Alborz slopes, large
museums, art centers, and palace complexes.
Tehran is the largest city in the Middle
and is the 16th
most populated city
in the world with a population of around 7
million people. Most Iranian industries are headquartered in
Tehran, including the manufacturing of automobiles, electrical
equipment, military weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical
products. Tehran is also a leading center for the sale of carpets
and furniture. There is an oil refinery located south of the
In the 20th century, Tehran faced a large migration of people from
all around Iran. Today, the city contains various religious
minorities, and has many historic mosques
and Zoroastrian fire
. Contemporary Tehran is a modern and expensive
city featuring many tall structures, of which the Azadi Tower and the Milad Tower have come to be symbols of Tehran
The original Parliament Building built
in the 1920s.
Shamsol-emereh was Tehran's first
tallest building built in 1913.
Green Palace at the Sadabad Palace
Tehran in 1985 and 2009.
The origin of the name Tehran is unknown. One possible explanation
(considering that the homophonous pre-twentieth-century Persian
spelling was طهران) is that it is a Persianized form ("-rān"
suffix, comparable to English "-ful") of an Arabic root (ṭ - h -
r), meaning "pure." Excavations
the existence of settlements in Tehran as far back as 6000 BC.
well known as a village in the 9th century, but was less well-known
than the city of Rhages (Ray) which
was flourishing nearby in the early era.
In the 13th
century, following the destruction of Ray by Mongols
, many of its inhabitants escaped to Tehran.
In some sources of the early era, the city is mentioned as
"Rhages's Tehran" . The city is later mentioned in Hamdollah Mostowfi
(written in 1340) as a famous village.
Ruy Gonzáles de
Clavijo, a Castilian
ambassador, was probably the first European to visit Tehran,
stopping in July 1404, while on a journey to Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan) and the Mongol capital at
At this time, the city of Tehran was
Tehran became a residence of the Safavid
rulers in the 17th century. Tahmasp I
built a bazaar
and a wall around the city,
but it somewhat fell out of favor after Abbas I
turned sick when he was passing
the city to go to a war with the Uzbeks
early of 18th century, Karim Khan Zand
ordered a palace, a harem , and a government office to be
built in Tehran, possibly to declare the city his capital, but
later moved his government to Shiraz.
Tehran finally became the capital of Iran
in 1795, when the Qajar
king Agha Mohammad
was crowned in the city. It remains the capital to this
World War II, British and Soviet troops entered the city.
Tehran was the site
of the Tehran Conference
attended by U.S.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin
Following the war, the city's older landmarks suffered under the
rule of the Shah of Iran
, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
. The Shah believed that
ancient buildings such as large parts of the Golestan
Palace, Takieh-ye Dowlat, the Toopkhaneh Square, the magnificent city
fortifications and the old citadel among others should not be part
of a modern city.
They were systematically destroyed and
modern 1950s and 1960s buildings were built in their place.
Bazaar was divided in half and many historic buildings
were destroyed in order to build wide straight avenues in the
Many excellent examples of Persian Gardens also
became targets to new construction projects. The decision to carry
these out is presently largely seen as a foolish mistake that hurt
the visual fabric and the cultural identity of the city beyond
repair. Apartment blocks were introduced in this period.
During the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq
, Tehran was the scene of repeated Scud
missile attacks and air strikes against random residential and
industrial targets within the city, resulting in thousands of
civilian casualties. Material damage was repaired soon after each
strike. Tehran attracted war refugees by the millions.
