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The Bronx is the northernmost of the Five Boroughs of New York Citymarker. It is also the newest of the 62 counties of New York Statemarker. Located northeast of Manhattanmarker and south of Westchester County, New Yorkmarker, the Bronx is the only borough situated primarily on the North American mainland (while the other four—apart from the very small Marble Hillmarker section of Manhattan—are on islands). In 2009, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that the borough's population on July 1, 2008 was 1,391,903, inhabiting a land area of 42 square miles (109 square kilometers). This makes the Bronx the fourth-most-populated of the five boroughs, the fourth-largest in land area, and the third-highest in density of population.

The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, closer to Manhattan, and the flatter East Bronx, closer to Queensmarker and Long Islandmarker. The West Bronx was annexed to New York City (then largely confined to Manhattan) in 1874, and the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. The Bronx first assumed a distinct legal identity when it became a borough of Greater New York in 1898. Bronx County (the County of Bronx), with the same boundaries as the borough, was separated from New York County (today coextensive with the Borough of Manhattan) in 1912 and began its own operations in January 1914. Although the Bronx is the third-most-densely-populated county in the U.S., about a quarter of its area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemeterymarker, Van Cortlandt Parkmarker, Pelham Bay Parkmarker, the New York Botanical Gardenmarker and the Bronx Zoomarker in the borough's north and center, on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed northwards and eastwards from Manhattan with the building of roads, bridges and railways.

The indigenous Lenape (Delaware) American Indians were progressively displaced after 1643 by settlers from the Netherlandsmarker and Great Britainmarker. The Bronx received many Irish, German, Jewish and Italian immigrants as its once-rural population exploded between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. They were succeeded after 1945 by African-Americans and Hispanic Americans, together with immigrants from the Caribbeanmarker, especially Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republicmarker and Jamaicamarker, and Africa, especially Ghanamarker. In recent years, this cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of both Latin music and hip hop.

The Bronx contains the poorest Congressional District in the United States (the 16th), but its wide variety of neighborhoods also includes the affluent Riverdale and Country Club. The Bronx, particularly the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, and the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson, but has shown some signs of revival in recent years.

History

Origins and name of The Bronx

The Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape (the Delawares to Europeans), while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck. It was divided by the Aquahung River.

Jonas Bronck (ca. 1600–1649), a Swedish sea-captain working for the Dutch, entering New Netherland in 1639, became the first recorded European settler in the area. He leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland immediately north of the Dutch settlement in Harlemmarker (on Manhattan island), and bought additional tracts from the local tribes. He eventually accumulated 500 acres (about 2 square km, or 3/4 of a square mile) between the Harlem Rivermarker and the Aquahung, which became known as Bronck's River, or The Bronx. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Bronck's Land. The American poet William Bronk is a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Bronck's son or younger brother.

The Bronx is referred to, both legally, and colloquially, with a definite article, as The Bronx. (The County of Bronx, unlike the coextensive Borough of the Bronx, does not place the immediately before Bronx in formal references, nor does the United States Postal Service in its database of Bronx addresses.) The name for this region, apparently after the Bronx River, first appeared in the Annexed District of the Bronx created in 1874 out of part of Westchester Countymarker and was continued in the Borough of the Bronx, which included a larger annexation from Westchester County in 1898. The use of the definite article is attributed to the style of referring to rivers. Another explanation for the use of the definite article in the borough's name is that the original form of the name was a possessive or collective one referring to the family, as in visiting The Broncks, The Bronck's or The Broncks'.

Before 1914

The development of the Bronx is directly connected to its strategic location between New Englandmarker and New York (Manhattanmarker). Control over the bridges across the Harlem River plagued the period of British colonial rule. Kingsbridge, built in 1693 where Broadwaymarker reached the Spuyten Duyvil Creekmarker, was a possession of the lords of Philipse Manormarker. The tolls they charged were resented by Bronx farmers with crops and cattle to sell in New York. It was the angry farmers who built a "free bridge" across the Harlem River which led to the abandonment of tolls altogether.

The territory now contained within Bronx County was originally part of Westchester Countymarker, one of the 12 original counties of the English Province of New York. The present Bronx County was contained in the town of Westchester and parts of the towns of Yonkers, Eastchester, and Pelham. In 1846, a new town, West Farms, was created by division of Westchester; in turn, in 1855, the town of Morrisaniamarker was created from West Farms. In 1873, the town of Kingsbridge (roughly corresponding to the modern Bronx neighborhoods of Kingsbridge, Riverdale, and Woodlawnmarker) was established within the former borders of Yonkersmarker.

Among famous settlers in the Bronx in the 19th and early 20th centuries were the author Willa Cather, the tobacco merchant Pierre Lorillard, and the inventor Jordan L. Mott, who established Mott Havenmarker to house the workers at his iron works.

The consolidation of the Bronx into New York City proceeded in two stages. In 1873, the state legislature annexed Kingsbridge, West Farms and Morrisania to New York, effective in 1874; the three towns were abolished in the process. In 1895, three years before New York's consolidation with Brooklynmarker, Queensmarker and Staten Islandmarker, the whole of the territory east of the Bronx River, including the Town of Westchester (which had voted in 1894 against consolidation) and portions of Eastchestermarker and Pelham, were annexed to the city. City Islandmarker, a nautical community, voted to join the city in 1896.

On January 1, 1898, the consolidated City of New York was born, including the Bronx as one of the five distinct Boroughs. (At the same time the Bronx's territory moved from Westchester County into New York Countymarker, which already contained Manhattan and the rest of pre-1874 New York City.)

