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The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was a military conflict between Mexicomarker and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas. The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836. However, a war at sea between Mexico and Texas would continue into the 1840s. Animosity between the Mexican government and the Americanmarker settlers in Texas (who were called Texians), as well as many Tejas residents of Mexican ancestry, began with the Siete Leyes of 1835, when Mexican President and General Antonio López de Santa Anna abolished the Constitution of 1824 and proclaimed a new anti-federalist constitution in its place. The new laws were unpopular throughout Mexico, leading to violence in several states. War began in Texas on October 2, 1835, with the Battle of Gonzales. Early Texian successes at La Bahiamarker and San Antoniomarker were soon met with crushing defeat at the same locations a few months later.

The war ended at the Battle of San Jacintomarker where General Sam Houston led the Texian Army to victory in 18 minutes over a portion of the Mexican Army under Santa Anna, who was captured shortly after the battle. The conclusion of the war resulted in the creation of the Republic of Texas.

Background

The Mexican War for Independence severed control that Spainmarker had exercised on its North American territories, and the new country of Mexicomarker was formed from much of the individual territory that had comprised New Spain. On October 4, 1824, Mexico adopted a new constitution which defined the country as a federal republic with nineteen states and four territories. The former province of Spanish Texas became part of a newly created state, Coahuila y Tejas, whose capital was at Saltillomarker, hundreds of miles from the former Texas capital, San Antonio de Bexarmarker (now San Antonio, Texas).

The new country emerged from the war essentially bankrupt. With little money for the military, Mexico encouraged settlers to create their own militias for protection against hostile Indian tribes. Texas was very sparsely populated, and in the hope that an influx of settlers could control the Indian raids, the government liberalized immigration policies for the region. The first group of colonists, known as the Old Three Hundred, arrived in 1822 to settle an empresarial grant that had been given to Stephen F. Austin. Of the 24 empresarios, only one settled citizens from within the Mexican interior; most of the remaining settlers came from the United States.

The Mexican-born settlers in Texas were soon vastly outnumbered by people born in the United States. To address this situation, President Anastasio Bustamante implemented several measures on April 6, 1830. Chief among these was a prohibition against further immigration to Texas from the United States, although American citizens would be allowed to settle in other parts of Mexico. Furthermore, the property tax law, intended to exempt immigrants from paying taxes for ten years, was rescinded, and tariffs were increased on goods shipped from the United States. Bustamante also ordered Texas settlers to comply with the federal prohibition against slavery or face military intervention. These measures did not have the intended effect. Settlers simply circumvented or ignored the laws. By 1834, it was estimated that over 30,000 Anglos (short for anglophones, people whose first language is English) lived in Texas, compared to only 7,800 Mexican-born citizens. By 1836, there were approximately 5,000 slaves in Texas.
Texians were becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Mexican government. Many of the Mexican soldiers garrisoned in Texas were convicted criminals who were given the choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas. Many Texians were also unhappy with the location of their state capital, which moved periodically between Saltillomarker and Monclovamarker, both of which were in southern Coahuilamarker, some away; they wanted Texas to be a separate state from Coahuila (but not independent from Mexico) and to have its own capital.

They believed a closer location for the capital would help to stem corruption and facilitate other matters of government. Some American immigrants and Mexican citizens were accustomed to the rights they had in the U.S. that they did not have in Mexico. For example, Mexico did not protect Freedom of Religion, instead requiring colonists to pledge their acceptance of Roman Catholicism; Mexican Law required a tithe paid to the Catholic Church .

Cotton was in high demand throughout Europe and most settlers wanted to raise cotton for big profits. But Mexico demanded that the settlers produce corn, grain and beef, dictating which crops each settler would plant and harvest.

In the Mexican interior, violence began to erupt between those who supported federalism and those who wanted a centralized government. Texians continued to lobby to overturn the laws of 1830. In April 1833, settlers called a convention to discuss proposed changes in immigration, judicial, and other political policies. The delegates also advocated separate statehood for Texas and elected Austin to carry a proposed state constitution to Mexico City. The new Mexican President, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, approved many of the proposals, but refused to agree to separate statehood; Austin was jailed when he wrote a letter advocating that Texians act unilaterally on statehood.

