Location of Telangana region
తెలంగాణ) is a region in
the Indian state of
Telangana region marked in
It literally means "land of telugus". The
telugu language originated here.It more or less corresponds to that
portion of the state which was previously part of the princely
state of Hyderabad
. The region lies on the
Deccan plateau to the west of the Eastern Ghats range, and includes the
northwestern interior districts of Warangal, Adilabad, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Rangareddy, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, and the
state capital, Hyderabad.
rivers flow through the
region from west to east.
Telangana region was mentioned in the Mahabharata
as the Telinga Kingdom
which said to be inhabited
by the tribe known as Telavana and said to have fought on the
Pandava side in the great war of Mahabharata
. It is also evident from the fact
that there is Pandavula Guhalu in warangal district(wherein
Pandavas spent their life in exile (Lakkha Gruham)).
And, in Treta yuga, it is believed that Lord Sri Rama along with
his consort Sita Devi and brother Lakshmana, spent their life in
exile at Parnashala on the banks of Godavari river which is about
25 km from Bhadrachalam in Khammam District of
Telangana region has been heartland for many great dynasties like
. In fact, Kotilingala in Karimnagar is the first Capital of the Sathavahanas before
shifting to Dharanikota.
Excavations at Kotilingala revealed
this fact and coinage of Simukha, Satavahana emperor found.
Telangana came under Muslim rule in 14th century for the first time
by Delhi Sultanate
. As the Mughal
Empire began to disintegrate in the early 18th century, the Muslim
dynasty established a separate
state known as Hyderabad
Hyderabad entered into a treaty of subsidiary alliance with the
, and was the largest
and most populous princely state
India. Telangana was never under direct British rule, unlike Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, which were part of British India's Madras Presidency.
India became independent
the British Empire
in 1947. The
Nizam of Hyderabad
retain his independence, but the Indian Government
amalgamated his state of
Hyderabad by force on September 17, 1948 after the successful
execution of Operation Polo
. When India became
independent, the Telugu-speaking people (although Urdu is spoken in some parts of Telangana districts)
were distributed in about 22 districts; 9 of them in the Telangana
region of Nizam's Dominions (Hyderabad
State), 12 in the Madras
Presidency and one in French-controlled Yanam.
Merger of Telangana and Andhra
In December 1953, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
appointed the States Reorganization
to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic
lines. This was headed by Justice Fazal
and the commission itself was also known as the
Fazal Ali Commission
The efforts of this commission was overseen by Govind Ballabh Pant
, who served as
from December 1954. The
commission created a report in 1955 recommending the reorganisation
of India's states.
States Reorganization Commission
(SRC) was not
in favour of merging the Telangana region with the then
States Reorganization Commission Report
(SRC) said "..opinion
in Andhra is overwhelmingly in favour of the larger unit, public
opinion in Telangana has still to crystallize itself". The concerns
of Telanganas were manifold. The region had a less developed
economy than Andhra, but a larger revenue base (mostly because it
taxed rather than prohibited alcoholic beverages), which Telanganas
feared might be diverted for use in Andhra. They also feared that
planned dam projects on the Krishna and Godavari rivers would not
benefit Telangana proportionately even though Telanganas controlled
the headwaters of the rivers. Telanganas feared too that the people
of Andhra would have the advantage in jobs, particularly in
government and education. Para 386 of
States Reorganization Commission Report
(SRC) said "After
taking all these factors into consideration we have come to the
conclusions that it will be in the interests of Andhra as well as
Telangana area is to constitute into a separate State, which may be
known as the Hyderabad State with provision for its unification
with Andhra after the general elections likely to be held in or
about 1961 if by a two thirds majority the legislature of the
residency Hyderabad State expresses itself in favor of such
However, the Congress party was strong in Andhra than in Telangana
because the Nizam who ruled till then did not allow Congress
activities in Telangana. The strong Congress lobby in Andhra
lobbies with central congress leadership for the merger.
central government decided to ignore the SRC recommendations and
established unified Andhra Pradesh on November 1, 1956.
However, a "Gentlemen's
" provided reassurances to the Telangana people.