After the war, cheap Soviet-style apartments multiplied throughout
the city without any plan. At present, little is left of Tehran's
old quarters. Instead, modern high-rise buildings dominate the
city's skyline and new modern apartments have and are replacing the
few remaining old houses at a rapid pace. Tehran-style home architecture
almost vanished completely. This is often referred to as "Tehran
Tehran is also home to many grand mansions in the north of the city
Under Koppen's climate
, Tehran features an arid
. Tehran's climate is largely defined by its
geographic location, with the towering Alborz Mountains to its North and the central desert to the
It can be generally described as mild in the spring,
hot and dry in the summer, pleasant in the autumn, and cold in the
winter. As a large city with a significant differences in elevation
among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly
north as compared to the flat southern part of Tehran.Summer is
usually hot and dry with very little rain, but relative humidity is
generally low and the nights are cool. The majority of the light
annual precipitation occurs from late-autumn to mid-spring, but no
one month is particularly wet. The hottest month is July (mean
minimum temperature 23°C, mean maximum temperature 36°C) and the
coldest is January (mean minimum temperature -1°C, mean maximum
Although compared with other parts of the country Tehran enjoys a
moderate climate, weather conditions can sometimes be unpredictably
harsh. The record high temperature is 48°C and the record low is
-20°C. On January 5 & 6, 2008, after years of relatively little
snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures shocked the city
covering it in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council
of Ministers to officially declare an state of emergency and
calling the following two days (January 6 and 7) off for the
Population of Tehran
The city of Tehran had a population of approximately 8 million in
With its cosmopolitan air, Tehran houses diverse ethnic and
linguistics groups from all over the country and represents the
ethnic/linguistic composition of Iran (though with a different
percentage).Today the majority of Tehran residents are
known as Persians who speak various
dialects of Persian corresponding to their places of origin,
including Esfahani, Shirazi, Yazdi, Khuzestani, Dari,
Judeo-Persian, etc. However, the main
dialect of Iranians is pure Persian.
The second largest
linguistic group is that of the Azeri-speakers
minority groups include Kurds,
Baluch, Qashqa'i, Turkmen,
Armenian, Bakhtiari, Assyrian, Talysh, etc. There are also a number of a few
long established linguistic minorities such as Punjabi-speaking traders from Punjab (India) and
Romas as well as a small number of
ethnic Georgians, who have resided in
Northern Iran for centuries.
A number of Arabic speakers of
origin also live in Tehran.
Tehran saw a drastic change in its ethno-social composition in
early 1980s. Following the political, social and economic
consequences of the Islamic
Revolution of Iran
in 1979 and onwards, many Iranian citizens,
mostly Tehranis left Iran due to mounting political, social and
most importantly religious pressure. Many Iranians fled to
countries such as Canada, the
States, Japan, Australia, Sweden and other
The highest Iranian emigration has been
to the United States and Canada.
With the start of the Iran–Iraq
(1980-1988) following an Iraqi invasion, a second wave of
inhabitants fled the city, especially during Iraqi air offensive on
the capital. With most major powers backing Iraq at that time,
economic isolation caused even more reasons for the inhabitants to
leave the city (and the country). Having left all they had and
having struggled to adapt to a new country and build a life, most
of them never came back when the war was over. During the war,
Tehran also received a great number of migrants from the west and
the southwest of the country bordering Iraq.
unstable situation and the war in neighboring Afghanistan and Iraq prompted a
rush of refugees into the country who came in millions, with Tehran
being a magnet for modest workers who helped the city to recover
from war wounds, charging far less than local construction
Many of these refugees are being repatriated with
the assistance of UNHCR
but there are still
sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are
reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their
respective country of origin. Afghan refugees are mostly
, speaking a dialect of Persian, and
Iraqi refugees, who are mainly Shia Islam
Arabic-speakers of Iranian
The majority of Tehranis are the followers of Twelver Shia Islam
which is also the state
religion. Religious minorities include followers of various sects
of Sunni Islam
, Bahá'í Faith
, and Christianity
(including the adherents of the
Assyrian Church of the
, Armenian Apostolic
, Roman Catholic
, Chaldean Catholic
, Iranian Protestant churches, Kelisa-ye
Khanegi-ye Iraniyan, Armenian Evangelical Church
God), Armenian Brotherhood
, Russian Orthodox
, and the Presbyterian
). There are also smaller groups of Sikhs
and followers of Mystic
Despite being the seat of a theological government and the fact
that most important religious unions and academies of the country
are based in Tehran, the city remains the most secular and liberal
in the nation, a fact that attracts many youngsters from elsewhere
to study in the capital.
