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Thai seafood curry
Kaeng phet ped yang: roast duck in red curry

Thai cuisine is the national cuisine of Thailandmarker. Thai cuisine places emphasis on lightly-prepared dishes with strong aromatic components. Thai cuisine is known for being spicy. Balance, detail and variety are important to Thai cooking. Thai food is known for its balance of five fundamental flavors in each dish or the overall meal: hot (spicy), sour, sweet, salty, and (optional) bitter.


Although popularly considered a single cuisine, Thai food would be more accurately described as four regional cuisines corresponding to the four main regions of the country: Northernmarker, Northeastern (or Isanmarker), Centralmarker, and Southern, each cuisine sharing similar foods or foods derived from those of neighboring countries and regions: Burma, the Chinese province of Yunnan and Laos to the north, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam to the east and Malaysia to the south of Thailand. In addition to these four regional cuisines, there is also the Thai Royal Cuisine which can trace its history back to the palace cuisine of the Ayutthaya kingdom (1351-1767 CE). Its refinement, cooking techniques and its use of ingredients were of great influence to the cuisine of the Central Thai plains.

The culinary traditions and cuisines of Thailand's neighbors have influenced Thai cuisine over many centuries. Regional variations tend to correlate to neighboring states as well as climate and geography. Southern curries tend to contain coconut milk and fresh turmeric, while northeastern dishes often include lime juice. The cuisine of Northeastern (or Isanmarker) Thailand is heavily influenced by Lao cuisine. Many popular dishes eaten in Thailand were originally Chinese dishes which were introduced to Thailand mainly by the Teochew people who make up the majority of the Thai Chinese. Such dishes include chok (rice porridge), kuai tiao rat na (fried rice-noodles) and khao kha mu (stewed pork with rice). The Chinese also introduced the use of a wok for cooking, the technique of deep-frying and stir-frying dishes, and noodles and soy products.


Thai meal in a village temple
Tom yam kung nam khon (Prawn tom yam with coconut milk)
Phrik nam pla is served with nearly every meal
Thai meals typically consist of either a single dish or rice khao ( ) with many complementary dishes served concurrently and shared by all. It is customary to serve more dishes than there are guests at a Thai meal.

Thai food was traditionally eaten with the right hand but it is now generally eaten with a fork and a spoon. The fork, held in the left hand, is used to push food into the spoon. The spoon is then brought to the mouth. A traditional ceramic spoon is sometimes used for soups. Chopsticks are used primarily for the consumption of noodle soups. Knives are not generally used at the table. It is common practice for Thais and hill tribe peoples in the North and in Northeast Thailandmarker to use sticky rice as an edible implement by shaping it into small, and sometimes flattened, balls by hand which are then dipped into side dishes and eaten. Thai-Muslims frequently eat meals with only their right hands.

Thai food is often served with a variety of sauces (nam chim, ) and condiments. These may include phrik nam pla/nam pla phrik (consisting of fish sauce, lime juice, chopped chilies and garlic), dried chili flakes, sweet chili sauce, sliced chili peppers in rice vinegar, sriracha sauce, or a spicy chili sauce or paste called nam phrik. In most Thai restaurants, diners can find a selection of Thai condiments, often including sugar or MSG, available on the dining table in small containers with tiny spoons. With certain dishes, such as khao kha mu (pork trotter stewed in soy sauce and served with rice), whole Thai pepper and raw garlic are served in addition. Cucumber is sometimes eaten to cool the mouth after particularly spicy dishes. They often also feature as a garnish, especially with one-dish meals. The plain rice, sticky rice or the khanom chin (Thai rice noodles) served alongside a spicy curry or stir-fry, tends to counteract the spiciness.

