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Telangana region marked in white.


Telangana or Telingana (Telugu: తెలంగాణ) is a region in the Indianmarker state of Andhra Pradeshmarker. It literally means "land of telugus". The telugu language originated here.It more or less corresponds to that portion of the state which was previously part of the princely state of Hyderabad. The region lies on the Deccanmarker plateau to the west of the Eastern Ghats range, and includes the northwestern interior districts of Warangalmarker, Adilabadmarker, Khammammarker, Mahabubnagarmarker, Nalgondamarker, Rangareddymarker, Karimnagarmarker, Nizamabad, Medakmarker, and the state capital, Hyderabadmarker. The Krishna and Godavari rivers flow through the region from west to east.

History

Telangana region was mentioned in the Mahabharata as the Telinga Kingdom which said to be inhabited by the tribe known as Telavana and said to have fought on the Pandava side in the great war of Mahabharata. It is also evident from the fact that there is Pandavula Guhalu in warangal district(wherein Pandavas spent their life in exile (Lakkha Gruham)).

And, in Treta yuga, it is believed that Lord Sri Rama along with his consort Sita Devi and brother Lakshmana, spent their life in exile at Parnashala on the banks of Godavari river which is about 25 km from Bhadrachalam in Khammam District of Telangana.

Telangana region has been heartland for many great dynasties like Sathavahanas, Kakatiyas. In fact, Kotilingala in Karimnagarmarker is the first Capital of the Sathavahanas before shifting to Dharanikota. Excavations at Kotilingala revealed this fact and coinage of Simukha, Satavahana emperor found. Telangana came under Muslim rule in 14th century for the first time by Delhi Sultanate followed by Bahmanis, Qutb Shahis and Mughals. As the Mughal Empire began to disintegrate in the early 18th century, the Muslim Asafjahi dynasty established a separate state known as Hyderabad. Later Hyderabad entered into a treaty of subsidiary alliance with the British Empire, and was the largest and most populous princely state in India. Telangana was never under direct British rule, unlike Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradeshmarker, which were part of British India's Madras Presidency.

Post-independence history

India became independent from the British Empire in 1947. The Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to retain his independence, but the Indian Government amalgamated his state of Hyderabad by force on September 17, 1948 after the successful execution of Operation Polo by the Indian Army. When India became independent, the Telugu-speaking people (although Urdu is spoken in some parts of Telangana districts) were distributed in about 22 districts; 9 of them in the Telangana region of Nizam's Dominions (Hyderabad State), 12 in the Madras Presidency and one in French-controlled Yanammarker.

Merger of Telangana and Andhra

In December 1953, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appointed the States Reorganization Commission to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic lines. This was headed by Justice Fazal Ali and the commission itself was also known as the Fazal Ali Commission. The efforts of this commission was overseen by Govind Ballabh Pant, who served as Home Minister from December 1954. The commission created a report in 1955 recommending the reorganisation of India's states.

The States Reorganization Commission (SRC) was not in favour of merging the Telangana region with the then Andhra state. Para 382 of States Reorganization Commission Report (SRC) said "..opinion in Andhra is overwhelmingly in favour of the larger unit, public opinion in Telangana has still to crystallize itself". The concerns of Telanganas were manifold. The region had a less developed economy than Andhra, but a larger revenue base (mostly because it taxed rather than prohibited alcoholic beverages), which Telanganas feared might be diverted for use in Andhra. They also feared that planned dam projects on the Krishna and Godavari rivers would not benefit Telangana proportionately even though Telanganas controlled the headwaters of the rivers. Telanganas feared too that the people of Andhra would have the advantage in jobs, particularly in government and education. Para 386 of States Reorganization Commission Report (SRC) said "After taking all these factors into consideration we have come to the conclusions that it will be in the interests of Andhra as well as Telangana area is to constitute into a separate State, which may be known as the Hyderabad State with provision for its unification with Andhra after the general elections likely to be held in or about 1961 if by a two thirds majority the legislature of the residency Hyderabad State expresses itself in favor of such unification."