On April 19, 1912, those parts of New York County which had been annexed from Westchester County in the past decades were newly constituted as Bronx County, the 62nd and last county to be created by the state, effective in 1914. Bronx County's courts opened for business on January 2, 1914 (the same day that John P. Mitchel started work as Mayor of New York City).

Since 1914

At the end of World War I, the Bronx hosted the rather small 1918 World's Fair at 177th Street and DeVoe Avenue.

The Bronx underwent rapid growth after World War I. Extensions of the New York City Subway contributed to the increase in population as thousands of immigrants flooded the Bronx, resulting in a major boom in residential construction. Among these groups, many Irish-Americans, Italian-Americans and especially Jewish-Americans settled here. In addition, French, German, and Polish immigrants moved into the borough. The Jewish population also increased notably during this time. In 1937, according to Jewish organizations, 592,185 Jews lived in the Bronx (43.9% of the borough's population), while in 2002, only about 45,000 did. Many synagogues still stand in the Bronx, but most have been converted to other uses.

In Prohibition days (1920-33), bootleggers and gangs ran rampant in the Bronx. Irish, Italian and Polish immigrants smuggled in most of the illegal whiskey. By 1926, the Bronx was noted for its high crime rate and its many speakeasies.

After the 1930s, the Irish immigrant population in the Bronx decreased. The German population followed suit in the 1940s, as did many Italians in the 1950s and Jews in the 1960s. As the generation of the 1930s retired, many moved to southeastern Floridamarker, west of Fort Lauderdalemarker and Palm Beachmarker. The migration has left a Hispanic (mostly Puerto Rican and Dominican) and African-American population, along with some non-Hispanic white areas in the far southeastern and northwestern parts of the county.
Bronx residents born abroad or overseas, 1930 and 2000
1930 United States Census 2000 United States Census
Total population of the Bronx 1,265,258   Total population of the Bronx 1,332,650  
      All born abroad or overseas 524,410 39.4%
      Puerto Rico 126,649 9.5%
Foreign-born Whites 477,342 37.7% All foreign-born 385,827 29.0%
White person born in Russiamarker 135,210 10.7% Dominican Republicmarker 124,032 9.3%
White persons born in Italymarker 67,732 5.4% Jamaicamarker 51,120 3.8%
White persons born in Polandmarker 55,969 4.4% Mexicomarker 20,962 1.6%
White persons born in Germanymarker 43,349 3.4% Guyanamarker 14,868 1.1%
White persons born in the Irish Free State 34,538 2.7% Ecuadormarker 14,800 1.1%
Other foreign birthplaces of Whites 140,544 11.1% Other foreign birthplaces 160,045 12.0%
† the 26 counties now within the Republic of Irelandmarker ‡ beyond the 50 states & District of Columbiamarker


During the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, the Bronx went into an era of sharp decline in the residents' quality of life. Historians and social scientists have put forward many factors. They include the theory (elaborated in Robert Caro's biography The Power Broker) that Robert Moses' Cross-Bronx Expressway destroyed existing residential neighborhoods. Another (unintended) factor in the Bronx's decline may have been the development of high-rise housing projects. Yet another may have been a reduction in the real-estate listings and property-related financial services (such as mortgages or insurance policies) offered in some areas of the Bronx — a process known as redlining. Others have suggested a "planned shrinkage" of municipal services, such as fire-fighting. There was also much debate as to whether rent control laws had made it less profitable (or more costly) for landlords to maintain existing buildings with their existing tenants than to abandon or destroy those buildings.

In the 1970s, the Bronx was plagued by a wave of arson. The burning of buildings was mostly in the South Bronx, concentrated especially along Westchester Avenue and in West Farmsmarker. The most common explanation of what occurred was that landlords decided to burn their buildings and take the insurance money as profit. Competing explanations blamed the insurance companies —since their non-renewals of policies might have encouraged the landlords— or the residents themselves. After the destruction of many buildings in the South Bronx, the arsons slowed significantly in the later part of the decade, but the after-effects were still felt into the early 1990s.

Since the mid-1980s, significant residential development has occurred, stimulated by the city's "Ten-Year Housing Plan" and community members working to rebuild the social, economic and environmental infrastructure by creating affordable housing. Groups affiliated with South Bronx churches erected the Nehemiah Homes with about 1,000 units. The grass roots organization Nos Quedamos' endeavor known as Melrose Commons began to rebuild the South Bronx. The ripple effects have been felt borough-wide. As a result of the growing population, the IRT White Plains Road Line has had an increase in riders. Chains such as Marshalls, Staples and Target have opened stores in the Bronx.More bank branches have opened in the Bronx as a whole (rising from 106 in 1997 to 149 in 2007), although not primarily in poor or minority neighborhoods, while the Bronx still has fewer branches per person than wealthier boroughs.

In 1997, the Bronx was designated an All America City by the National Civic League, signifying its comeback from the decline of the 1970s. In 2006, The New York Times reported that "construction cranes have become the borough's new visual metaphor, replacing the window decals of the 1980s in which pictures of potted plants and drawn curtains were placed in the windows of abandoned buildings." The borough has experienced substantial new building construction since 2002. Between 2002 and June 2007, 33,687 new units of housing were built or were under way and $4.8 billion has been invested in new housing. In the first six months of 2007 alone total investment in new residential development was $965 million and 5,187 residential units were scheduled to be completed. Much of the new development is springing up in formerly vacant lots across the South Bronx.