The number of American immigrants entering Texas quickly escalated. Santa Anna believed that the influx of American immigrants to Texas was part of a plot by the U.S. to take over the region. In 1834, because of perceived troubles within the Mexican government, Santa Anna went through a process of dissolving state legislatures, disarming state militias, and abolishing the Constitution of 1824. He also imprisoned some cotton plantation owners who refused to raise their assigned crops, which were intended to be redistributed within Mexico instead of being exported. These actions triggered outrage throughout Mexico.

Mexican preparation

In early 1835, as the Mexican government transitioned from a federalist model to centralism, wary colonists in Texas began forming Committees of Correspondence and Safety. A central committee in San Felipe de Austinmarker coordinated their activities. The Texians staged a minor revolt against customs duties in June; these Anahuac Disturbances prompted Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna to send additional troops to Texas. In July, Colonel Nicolas Condelle led 200 men to reinforce Presidio La Bahíamarker. The following month, a contingent of soldiers arrived in Béxar with Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea. Fearing that stronger measures were needed to quell the unrest, Santa Anna ordered his brother-in-law, General Martín Perfecto de Cos to "repress with strong arm all those who, forgetting their duties to the nation which has adopted them as her children, are pushing forward with a desire to live at their own option without subjection to the laws". Cos landed at Copano Baymarker on September 20 with approximately 500 soldiers.

Austin was released in July, having never been formally charged with sedition, and was in Texas by August. Austin saw little choice but revolution. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt, and Austin sanctioned it.

Texian offensive

Digital reproduction of the Come and Take It flag.


Before the consultation could happen, however, in accordance with Santa Anna’s nationwide call to disarm state militias, Colonel Domingo Ugartechea, who was stationed in San Antonio, ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. The Texians refused. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe Rivermarker near Gonzales, there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. Unable to cross, Castañeda established a camp, and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. The Texians stalled for several days until reinforcements arrived. Texians attacked early on October 2, 1835. The Battle of Gonzales ended with a Mexican withdrawal. Only one Texian was injured when he fell off his horse during the skirmish.

After learning of the Texian victory, Cos made haste for Béxar. He left with the bulk of his soldiers on October 5, but because he was unable to find adequate transportation, most of his supplies remained at La Bahía. Unaware of Cos's departure, on October 6 Texians in Matagorda decided to march on the Mexican garrison at Presidio La Bahíamarker in Goliad. They intended to kidnap Cos and, if possible, steal the estimated $50,000 that was rumored to accompany him. On October 10, the Texians stormed the presidio, and the Mexican garrison surrendered after a 30-minute battle. One Texian was wounded, and estimates of Mexican casualties range from one to three soldiers killed and from three to seven wounded. Approximately 20 soldiers escaped. They warned the garrisons at Copano and Refugiomarker of the advancing Texians; those garrisons abandoned their posts and joined the soldiers at Fort Lipantitlán, near San Patriciomarker.

The Texians confiscated over $10,000 in food, blankets, clothing, and other provisions. For the next three months, the provisions were parceled out among companies in the Texian Army. Over the next several days, Texians continued to gather at La Bahia. Austin ordered that 100 men remain at Goliad, under the command of Captain Philip Dimmitt, while the rest should join the Texian Army in marching on Cos's troops in Béxar. Within days of his appointment, Dimmitt began advocating for an attack on Fort Lipantitlán. Dimmitt believed that Texian control of Fort Lipantitlán would "secure the frontier, provide a vital station for defense, create instability among the centralists, and encourage Mexican federalists". The Mexican soldiers at Fort Lipantitlán intimidated the settlers in San Patricio, leaving them afraid to openly support the federalists who defied Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna.