Location and subdivisions
county borders Shemiranat county to the north, Damavand county to the east, Eslamshahr, Pakdasht, and Ray counties to
the south, and Karaj and Shahriar counties to the west.
Neighborhoods and districts of Tehran
Municipal Districts of Tehran
The city of Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts, each
with its own administrative centers.
Within these 22 districts, Tehran contains the following major
Abbas Abad, Afsariyeh, Amaniyeh, Amir Abad,
Bagh Feiz, Baharestan, Darakeh, Darband, Dardasht, Dar
Abad, Darrous, Dehkadeh Olampik,
Ekhtiyariyeh, Elahiyeh, Evin, Farmanieh,Gheitariye, Gholhak, Gisha, Gomrok, Hasan Abad,
Jamaran, Jannat Abad, Javadiyeh, Jomhuri,
Jordan, Lavizan, Narmak, Navab, Nazi Abad,
Punak, Ray, Sa'adat Abad, Sadeghiyeh, Seyed
Shahrara, Shahr-e ziba, Shahrak-e
Gharb, Shemiran, Tajrish, Tehranpars, Tehransar, Vanak, Velenjak, Yaft Abad, Yusef Abad, Zafaraniyeh, etc.
For a map of the relative locations of the neighborhoods and the
full list, see List
of the localities around Tehran
Tehran's old city fabric changed dramatically during the Pahlavi
era. Some of the older remaining districts of
Tehran are: Oud-lajan, Sangelaj, Bazaar, Chaleh Meydan,
Chaleh Meydan is the oldest
neighborhood of the aforementioned.
Food and Restaurants
Tehran has many modern and chic restaurants, serving both
traditional Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine. The most popular dish
of the city is the chelow kabab
(kabob/kebab originaly is persian word and it means Grill).
However, Western-style fast food
becoming popular, especially with the younger generations. Pizza
shops, sandwich shops and kebab shops make up the majority of other
food outlets in the city.
Tehran is the economic centre of Iran.About 30% of Iran’s
public-sector workforce and 45% of large industrial firms are
located in Tehran and almost half of these workers work for the
government. Most of the remainder of workers are factory workers,
shopkeepers, laborers, and transport workers. Few foreign companies
operate in Tehran because of the Islamic government
and its poor relations
with the west. But before the Islamic
many western companies were active in this region.
Today many modern industries of this city include the manufacturing
of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, weaponry,
textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a
leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil
refinery near Ray, south of
the city. Tehran has four airports, including Mehrabad
International Airport, Imam Khomeini International
Airport, Ghal'eh Morghi
airfield and Doshan Tapeh
Tehran relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles, and
taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world.
The Tehran Stock Exchange
which is a full member of the Federation
Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs
(FIBV) and a founding
member of the Federation of
Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges
, has been one of the world's best
performing stock exchanges in recent years.
The metropolis of Tehran enjoys a huge network of highways
(280 km) and of interchanges, ramps, and loops (180 km).
there were 130 kilometers of highways
and 120 kilometers of ramps and loops under construction.
Tehran is served by two airports. Mehrabad Airport, an old airport which doubles as a military base is
used for domestic and pilgrimige flights.
This airport is
located in the Western part of the city. Imam
Khomeini International Airport, located 50 kilometers (31 mi) south of the
city, handles almost all international flights.