Geography

Adjacent counties



Location and physical features

The Bronx is almost entirely situated on the North American mainland. The Hudson River separates the Bronx on the west from Alpinemarker, Tenaflymarker and Englewood Cliffsmarker in Bergen County, New Jerseymarker; the Harlem Rivermarker separates it from the island of Manhattanmarker to the southwest; the East Rivermarker separates it from Queensmarker to the southeast; and, to the east, Long Island Soundmarker separates it from Nassau Countymarker in western Long Island. Directly north of the Bronx are (from west to east) the adjoining Westchester Countymarker communities of Yonkersmarker, Mount Vernonmarker, Pelham Manormarker and New Rochellemarker.
  • (There is also a short southern land boundary with Marble Hillmarker in the Borough of Manhattan, over the filled-in former course of the Spuyten Duyvil Creekmarker. Marble Hill's postal ZIP code, telephonic Area Code and fire service, however, are shared with the Bronx and not Manhattan.)


The Bronx River flows south from Westchester County through the borough, emptying into the East River; it is the largest freshwater river in New York City. A smaller river, the Hutchinson Rivermarker (named after the religious leader Anne Hutchinson, killed along its banks in 1641), passes through the East Bronx and empties into Eastchester Baymarker.

The Bronx also includes several small islands in the East River and Long Island Sound, such as City Islandmarker and Hart Islandmarker. Although it is part of the Bronx, Rikers Islandmarker in the East River, home to the large jail complex for the entire City, can be reached only by water, by air, or—since 1966—over the Francis Buono Bridgemarker from Queens.

The Bronx's highest elevation—about 280 feet or 85 meters—is in the northwest corner, west of Van Cortlandt Parkmarker and in the Chapel Farm area near the Riverdale Country School. The opposite (southeastern) side of the Bronx has four large low peninsulas or "necks" of low-lying land that jut into the waters of the East River and were once saltmarsh †: Hunt's Point, Clason's Point, Screvin's Neck and Throg's Neckmarker. Further up the coastline, Rodman's Neck lies between Pelham Bay Parkmarker in the northeast and City Islandmarker.

† (New York City's last freshwater marsh was in Van Cortlandt Park until displaced in the 1930s by the junction of the Mosholu and Henry Hudson Parkways.)

Almost 27% of the Bronx's total area is water (15.4 square miles or 40 km²), and the irregular shoreline extends for 75 miles (120 km).

Selected Parks and Open Space in the Bronx
ac- quired Name acres square miles hect- ares square km
1863 Woodlawn Cemeterymarker 400 0.6 162 1.6
1888 Pelham Bay Parkmarker 2,764 4.3 1,119 11.2
Van Cortlandt Parkmarker 1,146 1.8 464 4.6
Bronx Parkmarker 718 1.1 291 2.9
Crotona Parkmarker 128 0.2 52 0.5
1890 Jerome Park Reservoirmarker 94 0.15 38 0.4
1897 St. James Park 11 0.02 4.6 0.0
1899 Macomb's Dam Parkmarker 28 0.04 12 0.1
1909 Henry Hudson Parkmarker 9 0.01 4 0.0
1937 Ferry Point Park 414 0.65 168 1.7
Soundview Park 196 0.31 79 0.8
1962 Wave Hillmarker 21 0.03 8.5 0.1
Land area of the Bronx in 2000 26,897 42.0 10,885 108.8
Water area 9,855 15.4 3,988 39.9
Total area 36,752 57.4 14,873 148.7
closed in 2007 to build a new park & Yankee Stadiummarker
Main source: New York City Department of Parks & Recreation


Parks and open space

Although, in 2006, it was the third most densely populated county in the United States (after Manhattanmarker and Brooklynmarker), about one-fifth of the Bronx's area, and one-quarter of its land area, is given over to park land: about 7,000 acres or 11 square miles (2,800 hectares or 28 square km).

Woodlawn Cemeterymarker, one of the largest cemeteries in New York City, sits on the western bank of the Bronx River near Yonkersmarker. It opened in 1863, at a time when the Bronx was still considered a rural area.

The northern side of the borough includes the largest park in New York City, Pelham Bay Parkmarker, and the fourth largest, Van Cortlandt Parkmarker. Pelham Bay Park, in the northeast giving onto Eastchester Baymarker and Long Island Soundmarker, includes Orchard Beachmarker, a large man-made public beach. Van Cortlandt Parkmarker, directly west of Woodlawn Cemetery and bordering Yonkersmarker, contains the Bronx's oldest standing housemarker and largest freshwater lake.

Nearer the borough's center, and along the Bronx River, is Bronx Parkmarker. Its northern end houses the New York Botanical Gardensmarker, which preserve the last patch of the original hemlock forest which once covered the entire City, and its southern end the Bronx Zoomarker, the largest urban zoological gardens in the U.S.

Farther south is Crotona Parkmarker, home to a 3.3 acre (1.3 hectare) lake, 28 species of trees and a large swimming pool.. The land for these parks, and many others, was bought by New York City in 1888, while land was still open and cheap, in anticipation of future needs and future pressures for development.

Some of the acquired land was set aside for the Grand Concoursemarker and Pelham Parkway, the first of a series of boulevards and parkways, or thoroughfares lined with trees, vegetation and greenery. Later projects included the Bronx River Parkway, which developed a road while restoring the riverbank and reducing pollution, Mosholu Parkway and the Henry Hudson Parkway.

Just south of Van Cortlandt Parkmarker is the Jerome Park Reservoirmarker, surrounded by two miles (3.2 km) of stone walls and bordering several small parks in the Bedford Park neighborhood. In 1999, in an effort to quell protests over the building of an EPA mandated Water Filtration Plant in Van Cortlandt Park, the NYC administration promised the community it would help build an Outdoor Environmental Laboratory alongside the reservoir.