On October 31, Dimmitt sent a group of men under Adjutant Ira Westover to take the fort. They arrived at Fort Lipantitlán late on November 3 and took the undermanned fort without firing a shot. The next day, the Texians dismantled the fort. As they prepared to return to Goliad, the remainder of the Mexican garrison, who had been out on patrol, approached. The Battle of Lipantitlánmarker lasted only 30 minutes, and resulted in the retreat of the Mexican soldiers. Their departure left only one remaining group of Mexican soldiers in Texas, those under Cos at Béxar. The Texians controlled the Gulf Coast, so all communication with the Mexican interior would now be transferred overland. The long journey left Cos unable to quickly request or receive reinforcements or supplies.

Siege of Bexar

While Dimmitt supervised the Texian forces along the Gulf Coast, Stephen F. Austin worked to organize the men gathered in Gonzales into a cohesive army. On October 13, Austin led the newly formed Texian Army toward Bexar to engage Cos and his troops. One week later, the men reached Salado Creek and initiated a siege of Bexar. The Texians gradually moved their camp nearer Bexar, and on October 27 had made camp at Mission San Francisco de la Espada. That afternoon Austin sent James Bowie and James Fannin with a contingent of men to find a closer campsite. The men realized that Mission Concepciónmarker was a good defensive spot. Rather than return immediately to Austin, as their orders specified, Bowie and Fannin instead sent a courier to bring Austin directions to Concepción. The next day, an angry Austin issued a statement threatening officers who chose not to follow orders with court-martial.

Cos had learned that the Texian army was temporarily divided and sent Ugartechea and troops to engage Bowie and Fannin's men. The ensuing Battle of Concepciónmarker, which historian J.R. Edmondson describes as "the first major engagement of the Texas Revolution", was the last offensive against the Texians that Cos would order. Although historian Alwyn Barr believed that the battle "should have taught ... lessons on Mexican courage and the value of a good defensive position", historian Stephen Hardin believes that "the relative ease of the victory at Concepción instilled in the Texians a reliance on their long rifles and a contempt for their enemies".

The Texian volunteers had little or no experience as professional soldiers, and by early November many had begun to miss their homes. As the weather turned colder and rations grew smaller, many soldiers became sick, and groups of men began to leave, most without permission. On November 18, however, a group of volunteers from the United States, known as the New Orleans Greys, joined the Texian Army. Unlike the majority of the Texian volunteers, the Greys looked like soldiers, with uniforms, well-maintained rifles, adequate ammunition, and some semblance of discipline. The Greys, as well several companies of Texians who had arrived recently, were eager to face the Mexican Army directly. The Texian volunteers, however, were becoming discouraged with the siege. Within days Austin resigned his command to become a commissioner to the United States; Texians elected Edward Burleson as their new commander.

On November 26, Burleson received word that a Mexican pack train of mules and horses, accompanied by 50–100 Mexican soldiers, was within of Bexar. After a near mutiny, Burleson sent Bowie and William H. Jack with cavalry and infantry to intercept the supplies. In the subsequent skirmish, the Mexican forces were forced to retreat to San Antonio, leaving their cargo behind. To the disappointment of the Texians, the saddlebags contained only fodder for the horses; for this reason the battle was later known as the Grass Fight.

Although the victory briefly uplifted the Texian troops, morale continued to fall as the weather turned colder and the men grew bored. Burleson proposed that the army lift the siege and retreat to Goliad until spring. His war council was ambivalent until Colonel Ben Milam stood up and yelled "Who will go with old Ben Milam into San Antonio?" Several hundred soldiers, including the New Orleans Greys, agreed to participate in the attack, which commenced on December 5. Milam and Colonel Frank W. Johnson led two columns of men into the city, and for the next few days they fought their way from house to house towards the fortified plazas where the Mexican soldiers waited. Milam was killed by a sharpshooter on December 7.