However, the Gentlemen's agreement was never implemented. For
example: According to the agreement, the new state was supposed to
be called 'Andhra-Telangana'. This was not followed. Andhra
leadership unilaterally named the state Andhra Pradesh. As per the
agreement, if the Chief Minister of the new state is from Andhra,
Deputy CM post should be handled by one from Telangana and
vice-versa. This too has never been followed. Even when the first
Chief Minister (from Andhra) sweared in, the deputy CM post was not
filled. So the Gentlemen's agreement was broke in letter and spirit
on the very first day.
At the time of merging Telangana, with Andhra, and forming Andhra
Pradesh state, it had an excess revenues to the tune of 5 crores,
and this Hyderabad state was supposed to be the most richest among
the erstwhile 500 princely states which were integrated under
British rule in India.
Separate Telangana state movement
In the following years after the formation of Andhra Pradesh state,
however, the Telangana people had a number of complaints about how
the agreements and guarantees were implemented.Discontent with the
intensified in January 1969 when the guarantees that
had been agreed on were supposed to lapse. Student agitation for
the continuation of the agreement began at Osmania University in
Hyderabad and spread to other parts of the region. Government
employees and opposition members of the state legislative assembly
swiftly threatened "direct action" in support of the students. This
movement, also known as Jai
, led to widespread violence and deaths of
hundreds of people and students of this Telangana region.
Approximately 360 students gave their lives in this movement.
Although the Congress faced dissension within its ranks, its
leadership stood against additional linguistic states, which were
regarded as "anti-national." As a result, defectors from the
Congress, led by M. Chenna Reddy, founded the Telangana People's
Association (Telangana Praja Samithi). Despite electoral successes,
however, some of the new party leaders gave up their agitation in
September 1971 and, much to the disgust of many separatists,
rejoined the safer political haven of the Congress ranks.
Movement in 1990-2004
The emotions and forces generated by the movement were not strong
enough, however, for a continuing drive for a separate state until
1990s when Bharatiya Janata
, promised a separate Telangana state if they came to
power. But the BJP could not create a separate Telangana state
because of the opposition from its coalition partner, Telugu Desam Party
. These developments
brought new life into the separatist Telangana movement by year
2000. Congress party
MLAs from the
Telangana region, supported a separate Telangana state and formed
the Telangana Congress Legislators Forum. In another development, a
new party called Telangana
(or TRS) was formed with the single point
agenda of creating a separate Telangana state, with Hyderabad as
its capital lead by Kalvakuntla Chandrasekhar Rao popularily known
Proponents of a separate Telangana state feel.. all the agreements,
accords, formulas, plans and assurances on the floor of legislature
and Lok Sabha, in last 50+ years, could not be honoured and
Telangana was forced to remain neglected, exploited and backward.
The experiment to remain as one State proved to be a futile
exercise and therefore, separation is found to be the best
2004 and later
Flag of TRS
In 2004, for Assembly and Parliament elections, the Congress party
and the TRS had an electoral alliance in the Telangana region with
the promise of a separate Telangana State. Congress came to power
in the state and formed a coalition government at the centre. TRS
joined the coalition government in 2004 and was successful in
making a separate Telangana state a part of the common minimum
program (CMP) of the coalition government. In September 2006 TRS
withdrew support for the Congress led coalition government at the
centre on the grounds of indecision by the government over the
delivery of its electoral promise to create Telangana.
In December 2006, the TRS won the by-election to the Karimnagar
parliamentary constituency, which is considered by many as a
referendum on a Telangana state, with a record margin.
There was lot of pressure on the Congress party to create a
Telangana state in 2008.
All TRS legislators in Parliament and in State (4MPs, 16MLAs,
3MLCs) resigned in the 1st week of March 2008 and forced
by-elections which can be viewed as a referendum on a Telangana
state, to increase the pressure on Congress party, and to intensify
By-elections for the 16 MLA seats, 4 MP seats were held May 29,
2008. During the election campaign the TRS party said it is a
referendum on a Telangana state but both Congress and TDP parties
said it is not a referendum on Telangana and also said that they
are not opposed to the formation of Telangana state.To the
disappointment of Telangana proponents TRS retained only 7 out of
16 MLA seats and 2 out of 4 MP seats after the
by-elections.Telangana proponents are also happy that all major
parties in the state said that they are not opposed to the
formation of separate Telangana state.
In June 2008, Devender Goud, who is considered number two in the
TDP, a politbureau member and Deputy Leader of the Telugu Desam
Legislature Party, resigned from the party saying he would devote
his time and energy to the formation of a separate Telangana state.