The reservoir originally was built in the 1890s to store New York City's drinking water, on the site of the former Jerome Park Racetrack (1866–1889), the birthplace of horse-racing's Belmont Stakes.

Wave Hillmarker, the former estate of George W. Perkins — known for a historic house, gardens, changing site-specific art installations and concerts — overlooks the New Jersey Palisadesmarker from a promontory on the Hudson in Riverdale.

In 2006, a five-year, $220-million program of capital improvements and natural restoration in 70 Bronx parks was begun (financed by water and sewer revenues) as part of an agreement that allowed a water-filtration plant under Van Cortlandt Park's golf course. One major focus is on opening more of the Bronx River's banks and restoring them to a natural state.

Neighborhoods and commercial districts

The number, locations and boundaries of the Bronx's neighborhoods (many of them sitting on the sites of 19th-century villages) have become unclear with time and successive waves of newcomers. In 2006, Manny Fernandez of The New York Times wrote,
"According to a Department of City Planning map of the city’s neighborhoods, the Bronx has 49.
The map publisher Hagstrom identifies 69.
The borough president, Adolfo Carrión Jr., says 61.
The Mayor’s Community Assistance Unit, in a listing of the borough’s community boards, names 68.
Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, lists 44."
Notable Bronx neighborhoods include the South Bronx, Little Italy on Arthur Avenue in the Belmontmarker section, and Riverdale.

East Bronx

(Bronx Community Boards 9 [south central], 10 [east], 11 [east central] and 12 [north central] )

East of the Bronx River, the borough is relatively flat, and includes four large low peninsulas or necks of low-lying land which jut into the waters of the East River and were once saltmarsh: Hunts Point, Clason's Point, Screvin's Neck (Castle Hill Point) and Throgs Neckmarker. The East Bronx has older tenement buildings, low income public housing complexes, and multifamily homes, as well as smaller and larger single family homes. It includes New York City's largest park: Pelham Bay Parkmarker along the Westchestermarker-Bronx border.

Neighborhoods include: Clason's Pointmarker, Harding Park, Soundviewmarker, Castle Hill, Parkchestermarker (under Board 9), Throgs Neckmarker, Country Club, City Islandmarker, Pelham Bay, Co-op Citymarker (Board 10), Westchester Square, Van Nestmarker, Pelham Parkwaymarker, Morris Parkmarker (Board 11), Williamsbridgemarker, Eastchester, Baychestermarker, Edenwaldmarker and Wakefield (Board 12).

City Island and Hart Island
(Bronx Community Board 10)

City Islandmarker is located east of Pelham Bay Parkmarker in Long Island Soundmarker, and is known for its seafood restaurants and waterfront private homes. City Island's single shopping street, City Island Avenue, is reminiscent of a small New England town. It is connected to Rodman's Neck on the mainland by the City Island Bridgemarker.

East of City Island is Hart Islandmarker which is uninhabited and not open to the public. It once served as a prison and now houses New York City's Potter's Field or pauper's graveyard for unclaimed bodies.

West Bronx

(Bronx Community Boards 1 to 8, progressing roughly from south to northwest)

The western parts of the Bronx are hillier and are dominated by a series of parallel ridges, running south to north. The West Bronx has older apartment buildings, low income public housing complexes, multifamily homes in its lower income areas as well as larger single family homes in more affluent areas such as Riverdale. It includes New York City's fourth largest park: Van Cortlandt Parkmarker along the Westchester-Bronx border. The Grand Concoursemarker, a wide boulevard, runs through it, north to south.

Northwestern Bronx
(Bronx Community Boards 7 [between the Bronx and Harlem Riversmarker] and 8 [facing the Hudson River] — plus part of Board 12)

Neighborhoods include: Fordham-Bedford, Bedford Park, Norwoodmarker, Kingsbridge Heightsmarker (Board 7), Kingsbridge, Riverdale (Board 8), and Woodlawnmarker (Board 12).(Marble Hill, Manhattanmarker is now connected by land to the Bronx rather than Manhattan and is served by Bronx Community Board 8.)

South Bronx (or Southwest Bronx)


(Bronx Community Boards 1 to 6 plus part of Board 7 —— progressing northwards, Boards 2, 3 and 6 border the Bronx River from its mouth to Bronx Parkmarker, while 1, 4, 5 and 7 face Manhattan across the Harlem Rivermarker)

The South Bronx has no official boundaries. The name has been used to represent poverty in the Bronx. The informal designation has moved northward in recent decades so that by the 2000s the name, the "South Bronx", has come to be applied to the area roughly bound by Fordham Road to the north and the Bronx River to the east. Today neighborhoods outside of this area are economically distressed, as well. The South Bronx is filled with high-density apartment buildings, low income public housing complexes, and multi-unit homes. The South Bronx is home to the Bronx County Court House, Borough Hall, and other government buildings, as well as Yankee Stadiummarker. The Cross Bronx Expressway bisects it, east to west. The South Bronx has some of the poorest neighborhoods in the country, as well as very high crime areas.

Neighborhoods include: The Hubmarker (a retail district at Third Avenue and East 149th Street), Port Morrismarker, Mott Havenmarker (Board 1), Melrosemarker (Board 1 & Board 3), Morrisaniamarker, East Morrisania [also known as Crotona Park East] (Board 3), Hunts Point, Longwoodmarker (Board 2) , Highbridgemarker, Concourse (Board 4), West Farmsmarker, Belmontmarker, East Tremont (Board 6), Tremontmarker, Morris Heightsmarker (Board 5), University Heightsmarker, and Fordham (Board 5 & Board 7).