On December 9, Cos and the bulk of his men withdrew into the Alamo Missionmarker on the outskirts of Bexar. Cos presented a plan for a counterattack; cavalry officers believed that they would be surrounded by Texians and refused their orders. Possibly 175–soldiers from four of the cavalry companies left the mission and rode south. Sanchez Navarro said the troops were not deserting but misunderstood their orders and were withdrawing all the way to the Rio Grandemarker. The following morning, Cos called Sanchez Navarro to the Alamo and gave him orders to "go save those brave men. ... Approach the enemy and obtain the best terms possible". On December 11, the Texians officially accepted Cos's surrender.

Under the terms of the surrender, Cos and his men would leave Texas and no longer fight against the Constitution of 1824. With his departure, there was no longer an organized garrison of Mexican troops in Texas, and many of the Texians believed that the war was over. Johnson described the battle as "the period put to our present war". Burleson resigned his leadership of the army on December 15 and returned to his home. Many of the men did likewise, and Johnson assumed command of the 400 soldiers who remained. Soon after, a new contingent of Texians and volunteers from the United States arrived with more heavy artillery. According to Barr, the large number of American volunteers "contributed to the Mexican view that Texian opposition stemmed from outside influences".

Within several weeks of the Mexican surrender, Johnson and Dr. James Grant enticed 300 of the Texians to join them in preparing to invade Mexico, leaving Colonel James C. Neill to oversee the remaining 100 soldiers garrisoned at the Alamo. Although the Matamoros Expedition, as it came to be known, was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico, nothing came of it. On November 6, 1835, the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleansmarker, intending to capture the town from the Centralists. The expedition failed. These independent missions drained the Texian movement of supplies and men.

Provisional government

In Gonzales, the consultation scheduled for the month before finally got underway after enough delegates from the colonies arrived to signify a quorum. After bitter debate, they finally created a provisional government that was not to be separate from Mexico but only to oppose the Centralists. They elected Henry Smith as governor and Sam Houston was appointed commander-in-chief of the regular Army of Texas. There was no regular army yet; Austin’s army was all volunteers, so Houston would have to build one. They had more land than money so land was chosen as an incentive to join the army; extra land would be given to those who enlisted as regulars and not as volunteers. The provisional government commissioned privateers and established a postal system. A merchant was sent to the U.S. to borrow $100,000. They ordered hundreds of copies of various military textbooks. They gave Austin the option to step down as commander of the army in Béxar and go to the U.S. as a commissioner. On November 24, 1835, Austin stepped down as general. Elections were held, and Colonel Edward Burleson became Austin’s successor.

Santa Anna's offensive

Army of Operations

As early as October 27, Santa Anna had been making plans to quell the unrest in Texas. He stepped down from his duties as president to lead what he dubbed the Army of Operations in Texas, which would relieve Cos and put an end to the Texian revolt. Santa Anna and his soldiers believed that the Texians would be quickly cowed. The Mexican Secretary of War, José María Tornel, wrote: "The superiority of the Mexican soldier over the mountaineers of Kentucky and the hunters of Missouri is well known. Veterans seasoned by 20 years of wars can't be intimidated by the presence of an army ignorant of the art of war, incapable of discipline, and renowned for insubordination."

The units comprising the Army of Operations were generally operating at under full strength, and many of the men were raw recruits. A majority of the troops had been conscripted or were convicts who agreed to serve in the military instead of jail. The Mexican officers knew that the Brown Bess muskets they carried lacked the range of the Texian weapons, but Santa Anna was convinced that his superior planning would nonetheless result in an easy victory. As part of his preparations, Santa Anna orchestrated a warning to the American citizens who were flocking to Texas. At his behest, the Mexican Congress passed a resolution stating:
Foreigners landing on the coast of the Republic or invading its territory by land, armed, and with the intent of attacking our country, will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag.

All foreigners who shall import, by either sea or land, in the places occupied by the rebels, either arms or ammunition or any kind for their use, will be deemed pirates and punished as such.
In this time period, captured pirates were executed immediately. The resolution thus gave the Mexican Army permission to take no prisoners in the war against the Texians. Santa Anna also sent a strongly worded letter to Andrew Jackson, the United States president, warning that any Americans found fighting the Mexican government would be treated as pirates. The letter was not widely distributed, and it is unlikely that most of the American recruits serving in the Texian Army were aware of that there would be no prisoners of war.