However, the Congress party was strong in Andhra than in Telangana because the Nizam who ruled till then did not allow Congress activities in Telangana. The strong Congress lobby in Andhra lobbies with central congress leadership for the merger. So, the central government decided to ignore the SRC recommendations and established unified Andhra Pradeshmarker on November 1, 1956. However, a "Gentlemen's agreement" provided reassurances to the Telangana people.

However, the Gentlemen's agreement was never implemented. For example: According to the agreement, the new state was supposed to be called 'Andhra-Telangana'. This was not followed. Andhra leadership unilaterally named the state Andhra Pradesh. As per the agreement, if the Chief Minister of the new state is from Andhra, Deputy CM post should be handled by one from Telangana and vice-versa. This too has never been followed. Even when the first Chief Minister (from Andhra) sweared in, the deputy CM post was not filled. So the Gentlemen's agreement was broke in letter and spirit on the very first day.

At the time of merging Telangana, with Andhra, and forming Andhra Pradesh state, it had an excess revenues to the tune of 5 crores, and this Hyderabad state was supposed to be the most richest among the erstwhile 500 princely states which were integrated under British rule in India.

Separate Telangana state movement

1969 Movement
In the following years after the formation of Andhra Pradesh state, however, the Telangana people had a number of complaints about how the agreements and guarantees were implemented.Discontent with the 1956 Gentleman's agreement intensified in January 1969 when the guarantees that had been agreed on were supposed to lapse. Student agitation for the continuation of the agreement began at Osmania University in Hyderabad and spread to other parts of the region. Government employees and opposition members of the state legislative assembly swiftly threatened "direct action" in support of the students. This movement, also known as Jai Telangana movement, led to widespread violence and deaths of hundreds of people and students of this Telangana region. Approximately 360 students gave their lives in this movement.

Although the Congress faced dissension within its ranks, its leadership stood against additional linguistic states, which were regarded as "anti-national." As a result, defectors from the Congress, led by M. Chenna Reddy, founded the Telangana People's Association (Telangana Praja Samithi). Despite electoral successes, however, some of the new party leaders gave up their agitation in September 1971 and, much to the disgust of many separatists, rejoined the safer political haven of the Congress ranks.

Movement in 1990-2004
The emotions and forces generated by the movement were not strong enough, however, for a continuing drive for a separate state until 1990s when Bharatiya Janata Party, promised a separate Telangana state if they came to power. But the BJP could not create a separate Telangana state because of the opposition from its coalition partner, Telugu Desam Party. These developments brought new life into the separatist Telangana movement by year 2000. Congress party MLAs from the Telangana region, supported a separate Telangana state and formed the Telangana Congress Legislators Forum. In another development, a new party called Telangana Rashtra Samithi (or TRS) was formed with the single point agenda of creating a separate Telangana state, with Hyderabad as its capital lead by Kalvakuntla Chandrasekhar Rao popularily known as KCR.

Proponents of a separate Telangana state feel.. all the agreements, accords, formulas, plans and assurances on the floor of legislature and Lok Sabha, in last 50+ years, could not be honoured and Telangana was forced to remain neglected, exploited and backward. The experiment to remain as one State proved to be a futile exercise and therefore, separation is found to be the best solution.

2004 and later
Flag of TRS
In 2004, for Assembly and Parliament elections, the Congress party and the TRS had an electoral alliance in the Telangana region with the promise of a separate Telangana State. Congress came to power in the state and formed a coalition government at the centre. TRS joined the coalition government in 2004 and was successful in making a separate Telangana state a part of the common minimum program (CMP) of the coalition government. In September 2006 TRS withdrew support for the Congress led coalition government at the centre on the grounds of indecision by the government over the delivery of its electoral promise to create Telangana.

In December 2006, the TRS won the by-election to the Karimnagar parliamentary constituency, which is considered by many as a referendum on a Telangana state, with a record margin.

There was lot of pressure on the Congress party to create a Telangana state in 2008.