The Hub on Third Avenue


Shopping districts

Prominent shopping areas in the Bronx include Fordham Road, Bay Plazamarker (in Co-op Citymarker), The Hubmarker, Riverdale/Kingsbridge Shopping center and Bruckner Boulevard. Shops are also concentrated on streets aligned underneath elevated railroad lines, including Westchester Avenue, White Plains Road, Jerome Avenue, Southern Boulevard and Broadwaymarker.

Transportation



Roads and streets

The Bronx street grid is irregular. Like the northernmost part of upper Manhattan, the West Bronx's hilly terrain leaves a relatively free-style street grid. Much of the West Bronx's street numbering carries over from upper Manhattan, but does not match it exactly; East 132nd Street is the lowest numbered street in the Bronx. This dates from the mid-nineteenth century when the southwestern area of Westchester Countymarker west of the Bronx River, was incorporated into New York City and known as the Northside.

The East Bronx is considerably flatter, and the street layout tends to be more regular. Only the Wakefield neighborhood picks up the street numbering, albeit at a disalignment due to Tremont Avenue's layout. At the same diagonal latitude, West 262nd Street in Riverdale matches East 237th Street in Wakefield.

Three major north-south thoroughfares run between Manhattan and the Bronx: Third Avenue, Park Avenue, and Broadwaymarker. Other major north-south roads include the Grand Concoursemarker, Jerome Avenue, Sedgewick Avenue, Webster Avenue, and White Plains Road. Major east-west thoroughfares include Mosholu Parkway, Gun Hill Road, Fordham Road, Pelham Parkway, and Tremont Avenue.

Most east-west streets are prefixed with either East or West, to indicate on which side of Jerome Avenue they lie (continuing the similar system in Manhattan, which uses Fifth Avenuemarker as the dividing line).

The historic Boston Post Road, part of the long pre-revolutionary road connecting Bostonmarker with other northeastern cities, runs east-west in some places, and sometimes northeast-southwest.

Mosholu and Pelham Parkways, with Bronx Parkmarker between them, Van Cortlandt Parkmarker to the west and Pelham Bay Parkmarker to the east, are also linked by bridle paths.

Highways

Several major limited access highways traverse the Bronx. These include:



Bridges and tunnels

Many bridges and tunnels connect the Bronx to Manhattan and Queensmarker(3). These include, from west to east:

To Manhattan: the Spuyten Duyvil Bridgemarker, the Henry Hudson Bridge, the Broadway Bridgemarker, the University Heights Bridgemarker, the Washington Bridge, the Alexander Hamilton Bridgemarker, the High Bridgemarker, the Concourse Tunnel, the Macombs Dam Bridgemarker, the 145th Street Bridgemarker, the 149th Street Tunnelmarker, the Madison Avenue Bridgemarker, the Park Avenue Bridge, the Lexington Avenue Tunnel, the Third Avenue Bridgemarker (southbound traffic only), and the Willis Avenue Bridgemarker (northbound traffic only).

To Manhattan or Queens: the Robert F.marker Kennedy Bridgemarker (which opened as the Triborough Bridge).

To Queens: the Bronx Whitestone Bridgemarker and the Throgs Neck Bridgemarker

Mass transit

The Bronx is served by six lines of the New York City Subway: Two Metro-North Railroad commuter rail lines (the Harlem Line and the Hudson Line) serve 11 stations in the Bronx. (Marble Hillmarker, between the Spuyten Duyvilmarker and University Heightsmarker stations, is actually in the only part of Manhattan connected to the mainland.) In addition, trains serving the New Haven Line stop at Fordham Roadmarker.

Demographics

Poverty concentrations within the Bronx, by Census Tract.


Population and housing

As of the United States Census of 2000, there were 1,332,650 people, 463,212 households, and 314,984 families residing in the borough. The population density was 12,242.2/km² (31,709.3/sq mi). There were 490,659 housing units at an average density of 4,507.4/km² (11,674.8/sq mi). There were 463,212 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.4% were married couples living together, 30.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.0% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.37.

The age distribution of the population in the Bronx was as follows: 29.8% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.1% 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 87.0 males.

Individual and household income

The 1999 median income for a household in the borough was $27,611, and the median income for a family was $30,682. Males had a median income of $31,178 versus $29,429 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $13,959. About 28.0% of families and 30.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.5% of those under age 18 and 21.3% of those age 65 or over.

While the Bronx as a whole is one of the poorest areas in the United States, there is wide variation between neighborhoods, including affluent areas such as Riverdale and Country Club.

Racial concentrations within the Bronx, by block.
(Red indicates Hispanic of any race; Blue indicates non-Hispanic White; and Green indicates non-Hispanic Black or African-American.)


Ethnicity, language and immigration

According to the 2005–2007 American Community Survey Estimates, the borough's population was 23.0% White (13.0% non-Hispanic White alone), 34.5% Black or African American (30.6% non-HispanicBlack or African American alone), 0.7% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.8% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 40.4% from some other race and 2.4% from two or more races. 50.7% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race (23.3% of Bronx's population were Puerto Ricans). [246]31.7% of the population were foreign born and another 8.9% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parents. 55.6% spoke a language other than English at home and 16.4% had a Bachelor's degree or higher. [247]

The principal ethnic groups of the borough in the 2000 Census (simplifying official classifications) were:
  • 48.4% Hispanics and Latinos of all races (including 4.4% solely Black or African-American and 3.7% of two or more races)
  • 31.2% Blacks or African-Americans (single-race)
  • 14.5% Whites (single-race)
  •   2.9% Asians (single-race)
  •   2.0% Multiracials
  •   0.9% Other (including Pacific Islanders and Native Americans, Alaskans or Hawaiians)


The Bronx has some of the nation's highest percentages of Puerto Ricans and Dominican with 24.0% and 10.0%, respectively.