By December 1835 6,019 soldiers had gathered at San Luis Potosimarker to march into Texas. Several of Santa Anna's officers argued that the Army of Operations should advance along the coast, so that they would be able to receive additional supplies via sea. Instead, Santa Anna ordered the army inland to Bexar, the political center of Texas and the site of Cos's defeat; Santa Anna wanted to restore the reputation of his family after his brother-in-law's embarrassing surrender. The long march would also provide an opportunity to train the new recruits. In late December, the army began the march north.

Progress was slow. There were not enough mules to transport all of the supplies, and many of the teamsters, all civilians, quit when their pay was delayed. The large number of soldaderas–women and children who followed the army–reduced the already scarce supplies. The soldiers were soon reduced to partial rations. After reaching Saltillo, the army halted for two weeks so that Santa Anna could recover from an illness. Officers took advantage of the break to train the men. Many of the new recruits did not know how to use the sights of their guns, and many refused to fire from the shoulder because of the large recoil. The march into Texas resumed on January 26, and the army crossed the Rio Grandemarker on February 12.

Temperatures in Texas reached record lows, and by February 13 an estimated of snow had fallen. A large number of the new recruits were from the tropical climate of the Yucatánmarker, and some of them died of hypothermia. Others contracted dysentery. Soldiers who fell behind were sometimes killed by Comanche raiding parties. Nevertheless, the army continued to march toward Bexar. As they progressed, settlers in their path in South Texas evacuated northward. The Mexican army ransacked and occasionally burned the vacant homes.

Goliad campaign

General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros, making his way north following the coast of Texas, thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. After surprising Colonel Frank Johnson and his troops at the Battle of San Patricio, Urrea's forces defeated a small Texian force at the Battle of Agua Dulcemarker on March 2, 1836. Urrea then led his troops toward Goliad, where Colonel James Fannin commanded the only Texian Army troops outside the Alamo.

Fannin delayed his retreat, and his force of about 300 men was caught on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. Overnight, Urrea's forces surrounded the Texians, brought up cannon and reinforcements, and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day, March 20. About 342 of the Texian troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday, March 27, 1836, under Santa Anna's direct orders, widely known as the Goliad Massacre.

According to Harbert Davenport, "The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man, rather than a cruel one...together with the fall of the Alamo, branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas, the United States, and even Great Britain and France, thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution."

Alamo

The Alamo
The Mexican Army arrived in San Antonio on February 23. The Texian garrison was completely unprepared for the arrival of the Mexican army and had to quickly gather food from the town to supply the Alamo. By late afternoon Bexar was occupied by about 1500 Mexican troops, who quickly raised a blood-red flag signifying no quarter. For the next thirteen days, the Mexican army besieged the Alamo. Although there were several small skirmishes, they had little real impact. In the early hours of March 6, the Mexican army attacked the fort in what became known as the Battle of the Alamomarker. Almost all of the Texian defenders, estimated at 182–257 men, were killed, including James Bowie, Davy Crockett and William B. Travis. Most Alamo historians agree that 400–600 Mexicans were killed or wounded. This would represent about one-third of the Mexican soldiers involved in the final assault, which Todish remarks is "a tremendous casualty rate by any standards".

Soon, Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texian Army, now led by General Sam Houston.

Meeting of two armies

A map of Mexico, 1835-1846.

Texian retreat: "The Runaway Scrape"

Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. The Mexican cavalry, experienced and feared, was something the Texians could not easily defeat. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds, Houston ordered a retreat towards the U.S. border, and many settlers also fled in the same direction. There is speculation that one of the possible scenarios Houston envisioned was to actually lead his Texian army into Louisiana (U.S. territory), whereupon an invading Mexican army could be attacked not only by the retreating Texian army but also by American forces summoned from garrisons in New Orleans. That Sam Houston was an old friend of then U.S. president Andrew Jackson, and possibly had some communication during this crucial period, and Stephen F. Austin was in New Orleans during this time, lend a measure of credence to such speculation. On its way toward Louisiana, the Texian army implemented a scorched earth policy, denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. Soon, the rains made the roads impassable, and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies.