A Thai family meal will normally consist of rice with several dishes which form a harmonious contrast of ingredients and ways of preparation. The dishes are all served at the same time. A meal at a restaurant for four people could, for instance, consist of fish in dry red curry (Chu chi pla), a spicy green papaya salad with dried prawns, tomatoes, yardlong beans and peanuts (Som tam Thai), deep fried stuffed chicken wings (Pik kai sot sai thot), a salad of grilled beef, shallots and celery or mint (Yam nuea yang), spicy stir fried century eggs with crispy basil (Khai yiao ma phat kaphrao krop), and a non-spicy vegetable soup with tofu and seaweed (Tom chuet taohu kap sarai) to temper it all.


Plathu (a kind of mackerel) is often eaten together with nam phrik kapi
Several types of kapi and bags of pla ra sold at a market
Thailand has about the same surface area as Spain and a length of approximately 1700 kilometers or 1000 miles (Italy, in comparison, is about 1200 kilometers or 750 miles long) with foothills of the Himalayas in the north, a high plateau in the northeast, a verdant river basin in the centre and tropical rainforests and islands in the south. And with over 40 distinct ethnic groups with each their own culture and even more languages, it doesn't come as a surprise that Thai cuisine, as a whole, is extremely varied and features many different ingredients and ways of preparing food.Thai food is known for its enthusiastic use of fresh (rather than dried) herbs. Common herbs include cilantro, lemon grass, Thai basils and mint. Some other common flavors in Thai food come from ginger, galangal, turmeric, garlic, soy beans, shallots, white and black peppercorn and, of course, chilies.

Pastes and sauces

The ingredient found in almost all Thai dishes and every region of the country is nam pla ( ), a very aromatic and strong tasting fish sauce. Fish sauce is a staple ingredient in Thai cuisine and imparts a unique character to Thai food. Fish sauce is prepared with fermented fish that is made into a fragrant condiment and provides a salty flavor. There are many varieties of fish sauce and many variations in the way it is prepared. Some fish may be fermented with shrimp and/or spices.

Pla ra ( ) is also a sauce made from fermented fish. It is more pungent than nam pla, and, in contrast to nam pla which is a clear liquid, it is opaque and often contains pieces of fish. To use it in Som tam (spicy papaya salad) is a matter of choice.

Kapi ( ), Thai shrimp paste, is a combination of fermented ground shrimp and salt. It is used, for instance, in red curry paste, in the famous chili paste called nam phrik kapi ( ) and in rice dishes such as Khao khluk kapi ( ).

Nam phrik ( ) are Thai chilli pastes, similar to the Malaysianmarker and Indonesianmarker sambals. Each region has its own special versions. The wording "nam phrik" is used by Thais to describe any paste containing chilies used for dipping. Curry pastes are normally called phrik kaeng ( ) or khrueang kaeng ( , litt. curry ingredients) but some people also use the word nam phrik to designate a curry pastes. Red curry paste, for instance, could be called phrik kaeng phet or khrueang kaeng phet in Thai, but also nam phrik kaeng phet. Both Nam phrik and phrik kaeng are prepared by crushing together chillies with various ingredients such as garlic and shrimp paste using a mortar and pestle. Some nam phrik are served as a dip with vegetables such as cucumbers, cabbage and yard-long beans, either raw or blanched. One such paste is nam phrik num, a paste of pounded fresh green chilies, shallots, garlic and coriander leaves. The sweet roasted chili paste called nam phrik phao ( ) is often used as an ingredient in Tom yam or when frying meat or seafood, and it is also popular as a spicy "jam" on bread. The dry nam phrik kung, made with pounded dried prawns (kung haeng, ), is often eaten with rice and a few slices of cucumber.

The soy sauces which are used in Thai cuisine are of Chinese origin and the Thai names for them are (wholly or partially) loan words from the Teochew language: si-io dam ( , dark soy sauce), si-io khao ( , light soy sauce), and taochiao ( , fermented whole soy bean). Nam man hoi ( , oyster sauce), is also of Chinese origin. It is used extensively in vegetable and meat stir-fries.