The Census of 1930 counted only 1.0% (12,930) of the Bronx's population as Negro (while making no distinct counts of Hispanic or Spanish-surname residents).

Immigrants from Ghana have clustered along the Grand Concoursemarker.

The Golden Krust Bakery & Grill chain was established by Jamaican immigrants on Gunhill road in 1989 and has expanded to 120 restaurants and a production facility supplying New York schools and prisons as well as stores across the country.

Based on sample data from the 2000 census, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that 47.3% of the population five and older spoke only English at home, while 43.7% spoke Spanish at home, either exclusively or along with English. Other languages or groups of languages spoken at home by more than 0.25% of the population of the Bronx include Italian (1.36%), Kru, Igbo, or Yoruba [West Africa] (0.72%) and French (0.54%).

The main European ancestries of Bronx residents, 2000 (percentage of total borough population):

Government and politics

Local government

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, the Bronx has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a mayor-council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in the Bronx.

The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United Statesmarker declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional on the grounds that Brooklynmarker, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Islandmarker, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision. Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations.

On February 18, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama appointed the former Bronx Borough President, Adolfo Carrión, Jr., to the position of Director of the White House Office of Urban Affairs Policy.

On April 21, 2009, a special election was held to choose Carrión's successor. Democratic New York State Assembly member Rubén Díaz, Jr., running on the "Bronx Unity" ticket, won this election with 29,420 votes (86%) against 4,646 votes (14%) for the Republican Anthony Ribustello ("People First") and 11 votes for write-in candidates. On May 1, 2009, Assemblyman Diaz was sworn in as the thirteenth Borough President of the Bronx (For his predecessors, see the List of Bronx Borough Presidents.)

Every currently-elected public official in the Bronx has first won the Democratic nomination (whether or not also nominated by other parties). Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education and economic development. Controversial political issues in the Bronx include environmental issues, the cost of housing, and the alienation of parkland for new Yankee Stadiummarker.

Since its separation from New York Countymarker on January 1, 1914, the Bronx, has had, like each of the other 61 counties of New York State, its own directly-elected District Attorney, the county's chief public prosecutor. Robert T. Johnson, a Democrat, has been the District Attorney of Bronx County since 1989. He was the first African-American District Attorney in New York State.

Eight members of the New York City Council represent districts wholly within the Bronx, while a ninth represents a Manhattanmarker district (8) that also includes a small area of the Bronx. (All of them were Democrats in 2008.) One of those members, Joel Rivera (District 15), has been the Council's Majority Leader since 2002.

The Bronx also has twelve Community Boards, appointed bodies that field complaints and advise on land use and municipal facilities and services for local residents, businesses and institutions. (They are listed at Bronx Community Boards).

Legislative and Congressional representatives

In 2008, three Democrats represented almost all of the Bronx in the United States House of Representatives.



All of these Representatives won over 75% of their districts' respective votes in both 2004 and 2006. National Journal's neutral rating system placed all of their voting records in 2005 and 2006 somewhere between very liberal and extremely liberal.

Eleven out of 150 members of the New York State Assembly (the lower house of the state legislature) represent districts wholly within the Bronx. Six State Senators out of 62 represent Bronx districts, half of them wholly within the County, and half straddling other counties. All these legislators are Democrats who won between 65% and 100% of their districts' vote in 2006.

Votes for other offices

In the 2004 presidential election, Senator John F. Kerry (Democratic and Working Families Parties) received 81.8% of the vote in the Bronx while successfully reelected President George W. Bush (Republican and Conservative Parties) received 16.3%.

A year later, the Democratic former Bronx Borough President Fernando Ferrer won 59.8% of the borough's vote against 38.8% for Mayor Michael Bloomberg (Republican and Independence Party) who carried every other borough in his winning campaign for re-election.

In 2006, successfully-reelected Senator Hillary Clinton (Democratic, Working Families & Independence) won 89.5% of the Bronx's vote against 9.6% for Yonkersmarker ex-Mayor John Spencer (Republican and Conservative), while Eliot Spitzer (Democratic, Working Families & Independence) received 88.8% of the Borough's vote in winning the Governorship against John Faso (Republican & Conservative), who received 9.7% of the Bronx's vote.

In the Presidential primary elections of February 5, 2008, Sen. Clinton won 61.2% of the Bronx's 148,636 Democratic votes against 37.8% for Barack Obama and 1.0% for the other four candidates combined. At the same time, John McCain won 54.4% of the borough's 5,643 Republican votes, Mitt Romney 20.8%, Mike Huckabee 8.2%, Ron Paul 7.4%, Rudy Giuliani 5.6%, and the other three candidates 3.6% between them.

In the Presidential general election of November 4, 2008, Sen. Obama won 87.8% of the Bronx's vote (338,261) on the Democratic and Working Families Party lines of the ballot, Sen. McCain won 10.8% (41,683) on the Republican, Independence and Conservative Party lines, and other candidates won 1.3% (1,342) between them. The Democratic candidate's percentage of the Presidential vote increased by 6% from 2004, while the Republican presidential candidate's percentage declined by 5.5%.

After becoming a separate county in 1914, the Bronx has supported only two Republican Presidential candidates. It voted heavily for the winning Republican Warren G. Harding in 1920, but much more narrowly on a split vote for his victorious Republican successor Calvin Coolidge in 1924 (Coolidge 79,562; John W. Davis, Dem., 72,834; Robert La Follette, 62,202 equally divided between the Progressive and Socialist lines).