All TRS legislators in Parliament and in State (4MPs, 16MLAs, 3MLCs) resigned in the 1st week of March 2008 and forced by-elections which can be viewed as a referendum on a Telangana state, to increase the pressure on Congress party, and to intensify the movement.

By-elections for the 16 MLA seats, 4 MP seats were held May 29, 2008. During the election campaign the TRS party said it is a referendum on a Telangana state but both Congress and TDP parties said it is not a referendum on Telangana and also said that they are not opposed to the formation of Telangana state.To the disappointment of Telangana proponents TRS retained only 7 out of 16 MLA seats and 2 out of 4 MP seats after the by-elections.Telangana proponents are also happy that all major parties in the state said that they are not opposed to the formation of separate Telangana state.

In June 2008, Devender Goud, who is considered number two in the TDP, a politbureau member and Deputy Leader of the Telugu Desam Legislature Party, resigned from the party saying he would devote his time and energy to the formation of a separate Telangana state. In July 2008, Mr Goud along with some other leaders like Mr. E Peddi Reddy formed a new party called Nava Telangana Praja Party.

On 9 October 2008, in a historical turnaround from its 26-year history TDP announced its support for the creation of Telengana.

Symbolic declaration of statehood
The Nava Telangana Party, led by the former home minister of Andhra Pradesh, T Devender Goud, declared Telangana as a separate province within India on November 2, 2008. Konda Laxman Bapuji announced that "We solemnly declare statehood for Telangana on November 2, 2008." Goud released ten pigeons in the air symbolising the ten districts of the region, while he also unfurled the national flag on the occasion. Along with his party activists he was later arrested when they tried to barge into the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat to change the name plate -— from Andhra Pradesh to Telangana. A scuffle then followed between the police and the NTP workers before the party workers were taken to the Chikkadapalli police station. Other NTP workers soon descended on the scene and staged a dharna to protest against the arrest.

2009 and later
Ahead of the 2009 General Elections in India all the major parties in AP supported Telangana state.

Congress still says it is committed to Telangana statehood. But it does not have convincing answer when it asked why it could not create Telangana state in last 5 years. Also it claims Muslim minorities are opposed to creation of separate state along with majority people...

TDP promised to work for Telangana statehood. TRS joined the Mahakutami(or grand alliance) with TDP and left parties to defeat congress party for cheating Telangana people on statehood.

Praja Rajyam Party(PRP), newly founded by film star Chiranjeevi, too supports Telangana statehood. NTP merged with PRP after it realized that there is not enough political space for two sub-regional Telangana parties with Telananga statehood as main agenda.

The BJP again announced their policy of having smaller states and will create 2 more states Telangana and Gorkhaland if they win the election. They also said that smaller states are better governed and developed.

All political parties, including some Telangana congress leaders, criticized Chief Minister YSR, when he changed his stand from pro-Telangana and gave anti-Telangana statements right after the polls to Telagana ended.

Congress returned to power both at center and state. TRS and grand alliance lost the elections.

Trouble breaks out at several places in Telangana on Nov 29, 2009 after the arrest of TRS president K. Chandrasekhar Rao ahead of his proposed indefinite hunger strike in Siddipet.
KCR continued his fast in jail. Several people self immolated, hanged themselves to protest his arrest. Goverment gave saline by force to end his fast after 36hours.


Geography

Of the three regions of the state, Telangana has the largest area, with 1,14,800 km2.The Telangana plateau is composed of Archean Gneissic rocks and drained by Godavari and Krishna rivers. The entire region is divided into two main regions namely ghats and peneplains. The surface is dotted with low depressions.

Irrigation

Telangana region Andhra Pradesh is situated in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. Deccan plateaumarker is situated at a high altitude in an up-land area. The river Godavari is flowing on the North and the river Krishna is flowing on the South. Apart from the major rivers, there are other small rivers such as Bhima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Praanahita, and Peddavagu and Taliperu.