Tehran has one of the cleanest and most convenient metro systems,
in terms of accessibility to different parts of the city, in the
region. The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the
construction were started in 1970s. In 2001, the first two of the
seven projected metro lines were opened. Tehran's Metro has five
lines and is 30 km long. After the projected first line of Tel
Aviv metro, Tehran has the longest metro line in the Middle East
and the sixth longest in Asia. The Tehran Metro is fast and
averages trains on all lines each 15 or 20 minutes.Development of
the Tehran metro system
interrupted by the Islamic
and the Iran–Iraq
. Problems arising from the late completion of the metro led
to buses taking on the role of the metro lines, serving mainly long
distance routes. Taxis filled the void for local journeys. The
taxis only drive on main avenues, and only within the local area,
so it may be necessary to take several taxis to get to one's final
destination. This has all led to extreme congestion and air
pollution within the city. Since the completion of the first three
phases of the Metro, some of these problems have been
Tehran also has a central train station with connecting services
round the clock to various cities in the country. .Tehran-Europe
Train Line is active.
Tehran has the most bus stops in Asia
.Tehran Bus Rapid Transit
officially inaugurated on 14 January 2008 by Tehran's mayor
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf in order to facilitate the motor traffic
in Tehran. BRT has 3 lines with 60 stations in different city
areas. Tehran's trolleybus
was active in
1950s and it's the first trolleybus in Asia, but now there are only
10 trolleybuses active and the rest are kept in Tehran's Bus
Museum. Tehran's bus transport system is active since the 1920s.
There are four bus terminals that also provide connections at low
rates. The terminals are located on the South
, and Bei-haghi
While the center of the city houses the government ministries and
headquarters, the commercial centers are more located toward
(formerly known as
Pahlavi street), Taleghani Ave
administratively separate, Rey, Shemiran, and Karaj are often
considered part of the larger Tehran metropolitan
Alborz Mountains seen from Tehran on a
day of relatively clean air.
Tehran suffers from severe air pollution and the city is often
covered by smog
making breathing difficult and
causing widespread pulmonary illnesses. It is estimated that about
27 people die each day from pollution-related diseases. According
to local officials, 3,600 people died in a single month due to the
hazardous air quality.
The air pollution is due to several different reasons : 1)
Economical: most Iranian industries are located on the outskirts of
Tehran. The city is also overrun with old and aging cars which do
not meet today's emission regulations. Furthermore, Iran's
busiest airport, Mehrabad International
Airport, is located in the west of the city; 2)
Infrastructure: Tehran has a poor public transportation
Buses and metros do not cover every area of the
city. Most people are then obliged to either use private cars or
hire taxis. This has created severe traffic congestion; 3) Geographical:
Tehran is bound in the north by the massive Alborz mountain
range that is stopping the flow of the humid Caspian wind.
As a result, thermal inversion
that traps Tehran's polluted air is frequently observed. The lack
of humidity and clouds makes Tehran a very sunny city. The UV
radiations then combined with the existing pollutants significantly
raise the level of the ozone
The government, however, is engaged in a battle to reduce the air
pollution. It has for instance encouraged taxis and buses to
convert from petrol engines to engines that run on compressed natural gas
since 1979 the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has set
up a "Traffic Zone" (طرح ترافیک) covering the city center during
peak traffic hours. Entering and driving inside this zone is only
allowed with a special permit. The government is also trying to
raise people's awareness about the hazards of the pollution. One
method that is currently been employed is the installation of
Pollution Indicator Boards all around the city to monitor the
current level of particulate
(PM10), nitrogen dioxide
), ozone (O3
), sulfur dioxide
), and carbon monoxide
(CO). The board also
displays the Pollutant
(PSI), which is a general indication of air
quality based on the measurements of the above-mentioned five
pollutants. The Pollution Indicator Boards classify the level of
each pollutants as either safe, hazardous or dangerous. 80% of the
city's pollution is due to cars.In 2007 Iran imposed fuel rations
since the use of cars has thereafter declined, streets are less
congested and the air quality has improved. The main reason for
this rationing was to reduce fuel consumption, so that fuel is not
Education and research
Tehran is the biggest and most important educational center of
Iran. Today there are nearly 50 major colleges and universities
total in Greater Tehran
Since the establishment of Darolfonoon
in the mid 1800s, Tehran has amassed a large number of institutions
of higher education. Some of these institutions have played crucial
roles in the unfolding of Iranian political events. Samuel M. Jordan,
whom Jordan Avenue in Tehran is named after, was also one of the
founding pioneers of the American College of Tehran.Among major educational institutions located
in Tehran, Sharif University of
Technology, is the most prestigious technological university
of Iran and University of Tehran
is the largest and oldest state university in Iran and one of the
oldest in Central Asia and Middle East.