Santa Anna's army, always on the heels of Houston, gave unrelenting chase. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries, so it was put to the torch. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men, and much animosity was aimed towards him. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers, which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army.

Santa Anna defeated

Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column and race quickly towards Galvestonmarker, where members of the Provisional Government had fled. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders, and put an end to the war, which had proven costly and prolonged. Santa Anna, as dictator of Mexico, felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. Numbering about 700, Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg, Texas. Without Houston's consent, and tired of running away, the Texian army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. Houston could do nothing but follow. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war.
The painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Huddle shows the Mexican president and general surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston
On April 20, both armies met at the San Jacinto River. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass, which the Texians used as cover. Santa Anna, elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him, waited for reinforcements, which were led by General Cos. On that same day, a skirmish was fought between the enemies, mostly cavalry, but nothing came of it.

To the dismay of the Texians, Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops, swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1,200 men. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indecisiveness, the Texian Army decided to make an attack. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21, after burning Vince's Bridge, the Texians surged forward, catching the Mexican army by surprise. Hours before the attack, Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down, noting that the Texians would not attack his superior force. Also, his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. An 18-minute-long battle ensued, but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued.

Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle, Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant, immortalized as The Yellow Rose of Texas.

Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texians; only nine Texians died. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico.

Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge, and he was brought before Houston, who had been wounded in the ankle. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. General Vicente Filisola, noting the state of his tired and hungry army, marched back to Mexico, but not without protests from Urrea. Santa Anna was forced to sign two treaties, a public treaty and a private stating the exchange of prisoners and to never fight the Texians again. Only Santa Anna had been defeated, not the Army of Operations, and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue, but Filisola disagreed.

Aftermath

With Santa Anna a prisoner, his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco on May 14. The treaty recognized Texas's independence and guaranteed Santa Anna's life. The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace, Santa Anna was sent to Washington, D.C.marker, by the Texas government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. But unknown to Santa Anna, the Mexican government deposed him in absentia; thus, he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico. The Treaty of Velasco was never ratified in Mexico, from the end of the revolution to roughly the beginning of the Mexican-American War, the Texas navy was tasked with forcing the Mexican Government to accept Texas independence. Although fighting between the Mexican and Texian armies ceased, battles on water and on the coast were still unfolding. Such as the Battle of Brazos River, Battle of Galveston Harbor and the Naval Battle of Campeche.

Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838. He was re-elected President, and soon after, he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll into Texas, occupying San Antonio, but briefly. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward.The war between Texas and Mexico did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846.

Sam Houston's victory at San Jacinto would earn him the presidency of Republic of Texas. He later became a U.S. senator and governor of Texas. Stephen F. Austin, after a lost bid for Texas's presidency in 1836, was appointed Secretary of State but died shortly thereafter. Sam Houston eulogized Austin as the "Father of Texas". Later during the American Civil War, many Texans considered Houston the "Traitor to the Republic" for his efforts to keep Texas from seceding from the Union and his refusal to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederate States.