Culture and Identity

Centuries of independent existence has given Telangana its own distinctive culture and identity. The Telugu language spoken here has evolved into a new dialect with a liberal mixture of words from Urdu.Festivals:Eid al-Adha (Bakr Eid), Dassera, Eid-ul-Fitr and Ugadi are prominent festivals in Telangana. The region celebrates distinctive festivals like Bathukamma, and Bonalu. The other festivals, such as, Deepawali, Holi, Moharram and Vinayaka chaturthi are also celebrated with equal enthusiasm as in northern India. The national festival Sankranti is also celebrated in the beginning of harvest season on 14 January every year.

Places of interest

Osman Sagar, Gandipet Lake
  1. Hyderabadmarker
    1. Charminarmarker - a major landmark in Hyderabad with four graceful minarets.
    2. Falaknuma Palacemarker - Built by Nawab Viqar al-Umra', a beautiful and stunning piece of architecture.
    3. Golconda Fort - located on the outskirts of the city, Golconda Fort is one of the most magnificent fortress complexes in India.
    4. Salar Jung Museummarker - houses the largest one-man collection of antiques in the world.
    5. Makkah Masjidmarker - a stone-built mosque, to the southwest of Charminar.
    6. Birla Planetarium - located in the heart of the city on the panoramic hillock of Nawbat Pahad.
    7. Husain Sagarmarker - man-made lake that separates the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad.
    8. Durgam Cheruvu - A beautiful lake near HI-TEC city.
    9. Chilkur Balaji Temple, also known as Visa Balaji Temple
    10. Osman Sagarmarker, also known as Gandipet, is a lake near the city.
    11. Purani Haveli - The official residence of the Nizam.
    12. Sanghi Temple - A temple dedicated to Lord Venkateshwara graces a promontory overlooking Sanghi Nagar.
    13. Birla Temple - A temple dedicated to Lord Venkateshwara(Lord Balaji).
    14. Mahankali Temple - A temple located near Secunderabad Railway station, Famous for Bonalu Fest in Hyderabad.
    15. Snow World - An amusement park which enables citizens of this tropical city to experience very low temperatures and snow
    16. Madhapurmarker - Home to the IT world of Hyderabadmarker.
  2. Nagarjuna sagar on krishna river in Nalgondamarker district
  3. Sreeramsagar project on Godavari river in Nizamabad districtmarker
  4. Beechupally (Sri Anjaneya Swamy Temple)
  5. Alampoor (one of the eighteen shaktipeetams)
  6. Warangalmarker, capital city of Kakatiyas
  7. Warangal Fort, Built by Kakatiyas between 11-12th centuries
  8. Warangal - Bhadrakali Temple, and Thousand Pillared Temples, These two temples built by Kakatiyas are visited by People from all over AP
  9. Warangal - Ramappa Temple, Famous for its brilliant Kakatiya art
  10. Warangal - Pakhal Lake, A man-made lake built in 1213 by the Kakatiya king, Ganapathideva, by harnessing a small tributary of the Krishna River. It is located 50 km from Warangal and spreads over an area of 30 km.
  11. Basara Saraswathi Templemarker, a temple of Saraswati, one of the two temples in India Temple Web site
  12. National forests and Wildlife Sanctuaries: Pakhala, Eturunagaram, Pranahitha, Kinnerasani, kawal, Pocharam
  13. Anathagiri Forest - Famous for Sri Anantha Padmanabha Swamy located on Ananthagiri Hills Temple website (Vikarabad - 70 km from Hyderabad)
  14. Medakmarker: Famous for out standing church & Medak khila
  15. Pillala Marri: A big tree which is spread across 5 acres in Mahaboob Nagar district
  16. Bhadrachalammarker: Famous for Lord Rama Temple
  17. Yadagirigutta: Famous Laxmi Narasimha Swamy Temple, 50 km from Hyderabad (Wgl-Hyd highway)
  18. Kaleshwaram : 130 km from Karimnagar
  19. Dharmapurimarker : On the banks of River Godavari, 78 km from Karimnagar, is the 15th century temple town of Dharmapuri.
  20. Nagunur Fort : The village of Nagunur is just about 8 km from Karimnagar Town.
  21. Dhulikatta : 20 km from Karimnagar is Dhulikatta an important Buddhist spot visited by monks from all over the world.
  22. Kondagattu :About 35 km from Karimnagar is this breathtaking temple of Lord Anjaneya Swamy. Apart from the temple, the fort of Kondalaraya & Bojjapotana caves are worth seeing at Kondagattu.
  23. Molangoor Quilla : 30 km from Karimnagar, strategically located on summit of a big isolated granite hill, this fort was built by the Kakathiyas.
  24. Manthanimarker : is an extremely ancient center for Vedic teachings. It is located on the banks of River Godavari, and at a distance of 70 kilometers from Karimnagar.
  25. Vemulawada - Rajarajeshawara Temple: Located 38 km from Karimnagar
  26. Uma Maheshwaram - About 120 km from Hyderabad on Srisailam highway. It is the North Entrance for Sri Sailam Mallikarjuna swamy temple. It is famous for its shiva temple.
  27. Gadwal Fort, Gadwal is built around a fort built by the Gadwal ruler somanadri