University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), K.N.Toosi University of
Technology, Iran University of
Science and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University
(Melli University), Iran University of Medical
Sciences, Shahed University
and Tarbiat Modarres
University are other highly ranked universities of Iran located
Tehran is also home to Iran's largest military academy, and several
religious schools and seminaries.
This is a list of Universities in Tehran Provience, sorted by date
Tehran was the first city in the Middle East to host the Asian Games
. The 7th
Asian Summer Games in 1974
, was held with the participation of
2,363 athletes and officials from 25 countries.
also the site of Iran's national football stadium on Azadi Sport
Complex with 100,000 seating capacity.Azadi Football Stadium is
biggest stadium in Iran and Middle East,3th in the Asia
and 4th in the World Many of the top matches of Iran's Premier
League are held here. In 2005, FIFA ordered
Iran to limit spectators allowed into Azadi stadium because of a
fatal crush and inadequate safety procedures. Other stadiums in
Tehran are Shahid Dastgerdi Stadium, Takhti Stadium, and Shahid Shirudi Stadium, among
Snowboard championship in Dizin.
resort of Dizin is situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz
Mountains range.]] Within 10 minutes driving distance from
Tehran lies a ski resort. Tochal is the
world's fifth highest ski resort, at over 3,730 metres
(12,240 ft) at its highest 7th station.
resort was completed in 1976 shortly before the overthrowing of the
Here, one must first ride the eight kilometre (five mile) long
gondola lift which covers a huge vertical. The 7th station has
three slopes. The resort's longest slope is the south side U shaped
slope which goes from the 7th station to 5th station. The other two
slopes are located on the north side of the 7th station. Here,
there are two parallel chair ski lifts that go up to 3,900 metres
(12,795 ft) near Tochal's peak (at
4,000 m/13,125 ft), rising higher than the gondola 7th
station. This altitude is higher than any of the European
Tochal peak, one has a spectacular view of the Alborz range,
including the 5,671 metre (18,606 ft) high Mount
Damavand, a dormant
At the bottom of the lifts in a valley behind the Tochal peak is
Tochal hotel, located at 3,500 metres (11,483 ft)
altitude. From there a T lift takes skiers up the 3,800 metres
(12,500 ft) of Shahneshin peak, where the third slope of
Tochal 7th station has skiing eight months of the year. But there
are also some glaciers and year-round snow fields near Tehran where
skiing began in 1938, thanks to the efforts of two German railway
engineers. Today, 12 ski resorts operate in Iran, but
the most famous are Tochal, Dizin, and
Shemshak, all within one to three hours of
, Tehran is the host
to four football clubs in Iran's Premier Football
Architecture and landmarks
- See also Architecture of
Tehran is a relatively old city; as such, it has an architectural
tradition unique to itself. Archaeological investigations and
excavations in Tehran demonstrate that this area was home to
civilizations as far back as 6,000 years BC. Tehran served only as
a village to a relatively small population for most of its history,
but began to take a more considerable role in Iran after it was
made the capital in the late 18th century. Despite the occurrence
of earthquakes during the Qajar
and before, some buildings still remain from Tehran's era of
antiquity. Today Tehran is Iran's primate
, and has the most modernized infastructure in the country;
however, the gentrification
neighborhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural
significance has caused concerns.
Tower has been the longstanding symbol of Tehran.