Rice and noodles

Khanom chin, freshly made Thai rice noodles
Rice is a staple grain of Thai cuisine, as in most Asian cuisines. The highly prized, sweet-smelling jasmine rice is indigenous to Thailand. This naturally aromatic long-grained rice grows in abundance in the verdant patchwork of paddy fields that blanket Thailand's central plains. Steamed rice is accompanied by highly aromatic curries, stir-fries and other dishes, sometimes incorporating large quantities of chili peppers, lime juice and lemon grass. Curries, stir-fries and others may be poured onto the rice creating a single dish called khao rat kaeng ( ), a popular meal when time is limited. Sticky rice (khao niao, ) is a unique variety of rice that contains an unusual balance of the starches present in all rice, causing it to cook up to a sticky texture. It is the staple of Laosmarker and substitutes ordinary rice in rural northern and northeastern Thai cuisine, areas directly adjacent to, and sharing many cultural traits with, Laos.

Noodles are popular as well but usually come as a single dish, like the stir-fried Phat Thai ( ) or in the form of a noodle soup. Many Chinese dishes have been adapted to suit Thai taste, such as kuai tiao ruea ( ), a sour and spicy rice noodle soup). In Northern Thailand, khao soi, a curry soup with bami ( , egg noodles), is extremely popular in Chiang Maimarker.

Noodles are usually made from either rice flour, wheat flour or mung bean flour and include six main types. Sen yai or kuai tiao are wide, flat noodles, and made with rice flour. Sen mi ( ) is thin and usually dried (rice vermicelli). Sen lek is also flat, but not as wide as sen yai noodles; they are also made from rice flour. Bami ( ) is made from egg and wheat flour and it is usually sold fresh; it is similar to the Chinese mee pok and la mian. Wunsen ( ) are extremely thin noodles made from mung bean flour which are sold dried; they are called cellophane noodles in English. Khanom Chin ( ) is fresh Thai rice vermicelli made from fermented rice, well-known from dishes such as khanom chin kaeng khiaowan kai (rice noodles with green chicken curry).

Rice flour (paeng khao chao, ) and tapioca flour (paeng man sampalang, ) are often used in desserts and as thickening.

Fruit, vegetables, herbs and spices

Fresh herbs, spices and vegetables at Thanin Market
Het fang (straw mushrooms) for sale at a market
Thai dishes use a wide variety of herbs, spices and leaves rarely found in the West, such as kaffir lime leaves (bai makrut, ). The characteristic flavor of kaffir lime leaves appears in nearly every Thai soup (e.g., the hot and sour Tom yam) or curry from the southern and central areas of Thailand. The Thai lime (manao, ) is smaller, darker and sweeter than the kaffir lime, which has a rough looking skin with a stronger lime flavor. Kaffir lime leaves are frequently combined with garlic (krathiam ), galangal (kha, ), lemon grass (takhrai, , turmeric (kha min, ) and/or fingerroot (krachai, ), blended together with liberal amounts of various chillies to make curry paste. Fresh Thai basils are also used to add spice and fragrance in certain dishes such as Green curry, of which kraphao ( ) has a distinctive scent of clove and leaves which are often tipped with a maroon color. Further often used herbs in Thai cuisine include phak chi ( , cilantro or coriander), rak phak chi (cilantro/coriander roots), culantro (phak chi farang, ), spearmint (saranae, ), and pandanus leaves (bai doei, ).Other spices and spice mixtures in Thai cuisine include phong phalo ( , five-spice powder), phong kari ( , curry powder), and fresh and dried peppercorn (phrik thai, )

Besides kaffir lime leaves, several other tree leaves are use in Thai cuisine such as chaom ( ). These are the young feathery leaves of the Acacia pennata tree, and they are used in omelettes, soups and (northern) curries. Banana leaves are often used as packaging for ready-made food or as steamer cups such as in homok pla ( ), a spicy paté made with fish and coconut milk. Banana flowers are also used in Thai salads or minced and deep fried in to patties. The leaves and flowers of the neem tree (sadao, ) are also eaten blanched.