See also



Notes

  1. Manchaca (2001), p. 161.
  2. Manchaca (2001), p. 162.
  3. Edmondson (2000), p. 72.
  4. In the early 1820s, approximately 3500 people lived in Texas, mostly congregated at San Antonio and La Bahia. Edmondson (2000), p. 75.
  5. Manchaca (2001), p. 164.
  6. Manchaca (2001), pp. 198–9.
  7. Manchaca (2001), p. 200.
  8. Manchaca (2001), p. 201.
  9. Manchaca (2001), p. 172.
  10. Barr (1996), p. 17.
  11. Lack (1992), p. 7.
  12. Huson (1974), p. 4.
  13. Roell (1994), p. 36.
  14. Huson (1974), p. 5.
  15. Roell (1994), p. 36.
  16. Huson (1974), p. 5.
  17. Hardin (1994), p. 14.
  18. Hardin (1994), p. 16.
  19. Hardin (1994), p. 17.
  20. Scott (2000), p. 21.
  21. Scott (2000), p. 20.
  22. Huson (1974), p. 17.
  23. Hardin (1994), p. 41.
  24. Roell (1994), p. 42.
  25. Hardin (1994), p. 42.
  26. Hardin (1994), p. 44.
  27. Groneman (1998), p. 36.
  28. Huson (1974), p. 102.
  29. Hardin (1994), p. 46.
  30. Groneman (1998), p. 37.
  31. Hardin (1994), p. 53.
  32. Barr (1990), p. 6.
  33. Barr (1990), p. 15.
  34. Barr (1990), p. 19.
  35. Barr (1990), p. 22.
  36. Barr (1990), p. 23.
  37. Edmondson (2000), p. 224.
  38. Barr (1990), p. 27.
  39. Barr (1990), p. 60.
  40. Hardin (1994), p. 35.
  41. Barr (1990), p. 29.
  42. Barr (1990),p. 35.
  43. Hardin (1994), p. 60.
  44. Barr (1990), p. 38.
  45. Hardin (1994), p. 61.
  46. Hardin (1994), p. 62.
  47. Barr (1990), p. 39.
  48. Hardin (1994), p. 64.
  49. Edmondson (2000), p. 237.
  50. Edmondson (2000), p. 238.
  51. Barr (1990), p. 55.
  52. Todish et al. (1998), p. 26.
  53. Barr (1990), p. 56.
  54. Barr (1990), p. 57.
  55. Barr (1990), p. 58.
  56. Barr (1990), p. 64.
  57. Hardin (1994), p. 91.
  58. Barr (1990), p. 63.
  59. Todish et al. (1998), p. 29.
  60. Hardin (1994), p. 98.
  61. Hardin (1994), p. 99.
  62. Todish et al. (1998), p. 20.
  63. Scott (2000), p. 73.
  64. Scott (2000), p. 71.
  65. Scott (2000), p. 74.
  66. Scott (2000), p. 75.
  67. Hardin (1994), p. 103.
  68. Hardin (1994), p. 102.
  69. Lord (1961), p. 67.
  70. Lord (1961), p. 68.
  71. Lord (1961), p. 73.
  72. Hardin (1994), p. 105.
  73. Scott (2000), p. 77.
  74. Harbert Davenport, "Men of Goliad", Volume 43, Number 1, Southwestern Historical Quarterly Online (Accessed Tue October 31, 2006)
  75. Edmondson (2000), pp. 299, 301.
  76. Nofi (1992), p. 78.
  77. Todish et al. (1998), p. 40.
  78. Todish et al. (1998), p. 42–3.
  79. Edmondson (2000), p. 325.
  80. Hardin (1994), p. 138.
  81. Brigido Guerrero convinced the Mexican army he had been imprisoned by the Texians. Joe, the slave of Alamo commander William B. Travis, was spared because he was a slave. Some historians also believe that Henry Warnell escaped during the battle, although he may have been a courier who left before the battle began. He died several months after the battle of wounds incurred during his escape. See Edmondson (2000), pp. 372, 407.
  82. Nofi (1992), p. 133.
  83. Hardin (1961), p. 155.
  84. Nofi (1992), p. 136.
  85. Todish et al. (1998), p. 55.