It was constructured to commemorate the 2,500th anniversary of
the Persian empire
, and was originally named "Shahyad Tower";
after the Iranian revolution
name changed to "Azadi Tower," meaning "Freedom Tower."
recently constructed Milad
Tower may eventually replace the Azadi Tower as Tehran's
The Milad complex contains the world's fourth tallest tower
, several restaurants, a
five star hotel, a convention center, a world trade center, and an
IT park. Traditionally a low-lying city due to seismic activity in
the region, modern high rise developments in Tehran have been
undertaken in order to service its growing population.
tallest residential building in Iran is a 54-story building located
North of Youssef Abad district, the
International Tower. It is architecturally designed similar to
Bay Resort and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip in the Paradise community of Clark County, Nevada, United States.
Appealing to the principle of vertical
rather than horizontal expansion of the city, the Tehran
International Tower is bound to the North by Youssef Abad, to the
South By Hakim Highway, to the East by Kordesstan Highway and to
the West by Sheikh Bahai Highway, all of which facilitate access to
various parts of the city.Tehran has a beautiful skyline with many
midrise buildings and towers. In 2004, 200 cameramen took photos of
Tehran's skyline from the mountains outside the city.
Tourism and attractions
Tehran has beautiful gardens
Tehran, as Iran's showcase and capital city, has a wealth of
cultural attractions. The Peacock
Throne of the Persian Kings (Shahs) can be
found in Tehran's Golestan
Palace. Some of the well-known museums are National Museum of Iran, Sa'dabad
Palaces Complex, Glassware and Ceramics
Museum of Iran, The Carpet
Museum of Iran, Tehran's Underglass painting
Museum, and Niavaran Palace Complex.
The Tehran Museum of Contemporary
features the works of great artists such as Van Gogh
and Andy Warhol
collection of these paintings was selected by the former Empress
Tehran is also home to the Iranian
Imperial Crown Jewels
, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of
Persia, its is claimed to be the largest, most dazzling and
valuable jewel collection in the world. The collection comprises a
set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes,
jewel-studded swords and shields, a vast amount of precious loose
gems, including the largest collections of emeralds, rubies and
diamonds in the world. It also includes other items collected by
the Shahs of Iran during the 2,500 year existence of the Iranian
Kingdom.The Imperial Crown Jewels are still on display in the
Iranian Central Bank
Tehran International Book
(TIBF) Is known to the International Publishing World as
the most important publishing event in Asia and the Middle
The most popular social activity, especially among the younger
generation is cinema
. Most cinema
theatres are located downtown. The Azadi
was inaugurated in 2008. It is the largest cinema
theatre in Tehran and the Middle East
with ten salons. The Iram Zoo
and Iram City Game
are also popular meeting points, especially for families with
children. A new larger zoo is planned for 2010.
Artists often mingle at the House Of Artists
was opened in 1962. It is the largest theatre in Tehran
and the Middle East. Tehran TV 1, Tehran Cinema TV, Omid TV and
Tehran Show TV are among the most popular TV stations in Tehran.
Tehran TV2, Tehran TV3 and Tehran Sport are planned to be launched
The following table shows some places for outdoors activities in
- Hosseiniye Ershad
- Soltani Mosque, built by Fath Ali
- Atiq Mosque, built in 1663.
- Mo'ezz o-dowleh mosque, built by Fath
- Haj Seyd Azizollah mosque, built by Fath Ali Shah
- Al-javad mosque, Iran's first modernist design mosque.
- The Old Sepahsalar mosque, another prominent Qajar era mosque.
- The new Sepahsalar mosque (Madreseh e Motahari)
- Filsuf o-dowleh Mosque, Qajar era
- Moshir ol-Saltaneh Mosque, Qajar era
- Mo'ayyer ol-Mamalik Mosque, Qajar era
- Shahr Banu Mausoleum
- Javan-mard Qassab Mausoleum, a pre-Islamic
- Dozens of Imam-zadeh shrines, hundreds of years old, including
that of Imam Zadeh Saleh.