Five main chilies are generally responsible for Thai food's spiciness. One chili is very small (about ) and is known as the hottest chili: phrik khi nu suan ( , "garden mouse-dropping chili"). The slightly larger chili phrik khi nu ( , "mouse-dropping chili") is the next hottest. The green or red phrik chi fa ( , "sky pointing chili") is slightly less spicy that the smaller chilies. The very large phrik yuak ( ), which is pale green in color, is the least spicy. Lastly, the dried chilies: phrik haeng ( ) are spicier than the two largest chilies and dried to a dark red color.

Other typical ingredients are the several types of eggplant (makhuea ) used in Thai cuisine, such as the pea-sized makhuea phuang ( ) and the egg-sized makhuea suai ( ). Some types of eggplants are also eaten raw.Although broccoli is often used in Asian restaurants in the west in phat thai and rat na, it was never actually used in any traditional Thai food in Thailand and is still rarely seen in Thailand. Usually in Thailand, khana ( , gailan) is used, for which broccoli is a substitute. Other cabbages include Chinese cabbage (phak kat khao, ) and choy sum (phak kwangtung, ).Other vegetables which are often eaten in Thailand are thua fak yao ( , yardlong beans), phak bung ( , morning-glory), thua ngok ( , bean sprouts), bamboo shoots, tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet potatoes, a few types of squash, and corn. Several types of mushroom (het, ) also feature in Thai cuisine such as straw mushrooms (het fang, ) and white jelly fungus (het hu nu khao, ).

Fruit forms a large part of the Thai diet and are customarily served after a meal. Although many of the exotic fruits of Thailand may have been sometimes unavailable in Western countries, many Asian markets import such fruits as rambutan and lychees. In Thailand one can find papaya, jackfruit, mango, mangosteen, langsat, longan, pomelo, pineapple, rose apples, durian and other native fruits. Chantaburimarker in Thailand each year holds the World Durian Festival in early May. This single province is responsible for half of the durian production of Thailand and a quarter of the world production. Apples, grapes, pears and strawberries, which do not traditionally grow in Thailand, have become increasingly popular in recent years now they are being grown locally in the cooler highlands and mountains of Thailand, mainly in the North. The fruit of the tamarind is used for its tartness, and palm sugar, made from the sugary sap of the date palm, is used to sweeten dishes. From the coconut palm comes coconut sugar, coconut vinegar, and coconut milk. The juice of a green coconut can be served as a drink and the young flesh can be eaten.

Representative dishes

Many Thai dishes are familiar in the West. In the many dishes below, different kinds of protein, or combinations of protein, can be chosen as ingredients, such as beef (nuea, ), chicken (kai, ), pork (mu, ), duck (pet, ), tofu (taohu, ) or seafood.

Breakfast dishes

Thai cuisine doesn't have very specific breakfast dishes. Very often, a Thai breakfast can consist of the same dishes which are also eaten for lunch or dinner. Fried rice, noodle soups and steamed rice with something simple such as an omelette, fried pork or chicken, are commonly sold from street stalls as a quick take-out. The following dishes tend to be eaten only for breakfast:
  • Chok - a rice porridge very commonly eaten in Thailand for breakfast. Similar to the rice congee eaten in other parts of Asia.
  • Khao khai chiao - an omelet (khai chiao) with white rice, often eaten with a chili sauce and slices of cucumber.
  • Khao tom - a Thai style rice soup, usually with pork, chicken or shrimp.