Since then, the Bronx has always supported the Democratic Party's nominee for President, starting with a vote of 2-1 for the unsuccessful Al Smith in 1928, followed by four 2-1 votes for the successful Franklin D. Roosevelt. (Both had been Governors of New York, but the Bronx voted against two former Republican Governors who ran for President: Charles Evans Hughes in 1916 and Thomas E. Dewey in 1944 and 1948.)

The Bronx has often shown striking differences from other boroughs in elections for Mayor. The only Republican to carry the Bronx since 1914 was Fiorello La Guardia in 1933, 1937 and 1941 (and in the latter two elections, only because his 30-32% vote on the American Labor Party line was added to 22-23% as a Republican).. The Bronx was thus the only borough not carried by the successful Republican re-election campaigns of Mayors Rudolph Giuliani in 1997 and Michael Bloomberg in 2005. The anti-war Socialist campaign of Morris Hillquit in the 1917 mayoral election won over 31% of the Bronx's vote, putting him second and well ahead of the 20% won by the incumbent pro-war Fusion Mayor John P. Mitchel, who came in second (ahead of Hillquit) everywhere else and outpolled Hillquit city-wide by 23.2% to 21.7%.

Postal service

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in the Bronx. The Bronx General Post Office is located at 558 Grand Concourse.

Education

Education in the Bronx is provided by a large number of public and private institutions, many of which draw students who live beyond the Bronx. The New York City Department of Education manages public schools in the borough. In 2000, public schools enrolled nearly 280,000 of the Bronx's residents over 3 years old (out of 333,100 enrolled in all pre-college schools). Private schools range from élite independent schools to religiously-affiliated schools run by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York and Jewish organizations.

Educational attainment: In 2000, according to the U.S. Census, out of the nearly 800,000 people in the Bronx who were then at least 25 years old, 62.3% had graduated from high school and 14.6% held a bachelor's or higher college degree. These percentages were lower than those for New York's other boroughs, which ranged from 68.8% (Brooklyn) to 82.6% (Staten Island) for high school graduates over 24, and from 21.8% (Brooklyn) to 49.4% (Manhattan) for college graduates. (The respective state and national percentages were [NY] 79.1% & 27.4% and [US] 80.4% & 24.4%.)

High schools

In the 2000 Census, 79,240 of the nearly 95,000 Bronx residents enrolled in high school attended public schools.

Many public high schools are located in the borough including the élite Bronx High School of Sciencemarker, DeWitt Clinton High School, High School for Violin and Dance, Bronx Leadership Academy 2, Bronx International High School, the School for Excellence, the Morris Academy for Collaborative Study, Herbert H. Lehman High school and High School of American Studies. The Bronx is also home to three of New York City's most prestigious private, secular schools: Fieldston, Horace Mannmarker, and Riverdale Country School.

High schools linked to the Roman Catholic Church include: All Hallows High Schoolmarker,Fordham Preparatory Schoolmarker, Monsignor Scanlan High Schoolmarker, St. Raymond High School for Boysmarker, All Hallows High Schoolmarker, Cardinal Hayes High Schoolmarker, Cardinal Spellman High Schoolmarker, The Academy of Mount Saint Ursulamarker, Aquinas High Schoolmarker, Preston High Schoolmarker, St. Catharine Academymarker, Mount Saint Michael Academymarker, St. Barnabas High Schoolmarker.

The SAR Academymarker and SAR High Schoolmarker are Modern Orthodox Jewish Yeshiva coeducational day schools in Riverdale, with roots in Manhattan's Lower East Sidemarker.

In the 1990s, New York City began closing the large, public high schools in the Bronx and replacing them with small high schools. Among the reasons cited for the changes were poor graduation rates and concerns about safety. Schools that have been closed or reduced in size include John F. Kennedy, James Monroe, Taft, Theodore Rooseveltmarker, Adlai Stevenson, Evander Childs, Christopher Columbusmarker, Morris, Walton, and South Bronx High Schools. More recently the City has started phasing out large middle schools, also replacing them with smaller schools.



Institutions of higher education

In 2000, 49,442 (57.5%) of the 86,014 Bronx residents seeking college, graduate or professional degrees attended public institutions.

Several colleges and universities are located in the Bronx.

Fordham Universitymarker, a coeducational undergraduate and graduate university, was founded in 1841. It is officially an independent institution but strongly embraces its Jesuit heritage. The Bronx campus, known as Rose Hill, is the main campus of the university (other Fordham campuses are located in Manhattan and Westchester County).

Three campuses of the City University of New York are in the Bronx: Hostos Community College, Bronx Community College (occupying the former University Heightsmarker Campus of New York Universitymarker) and Herbert H. Lehman Collegemarker (formerly the uptown campus of Hunter Collegemarker), which offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees.

The College of Mount Saint Vincentmarker is a Catholic liberal arts college in Riverdale under the direction of the Sisters of Charity of New York. Founded in 1847 as a school for girls, the academy became a degree-granting college in 1911 and began admitting men in 1974. The school serves 1,600 students. Its campus is also home to the Academy for Jewish Religion, a transdenominational rabbinical and cantorial school.

Manhattan Collegemarker is a Catholic college in Riverdale which offers undergraduate programs in the arts, business, education, engineering, and science. It also offers graduate programs in education and engineering.

Albert Einstein College of Medicinemarker, part of Yeshiva Universitymarker, is in Morris Parkmarker.