See also



Kolanpak:About75km from Hyderabad to warngal highway Nalagonda Distic Aluru Mandal kolanpak village in this village famous Jain temple & someshwara swamy temples are there.

References

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdoms_of_Ancient_India
  2. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2318/stories/20060922003303400.htm
  3. http://www.telangana.org/Papers.asp
  4. http://message2.myvideowebstream.com/view/?id=WGU66W5VLKHQNABY65UW
  5. http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/std_pattrnAP.pdf
  6. http://www.hindu.com/2008/03/04/stories/2008030456740100.htm
  7. http://www.hindu.com/2008/03/05/stories/2008030554420600.htm
  8. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Hyderabad/Cong_TDP_say_Jai_Telangana/articleshow/3048025.cms
  9. http://www.hindu.com/2008/05/29/stories/2008052953730400.htm
  10. http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/26/stories/2008042659140400.htm
  11. http://www.hindu.com/2008/05/29/stories/2008052954240400.htm
  12. http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/25/stories/2008042554090400.htm
  13. http://www.hindu.com/2008/05/28/stories/2008052853710400.htm
  14. http://www.hindu.com/2008/05/10/stories/2008051053900600.htm
  15. http://www.hindu.com/2008/05/22/stories/2008052256460400.htm
  16. http://www.hindu.com/2008/05/08/stories/2008050852640300.htm
  17. http://www.hindu.com/2008/05/02/stories/2008050257830400.htm
  18. http://www.hindu.com/2008/06/02/stories/2008060255211200.htm
  19. http://www.hindu.com/2008/06/24/stories/2008062456910100.htm
  20. http://www.hindu.com/2008/07/12/stories/2008071254460600.htm
  21. TDP announces support to creation of Telangana state
  22. http://www.financialexpress.com/news/Goud-declares-Telangana-separate-state/380654/
  23. Why it is Telangana that holds the key?
  24. Congress: Grand Alliance has no credibility on Telangana
  25. Telangana: Problems within Congress resolved
  26. Minorities opposed to creation of Telangana: YSR
  27. YSR using minority card to stop Telangana
  28. TDP promise T-State
  29. CPI for T-State
  30. Vote out Congress: KCR
  31. NTP merges with PRP
  32. PRP for T-state
  33. The Hindu article on BJP's desire to create smaller states
  34. YSR provoking rayalaseema people against Telangana after first phase of elections'09(youtube video in telugu)
  35. YSR asks voters to be wary of TRS
  36. YSR’s remarks on Telangana touch off political row
  37. 2009 Poll results: Striking show by Congress in all regions
  38. KCR arrest ahead of his proposed indefinite hunger strike
  39. Government forcibly administers saline to end KCR's fast


External links



Telangana advisory - information - strong support web sites






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