Individual dishes

Khao man kai
Phat si-io
  • Khanom chin namya - round boiled rice noodles topped with a fish based sauce and eaten with fresh leaves and vegetables.
  • Khao khluk kapi - rice stir-fried with shrimp paste, served with sweetened pork and vegetables.
  • Khao man kai - rice steamed with garlic, with boiled chicken, chicken stock and a dipping sauce.
  • Khao phat - One of the most common dishes in Thailand, fried rice, Thai style. Usually with chicken, beef, shrimp, pork, crab or coconut or pineapple, or vegetarian (che ( ).
  • Khao phat kai - fried rice with chicken.
  • Khao phat naem - fried rice with fermented sausage (naem, ), a typically dish from the Northeast)
  • Khao soi - crispy wheat noodles in sweet chicken curry soup (a Northern dish).
  • Kuai tiao nam - rice-noodle soup can be eaten at any time of day; served with many combinations of proteins, vegetables, and spicy condiments. The word kuai tiao, although actually designating only one type of noodle, the sen yai (wide rice noodles), is used colloquially for all "noodles" in general in Thailand.
  • Mi krop - deep fried rice vermicelli with a sweet and sour sauce.
  • Phat khi mao - noodles stir-fried with Thai basil.
  • Phat si-io - rice noodles (often kuai tiao) stir-fried with si-io dam (thick sweet soy sauce) and nam pla (fish sauce) and pork or chicken.
  • Phat Thai - rice noodles pan fried with fish sauce, sugar, lime juice or tamarind pulp, chopped peanuts, and egg combined with chicken, seafood, or tofu.
  • Kuai tiao rat na - wide rice noodles in gravy, with beef, pork, chicken, shrimp, or seafood.

Central Thai shared dishes

Thot man plakrai with fried basil
Ho mok pla, fish curry paté
Phak bung fai daeng: fried morning-glory
Pla samrot
Phak khana mu krop
  • Chu chi pla kraphong - snapper in chu-chi curry sauce (thick red curry sauce)
  • Ho mok pla - a paté of fish, spices, coconut milk and egg, steamed in a banana leaf cup and topped with thick coconut cream before serving.
  • Kai phat khing - chicken stir-fried with sliced ginger.
  • Kaeng khiaowan - called "green curry" in English, it is a coconut curry made with fresh green chillies and flavoured with Thai basil, and chicken or fish meatballs. This dish can be one of the spiciest of Thai curries.
  • Kaeng phanaeng - a mild creamy coconut curry with beef (Phanaeng nuea, ), chicken, or pork. It includes some roasted dried spices similar to Kaeng matsaman.
  • Kaeng phet (lit. 'spicy curry') - also known as red curry in English, it is a coconut curry made with copious amounts of dried red chillies in the curry paste.
  • Kai phat met mamuang Himaphan - The Thai Chinese version of the Sechuanmarker style chicken with cashew nuts known as Kung Pao chicken, fried with whole dried chilies.
  • Miang kham - dried shrimp and other ingredients wrapped in cha plu ( ) leaves; often eaten as a snack or a starter.
  • Phak bung fai daeng - stir fried morning-glory with yellow bean paste.
  • Phak khana mu krop - khana (gailan) stir fried with crispy pork.
  • Phat kraphao - beef, pork, prawns or chicken stir fried with Thai holy basil, chillies and garlic; for instance kai phat kaphrao ( ), with minced chicken.
  • Phat phak ruam - stir fried combination of vegetables depending on availability and preference.
  • Phat phrik - usually beef stir fried with chilli, called Nuea phat phrik ( ).
  • Pla nueng manao - steamed fish with a spicy lime juice dressing.
  • Pla samrot - literally "Three flavours fish": deep fried fish with a sweet, tangy and spicy tamarind sauce.
  • Pu cha - a mixture of cooked crab meat, pork, garlic and pepper, deep fried inside the crab shells and served with a simple spicy sauce, such as Sri Rachaa sauce, sweet-hot garlic sauce, nam phrik pao ( , roasted chilli paste), nam chim buoy ( , plum sauce), or in a red curry paste, with chopped green onions. It is sometimes also served as deep fried patties instead of being fried in the crab shell.
  • Sate - grilled meat, usually pork or chicken, served with cucumber salad and peanut sauce (actually of Indonesian origin, but now a popular street food in Thailand).
  • Suki - a Thai variant of the Chinese hot pot.
  • Thot man - deep fried fishcake made from knifefish (Thot man pla krai, ) or shrimp (Thot man kung, ).
  • Tom chuet wunsen or Kaeng chuet wunsen - a clear soup with vegetables and wunsen (cellophane noodles made from mung bean).
  • Tom kha kai - hot spicy soup with coconut milk, galangal and chicken.
  • Tom yam - hot & sour soup with meat. With shrimp it is called Tom yam goong or Tom yam kung ( ), with seafood (typically shrimp, squid, fish) Tom yam thale ( ), with chicken Tom yam kai ( ).
  • Yam - general name for any type of sour salad, such as those made with glass noodles (Yam wunsen, ), with seafood (Yam thale, ), or grilled beef (Yam nuea ). The dressing of a "Yam" will normally consist of shallots, fish sauce, tomato, lime juice, sugar, chilies and Thai celery (khuen chai, ) or coriander.
  • Yam pladuk fu - crispy fried catfish with a spicy, sweet-and-sour, green mango salad.