Footnotes

  1. Manchaca (2001), p. 161.
  2. Manchaca (2001), p. 162.
  3. Edmondson (2000), p. 72.
  4. In the early 1820s, approximately 3500 people lived in Texas, mostly congregated at San Antonio and La Bahia. Edmondson (2000), p. 75.
  5. Manchaca (2001), p. 164.
  6. Manchaca (2001), pp. 198–9.
  7. Manchaca (2001), p. 200.
  8. Manchaca (2001), p. 201.
  9. Manchaca (2001), p. 172.
  10. Barr (1996), p. 17.
  11. Lack (1992), p. 7.
  12. Huson (1974), p. 4.
  13. Roell (1994), p. 36.
  14. Huson (1974), p. 5.
  15. Roell (1994), p. 36.
  16. Huson (1974), p. 5.
  17. Hardin (1994), p. 14.
  18. Hardin (1994), p. 16.
  19. Hardin (1994), p. 17.
  20. Scott (2000), p. 21.
  21. Scott (2000), p. 20.
  22. Huson (1974), p. 17.
  23. Hardin (1994), p. 41.
  24. Roell (1994), p. 42.
  25. Hardin (1994), p. 42.
  26. Hardin (1994), p. 44.
  27. Groneman (1998), p. 36.
  28. Huson (1974), p. 102.
  29. Hardin (1994), p. 46.
  30. Groneman (1998), p. 37.
  31. Hardin (1994), p. 53.
  32. Barr (1990), p. 6.
  33. Barr (1990), p. 15.
  34. Barr (1990), p. 19.
  35. Barr (1990), p. 22.
  36. Barr (1990), p. 23.
  37. Edmondson (2000), p. 224.
  38. Barr (1990), p. 27.
  39. Barr (1990), p. 60.
  40. Hardin (1994), p. 35.
  41. Barr (1990), p. 29.
  42. Barr (1990),p. 35.
  43. Hardin (1994), p. 60.
  44. Barr (1990), p. 38.
  45. Hardin (1994), p. 61.
  46. Hardin (1994), p. 62.
  47. Barr (1990), p. 39.
  48. Hardin (1994), p. 64.
  49. Edmondson (2000), p. 237.
  50. Edmondson (2000), p. 238.
  51. Barr (1990), p. 55.
  52. Todish et al. (1998), p. 26.
  53. Barr (1990), p. 56.
  54. Barr (1990), p. 57.
  55. Barr (1990), p. 58.
  56. Barr (1990), p. 64.
  57. Hardin (1994), p. 91.
  58. Barr (1990), p. 63.
  59. Todish et al. (1998), p. 29.
  60. Hardin (1994), p. 98.
  61. Hardin (1994), p. 99.
  62. Todish et al. (1998), p. 20.
  63. Scott (2000), p. 73.
  64. Scott (2000), p. 71.
  65. Scott (2000), p. 74.
  66. Scott (2000), p. 75.
  67. Hardin (1994), p. 103.
  68. Hardin (1994), p. 102.
  69. Lord (1961), p. 67.
  70. Lord (1961), p. 68.
  71. Lord (1961), p. 73.
  72. Hardin (1994), p. 105.
  73. Scott (2000), p. 77.
  74. Harbert Davenport, "Men of Goliad", Volume 43, Number 1, Southwestern Historical Quarterly Online (Accessed Tue October 31, 2006)
  75. Edmondson (2000), pp. 299, 301.
  76. Nofi (1992), p. 78.
  77. Todish et al. (1998), p. 40.
  78. Todish et al. (1998), p. 42–3.
  79. Edmondson (2000), p. 325.
  80. Hardin (1994), p. 138.
  81. Brigido Guerrero convinced the Mexican army he had been imprisoned by the Texians. Joe, the slave of Alamo commander William B. Travis, was spared because he was a slave. Some historians also believe that Henry Warnell escaped during the battle, although he may have been a courier who left before the battle began. He died several months after the battle of wounds incurred during his escape. See Edmondson (2000), pp. 372, 407.
  82. Nofi (1992), p. 133.
  83. Hardin (1961), p. 155.
  84. Nofi (1992), p. 136.
  85. Todish et al. (1998), p. 55.


References

  • Davis, William C., Lone Star Rising: The Revolutionary Birth of the Texas Republic, Free Press (2004) ISBN 0-684-86510-6
  • Lord, Walter, A Time to Stand,; Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press (1961) ISBN 0-8032-7902-7
  • Nofi, Albert A., The Alamo and The Texas War for Independence, Da Capo Press (1992) ISBN 0-306-81040-9


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