In July 2008, Mr Goud along with some other leaders like Mr. E
Peddi Reddy formed a new party called Nava Telangana Praja Party
On 9 October 2008, in a historical turnaround from its 26-year
history TDP announced its support for the creation of
Symbolic declaration of statehood
The Nava Telangana Party
by the former home minister of Andhra Pradesh, T Devender Goud
, declared Telangana as a
separate province within India on November 2, 2008. Konda Laxman Bapuji
announced that "We
solemnly declare statehood for Telangana on November 2, 2008." Goud
released ten pigeons
in the air symbolising
the ten districts of the region, while he also unfurled the
national flag on the occasion. Along with his party activists he
was later arrested when they tried to barge into the Andhra Pradesh
Secretariat to change the name plate -— from Andhra Pradesh to
Telangana. A scuffle then followed between the police and the NTP
workers before the party workers were taken to the Chikkadapalli
police station. Other NTP workers soon descended on the scene and
staged a dharna
to protest against the arrest.
2009 and later
Ahead of the 2009 General Elections in India all the major parties
in AP supported Telangana state.
Congress still says it is committed to Telangana statehood. But it
does not have convincing answer when it asked why it could not
create Telangana state in last 5 years. Also it claims Muslim
minorities are opposed to creation of separate state along with
TDP promised to work for Telangana statehood. TRS joined the
Mahakutami(or grand alliance) with TDP and left parties to defeat
congress party for cheating Telangana people on statehood.
Praja Rajyam Party(PRP), newly founded by film star Chiranjeevi,
too supports Telangana statehood. NTP merged with PRP after it
realized that there is not enough political space for two
sub-regional Telangana parties with Telananga statehood as main
The BJP again announced their policy of having smaller states and
will create 2 more states Telangana and Gorkhaland
if they win the election. They also
said that smaller states are better governed and developed.
All political parties, including some Telangana congress leaders,
criticized Chief Minister YSR, when he changed his stand from
pro-Telangana and gave anti-Telangana statements right after the
polls to Telagana ended.
Congress returned to power both at center and state. TRS and grand
alliance lost the elections.
Trouble breaks out at several places in Telangana on Nov 29, 2009
after the arrest of TRS president K. Chandrasekhar Rao ahead of his
proposed indefinite hunger strike in Siddipet.
KCR continued his fast in jail. Several people self immolated, hanged themselves to protest his arrest. Goverment gave saline by force to end his fast after 36hours.
Of the three regions of the state, Telangana has the largest area,
with 1,14,800 km2
.The Telangana plateau is composed
Gneissic rocks and drained by
rivers. The entire region is divided into
two main regions namely ghats and peneplains. The surface is dotted
with low depressions.
Telangana region Andhra Pradesh is situated in the central stretch
of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. Deccan plateau is situated at a high altitude in an up-land
The river Godavari is flowing on the North and the
river Krishna is flowing on the South. Apart from the major rivers,
there are other small rivers such as Bhima
, and Peddavagu
Culture and Identity
Centuries of independent existence has given Telangana its own
distinctive culture and identity. The Telugu language
spoken here has evolved into
a new dialect with a liberal mixture of words from Urdu
(Bakr Eid), Dassera
prominent festivals in Telangana. The region celebrates distinctive
festivals like Bathukamma
, and Bonalu
. The other festivals, such as, Deepawali,
Holi, Moharram and Vinayaka chaturthi are also celebrated with
equal enthusiasm as in northern India. The national festival
Sankranti is also celebrated in the beginning of harvest season on
14 January every year.
Places of interest
Osman Sagar, Gandipet Lake
- Charminar - a major landmark in Hyderabad with four graceful
- Falaknuma Palace - Built by Nawab Viqar al-Umra', a beautiful and
stunning piece of architecture.
- Golconda Fort - located on the
outskirts of the city, Golconda Fort is one of the most magnificent
fortress complexes in India.
- Salar Jung Museum - houses the largest one-man collection of antiques
in the world.
- Makkah Masjid - a stone-built mosque, to the southwest of
- Birla Planetarium - located in
the heart of the city on the panoramic hillock of Nawbat
- Husain Sagar - man-made lake that separates the twin cities of
Hyderabad and Secunderabad.
- Durgam Cheruvu - A beautiful lake
near HI-TEC city.
