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Texel is a municipality and an island in the Netherlandsmarker, in the province of North Holland. It is the biggest and most populated of the Frisian Islandsmarker in the Wadden Sea, and also the westernmost of this archipelago, which extends to Denmarkmarker. The next island in the archipelago, to the north of Texel, is Vlielandmarker.

The name Texel is Frisian, but because of historical sound-changes in Dutch, where all -x- sounds have been replaced with -s- sounds (compare for instance English Fox, Frisian Fokse, German Fuchs with Dutch Vos), the name is typically pronounced Tessel in Dutch .


The island includes the seven villages De Cocksdorp, De Koog, De Waal, Den Burg, Den Hoorn, Oosterendmarker, and Oudeschildmarker, and the small townships of Bargen, De Nes, Dijkmanshuizen, Driehuizen, Harkebuurt, 't Horntje, Midden-Eierland, Molenbuurt, Nieuweschild, Noorderbuurt, Ongeren, Oost, Spang, Spijkdorp, Tienhoven, Westermient, Zevenhuizen, and Zuid-Eierland.
The Slufter

The municipality also includes the uninhabited sand bar of Noorderhaaksmarker. The island of Texel, which received city rights in 1415, originally was made up of two islands, Texel proper to the south and Eierland to the northwest, which were connected by shoals. In the seventeenth century, the islands were poldered together. Today, Texel forms the largest natural barrier between the North Seamarker and the Wadden Sea.

The dune landscape on Texel is a unique habitat for wildlife. Texel is known for its wildlife, particularly in winter, when birds of prey and geese take up residence. About one third of Texel is a protected nature reserve.


Transport around the island is typically by bicycle, bus [18425] or car. Texel has an extensive cycle path network. Transport to Texel is usually by ferry (Royal TESO), from Den Heldermarker, or by air via Texel International Airportmarker.
Old 1991 Ferry "Schulpengat" from Den Helder to Texel


In the early Middle Ages and before, Texel and Wieringenmarker may have been much bigger and met each other as opposite banks of the Marsdiepmarker, which was then a river with banks of permanent land: see here.

Notable battles involving Texel:

Texel is also famous in military history as the only place that a navy was defeated on horseback. Occupying Holland in January 1795, the French continental army learned that the mighty Dutch navy had been frozen into the ice around Texel Island, so Commandant Louis Joseph Lahure and 128 men simply rode up to it and demanded surrender. No shots were fired.

During the American Revolution Texel was utilized as a haven port for the reeling USS Bonhomme Richard after it had defeated the British ship HMS Serapis of the coast of Flamborough Headmarker in Britain in September 1779. That ship was captained by John Paul Jones. This event further complicated Anglo-Dutch relations.

On the night of 31 August 1940 the sea to the North-West of Texel was the scene of the sinking of two British destroyers and the severe damage of a third by German mines in what became known as the Texel Disaster.


The tourism industry forms a substantial part of the economy in Texel. Approximately 70% of activities on Texel are in some way related to tourism. Popular forms of tourism on Texel include cycling, walking, swimming and horse riding.

Local government

The municipal council of Texel consists of 15 seats, which are divided as follows:

See also

  • Texel A breed of sheep from Texel


External links

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