Northeastern shared dishes

Lap kai (chicken lap)
The cuisine of Northeastern Thailand is shared with the cuisine of Laos, as Isarn people are of Lao heritage and speak a language that is generally mutually intelligible with the Lao language.

  • Kai yang - marinated, grilled chicken.
  • Khao niao - Glutinous rice is eaten as a staple food both in the Northeast as in the North of Thailand.
  • Lap - sour salads containing meat, onions, chillies, roasted rice powder and garnished with mint.
  • Nam chim chaeo - is a sticky, sweet and spicy dipping sauce made with dried chilies, fish sauce, palm sugar and black roasted rice flour. It is often served as a dip with mu yang ( , grilled pork).
  • Nam tok - made with pork (moo) or beef (nuea) and somewhat identical to lap, except that the pork or beef is cut into thin strips rather than minced.
  • Som tam - grated papaya salad, pounded with a mortar and pestle. There are three main variations: Som tam pu ( ) with salted black crab, and Som tam Thai ( ) with peanuts, dried shrimp and palm sugar and Som tam plara ( ) from north eastern part of Thailand (Isanmarker), with salted gourami fish, white eggplants, fish sauce and long bean. Som tam is usually eaten with sticky rice but a popular variation is to serve it with khanom chin (rice noodles) instead.
  • Suea rong hai - grilled beef brisket.
  • Tom saep - Northeastern-style hot & sour soup.

Northern shared dishes

Sai oua, also known as Chiang Mai sausage
  • Kaeng hanglay - a Burmese influenced stewed pork curry which uses peanuts, dried chilies and tamarind juice in the recipe but containing no coconut milk.
  • Kaeng khae - is a spicy northern Thai curry of herbs, vegetables, the leaves of an acacia tree (chaom) and meat (chicken, water buffalo, pork or frog). It also does not contain any coconut milk.
  • Kaep mu - deep fried crispy pork rinds, often eaten with nam phrik num. Also eaten as a snack.
  • Nam phrik num - a chili paste of pounded large green chilies, shallots, garlic, coriander leaves, lime juice and fish sauce; eaten with steamed and raw vegetables, and sticky rice.
  • Nam phrik ong - resembling a thick Bolognese sauce, it is made with dried chilies, minced pork and tomato; eaten with steamed and raw vegetables, and sticky rice.
  • Sai oua - a grilled sausage of ground pork mixed with spices and herbs, and which is often served with chopped fresh ginger and chilies at a meal. It is also sold at markets in Chiang Mai as a snack.

Southern shared dishes

  • Kaeng Lueang - a sour spicy yellow curry that does not contain coconut milk, often with fish and vegetables.
  • Kaeng matsaman - also known in English as Massaman curry, it is an Indian style curry, usually made by Thai-Muslims, of stewed beef and containing roasted dried spices, such as coriander seed, that are rarely found in other Thai curries.
  • Kaeng tai pla - a thick sour vegetable curry made with with tumeric and shrimp paste, often containing roasted fish or fish innards, bamboo shoots and eggplant.
  • Khua kling - a very dry spicy curry made with minced or diced meat with sometimes yardlong beans added to it; often served with fresh green phrik khi nu (thai chilies) and copious amounts of finely shredded bai makrut (kaffir lime leaves).