- Chilkur Balaji Temple,
also known as Visa Balaji Temple
- Osman Sagar, also known as Gandipet, is a lake near the
- Purani Haveli - The official residence of the Nizam.
- Sanghi Temple - A temple dedicated
to Lord Venkateshwara graces a promontory overlooking Sanghi
- Birla Temple - A temple dedicated to Lord Venkateshwara(Lord
- Mahankali Temple - A temple located near Secunderabad Railway
station, Famous for Bonalu Fest in Hyderabad.
- Snow World - An amusement park which enables citizens of this
tropical city to experience very low temperatures and snow
- Madhapur - Home to the IT world of Hyderabad.
sagar on krishna river in Nalgonda district
project on Godavari river in
- Beechupally (Sri Anjaneya Swamy
- Alampoor (one of the eighteen
- Warangal, capital city of Kakatiyas
- Warangal Fort, Built by Kakatiyas
between 11-12th centuries
- Bhadrakali Temple, and Thousand Pillared Temples, These two
temples built by Kakatiyas are visited by People from all over
- Warangal - Ramappa
Temple, Famous for its brilliant Kakatiya art
- Warangal - Pakhal Lake, A
man-made lake built in 1213 by the Kakatiya king, Ganapathideva, by
harnessing a small tributary of the Krishna River. It is located
50 km from Warangal and spreads over an area of
- Basara Saraswathi Temple, a temple of Saraswati, one of the two temples in
forests and Wildlife Sanctuaries: Pakhala, Eturunagaram,
Pranahitha, Kinnerasani, kawal, Pocharam
- Anathagiri Forest - Famous for
Sri Anantha Padmanabha Swamy located on Ananthagiri Hills Temple
website (Vikarabad - 70 km from Hyderabad)
- Medak: Famous for
out standing church & Medak khila
- Pillala Marri: A big tree which is
spread across 5 acres in Mahaboob Nagar district
- Bhadrachalam: Famous for Lord Rama Temple
- Yadagirigutta: Famous Laxmi
Narasimha Swamy Temple, 50 km from Hyderabad (Wgl-Hyd
- Kaleshwaram : 130 km from
- Dharmapuri : On the banks of River Godavari, 78 km from
Karimnagar, is the 15th century temple town of
- Nagunur Fort : The village of
Nagunur is just about 8 km from Karimnagar Town.
- Dhulikatta : 20 km from
Karimnagar is Dhulikatta an important Buddhist spot visited by
monks from all over the world.
- Kondagattu :About 35 km from
Karimnagar is this breathtaking temple of Lord Anjaneya Swamy.
Apart from the temple, the fort of Kondalaraya & Bojjapotana
caves are worth seeing at Kondagattu.
- Molangoor Quilla : 30 km
from Karimnagar, strategically located on summit of a big isolated
granite hill, this fort was built by the Kakathiyas.
- Manthani : is an extremely ancient center for Vedic
teachings. It is located on the banks of River Godavari, and
at a distance of 70 kilometers from Karimnagar.
- Vemulawada - Rajarajeshawara Temple:
Located 38 km from Karimnagar
- Uma Maheshwaram - About
120 km from Hyderabad on Srisailam highway. It is the North
Entrance for Sri Sailam Mallikarjuna swamy temple. It is famous for
its shiva temple.
- Gadwal Fort, Gadwal is built around
a fort built by the Gadwal ruler somanadri
from Hyderabad to warngal highway Nalagonda Distic Aluru Mandal
kolanpak village in this village famous Jain temple &
someshwara swamy temples are there.
- TDP announces support to creation of Telangana
- Why it is Telangana that holds the key?
- Congress: Grand Alliance has no credibility on
- Telangana: Problems within Congress
- Minorities opposed to creation of Telangana: YSR
- YSR using minority card to stop Telangana
- TDP promise T-State
- CPI for T-State
- Vote out Congress: KCR
- NTP merges with PRP
- PRP for T-state
- The Hindu article on BJP's desire to create smaller
- YSR provoking rayalaseema people against Telangana after
first phase of elections'09(youtube video in telugu)
- YSR asks voters to be wary of TRS
- YSR’s remarks on Telangana touch off political
- 2009 Poll results: Striking show by Congress in all
- KCR arrest ahead of his proposed indefinite hunger
- Government forcibly administers saline to end KCR's
Telangana advisory - information - strong support web