- Dozens of Saqa Khanehs: traditional
places of prayer
- Several Tekyehs: traditional places for
mourning Muharram ceremonies for Husayn
- Ebn-e Babooyeh cemetery, where many Iranian giants such as
Takhti and Ali
Akbar Dehkhoda are buried.
- Zahir o-dowleh cemetery,
where many Iranian giants of art and culture such as Iraj Mirza, Mohammad Taghi Bahar, Forough Farrokhzad, Abolhasan Saba, Ruhollah Khaleghi, and Darvish-khan are buried.
- Kordan Tomb, Seljuqi era, Karaj.
- Maydanak Tomb, 13th century, Karaj
- The Polish Cemetery 1-north of Tehran in British Gholhak
Garden, where numerous World War II
western Allied soldiers are buried. 2- Polish cemetery (Catholic
cemetery) Dulab south of Tehran
- Orthodox Cemetery, Dulab/The Russian Unknown Soldier's Tomb
(Cenotaph) is located here with a red star over it
- Tower of silence (Dakhme gabrha). Located on Moshiryh Road
behind 7th unit of Tehran cement factory. It is circular in
- Naghare Khane Tower. Located on a mountain with same name
(Nagharekhane) in Haftdastagh District, beside Amin Abad Road. Its
age is not clear but it is related to the Seljuk Era. This tower is
the tomb of a Seljuk king. Under the tower you can see other
historical ruins (Einanj Dome). This place is a royal cemetery and
was used in the early years of the Islamic Era in Persia.
- Sarkis Cathedral,
- Saint George Church, 1790
- Thaddeus Bartoqimus Church, 1808
- Tatavus Church, from the Qajar era
- Enjili Church, 1867
- Assyrian Church
- Sarbaz Church
- Armenian Church
- Tree Church
- Holy Church
- Star Church
- 1974 Asian Games: The 7th
Asian Games were held from September 1,
1974 to September 16, 1974 in Tehran, Iran.
complex was made for the Games. The Asian Games
were hosted in the Middle East for the first time. Tehran, the
capital of Iran, played host to 3,010 athletes coming from 25
countries/NOCs, the highest number of participants since the
inception of the Games.
- 1976 AFC Asian Cup: The 1976 AFC Asian Cup was the sixth edition
of the Asian Nations Cup, the football (soccer) championship of
Asia (AFC). It was hosted by Iran. The
field of six teams was split into two groups of three. Iran won their third
title in a row, beating Kuwait in the final 1-0.
- 1997 1st West Asian Games: The 1st West Asian Games was first organized in
Tehran from 19 to 28 November 1997. It was considered the first of
their kind. The success of the games led to the creation of the
West Asian Games Federation (WAGF) and the intention of hosting the
games every two year.
- There is no set English pronunciation for Tehran. The
most common are and . Others are and , also and . (Merriam
Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed.) An example is
- Tehran Oil Refining Company Official Website.
Tehran Oil Refining Company Official Website
- Behrooz, Samira; Karampour, Katayoun. A Research on Adaptation of Historic Urban
Landscapes ; The Case of The Historical City of Tehran.
Tehran Historical City Office.
- Climate of Tehran
- Heavy Snowfall in Tehran (in Persian)
- Tahran'da Türkçe konuşarak işlerinizi
- britannica.com, accessed: June 2009.
- Tehran. An Educational Website about
- هر روز 27 تهرانی به دليل آلودگی هوا می ميرند.
September 18, 2006
- Iran smog 'kills 3,600 in month'. BBC News Online.
January 9, 2007
F.C. Official Website. Esteghlal F.C.
- Persepolis F.C. Official Website.
- Tehran Capital City of Iran.
- The Style of Tehran. Library of Congress. Accessed
- Milad Tower Official Website. Milad
- Tehran International Tower Website. Tehran
International Tower Website
accessed June 2009.
- Sarkis Cathedral, Tehran - Lonely Planet Travel
Asian Games. Asian Games
- AFC Asian Cup. AFC Asian Cup
- West Asian Games. West Asian