Desserts, sweet snacks and drinks

Desserts and sweet snacks
Khao niao mamuang, Thai mango with glutinous rice
Most Thai meals finish with fresh fruit but sometimes a sweet snack will be served as a dessert.
  • Chao kuai - grass jelly is often served with only shaved ice and brown sugar.
  • Khanom bua loitaro root mixed with flour into balls in coconut milk.
  • Khanom chan – multi-layers of pandan-flavored sticky rice flour mixed with coconut milk.
  • Khanom mo kaeng - a sweet baked pudding containing coconut milk, eggs, palm sugar and flour, sprinkled with sweet fried onions.
  • Khanom tan – palm flavored mini cake with shredded coconut on top.
  • Khanom thuai talai' - steamed sweet coconut jelly and cream
  • Khao niao mamuang - sticky rice cooked in sweetened thick coconut milk, served with slices of ripe mango.
  • Lot chong nam kathipandan flavored rice flour noodles in coconut milk, similar to the Indonesian cendol.
  • Ruammit – mixed ingredients, such as chestnuts covered in flour, jackfruit, lotus root, tapioca, and lot chong, in coconut milk.
  • Sangkhaya fak thong - egg and coconut custard served with pumpkin, similar to the coconut jam of Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
  • Tako - jasmine scented coconut pudding set in cups of fragrant pandanus leaf.


Other alcoholic beverages from Thailand include Mekhong whiskey and Sang Som. Several brands of beer are brewed in Thailand, the two biggest brands being Singha and Chang.

Insects in Thai cuisine

A food stall in Bangkok selling fried insects
Certain insects are also eaten in Thailand, especially in Isan and in the North. Many markets in Thailand feature stalls which sell deep-fried grasshoppers, cricket (chingrit, ), bee larvae, silkworm (non mai, ), ant eggs (khai mot, ). The culinary creativity even extends to naming: one tasty larva, which is also known under the name "bamboo worm" (non mai phai, , Omphisa fuscidentalis), is colloquially called "freight train" (rot duan; ) due to its appearance.

Most of the insects taste fairly bland when deep-fried, somewhat like popcorn and prawns, which is still fairly tasty, but when deep-fried together with kaffir lime leaves, chilies and garlic, the insects become an excellent snack to go with a drink. In contrast to the bland taste of most of these insects, the maengda or maelong da na ( , Lethocerus indicus) has been described as having a very penetrating taste, similar to that of a very ripe gorgonzola cheese. This giant water bug is famously used in a chili dip called nam phrik maengda. Some insects, such as ant eggs and silk worms, are also eaten boiled in a soup in Isanmarker.

Culinary tours and cooking courses

Culinary tours of Thailand have gained popularity in recent years. Alongside other forms of tourism in Thailand, food tours have carved a niche for themselves. Many companies offer culinary and cooking tours of Thailand and many tourists visiting Thailand attend cooking courses offered by hotels, guesthouses and cooking schools.

See also


  • Ang, Eng Tie. Delightful Thai Cooking, 132 pages, Seattle: Ambrosia, 1990
  • Bhumichitr, Vatcharin. The Essential Thai Cookbook, 192 pages, New York: Clarkson N. Potter Inc., 1994
  • Californis Culinary Academy. Cuisines of Southeast Asia, 128 pages, Sant Rosa, CA: California Culinary Academy, 1994.
  • Kahrs, Kurt. Thai Cooking, 96 pages, Dallas: Hackberry Press, 2003.
  • Osborne, Christine. Southeast Asian Food and Drink, 48 pages, New York: bookwright Press, 1989.

Further reading

  • Joe Cummings, Lonely Planet World Food Thailand, 288 pages, Lonely Planet Publications, 2000, ISBN 978-1864500264
  • David Thompson, Classic Thai Cuisine, 145 pages, Ten Speed Press, 1993, ISBN 0-89815-563-0

External links

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