Two colleges based in Westchester Countymarker have Bronx campuses. The Catholic and nearly-all-female College of New Rochelle maintains satellite campuses at Co-op Citymarker and in The Hubmarker. The coeducational and non-sectarian Mercy College in Dobbs Ferrymarker, founded by the Catholic Sisters of Mercy in 1950, has a campus near Westchester Square.

By contrast, the private, proprietary Monroe Collegemarker, focused on preparation for business and the professions, started in the Bronx in 1933 but now has a campus in New Rochellemarker (Westchester County) as well the Bronx's Fordham neighborhood.

The State University of New York Maritime College in Fort Schuylermarker (Throggs Neckmarker)—at the far southeastern tip of the Bronx—is the national leader in maritime education and houses the Maritime Industry Museum. (Directly across Long Island Soundmarker is Kings Pointmarker, Long Island, home of the United States Merchant Marine Academymarker and the American Merchant Marine Museum.)

Cultural life and institutions

Author Edgar Allan Poe spent the last years of his life (1846 to 1849) in the Bronx at Poe Cottagemarker, now located at Kingsbridge Road and the Grand Concoursemarker. A small wooden farmhouse built about 1812, the cottage once commanded unobstructed vistas over the rolling Bronx hills to the shores of Long Islandmarker.



The Bronx's evolution from a hot bed of Latin jazz to an incubator of hip hop was the subject of an award-winning documentary, produced by City Lore and broadcast on PBS in 2006, "From Mambo to Hip Hop: A South Bronx Tale". Hip Hop first emerged in the South Bronx in the early 1970s. The New York Times has identified 1520 Sedgwick Avenue "an otherwise unremarkable high-rise just north of the Cross Bronx Expressway and hard along the Major Deegan Expressway" as a starting point, where DJ Kool Herc presided over parties in the community room.

On August 11, 1973, DJ Kool Herc was a Dee Jay and Emcee at a party in the :recreation room of 1520 Sedgewick Avenue in the Bronx adjacent to the Cross-Bronx Expressway. While it was not the actual "Birthplace of Hip Hop" -- the genre developed slowly in several places in the 1970s -- it was verified to be the place where one of the pivotal and formative events occurred. Specifically, DJ Kool Herc:

Beginning with the advent of beat match DJ'ing, in which Bronx DJs (Disc Jockey) including Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa and DJ Kool Herc extended the breaks of funk records, a major new musical genre emerged that sought to isolate the percussion breaks of hit funk, disco and soul songs. As hip hop's popularity grew, performers began speaking ("rapping") in sync with the beats, and became known as MCs or emcees. The Herculoids, made up of Herc, Coke La Rock, and DJ Clark Kent, were the earliest to gain major fame. The Bronx is referred to in hip-hop slang as "The Boogie Down Bronx", or just "The Boogie Down". This was hip-hop pioneer KRS-One's inspiration for his thought provoking group BDP, or Boogie Down Productions, which included DJ Scott La Rock. Newer hip hop artists from the Bronx include Swizz Beatz, Drag-On, Fat Joe Terror Squad and Corey Gunz.

Hush Hip Hop Tours has established a sightseeing tour of the Bronx showcasing the locations that helped shape hip hop culture and has the pioneers of hip hop as tour guides. The recent recognition of the Bronx as an important center of African-American culture, led Fordham University to establish the ongoing "Bronx African-American History Project (BAAHP)".

The Bronx is home to several Off-Off-Broadway theaters, many staging new works by immigrant playwrights from Latin America and Africa. The Pregones Theater, which produces Latin American work, opened a new 130-seat theater in 2005 on Walton Avenue in the South Bronx. Some artists from elsewhere in New York City have begun to converge on the area, and housing prices have nearly quadrupled in the area since 2002. However rising prices directly correlate to a housing shortage across the city and the entire metro area.

The Bronx Museum of the Arts, founded in 1971, exhibits 20th century and contemporary art through its central museum space and of galleries. Many of its exhibitions are on themes of special interest to the Bronx. Its permanent collection features more than 800 works of art, primarily by artists from Africa, Asia and Latin America, including paintings, photographs, prints, drawings, and mixed media. The museum was temporarily closed in 2006 while it underwent a major expansion designed by the architectural firm Arquitectonica.



The Bronx has also become home to a peculiar poetic tribute, in the form of the Heinrich Heine Memorial, better known as the Loreleimarker Fountain from one of Heine's best-known works (1838). After Heine's German birthplace of Düsseldorfmarker had rejected, allegedly for anti-Semitic motives, a centennial monument to the radical German-Jewish poet (1797–1856), his incensed German-American admirers, including Carl Schurz, started a movement to place one instead in Midtown Manhattan, at Fifth Avenuemarker and 59th Street. However, this intention was thwarted by a combination of ethnic antagonism, aesthetic controversy and political struggles over the institutional control of public art. In 1899, the memorial, by the Berlinmarker sculptor Ernst Gustav Herter (1846–1917), finally came to rest, although subject to repeated vandalism, in the Bronx, at 164th Street and the Grand Concoursemarker, or Joyce Kilmer Park near today's Yankee Stadiummarker. (In 1999, it was moved to 161st Street and the Concourse.) In 2007, Christopher Gray of The New York Times described it as "a writhing composition in white Tyrolean marble depicting Lorelei, the mythical German figure, surrounded by mermaids, dolphins and seashells."

One national landmark in the Bronx is the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, overlooking the Harlem Rivermarker and designed by the renowned architect Stanford White. The never–landmarked Yankee Stadiummarker, the "House that Ruth Built" and home to the New York Yankees since 1923, has been replaced with a similar-looking ballpark just across 161st Street.

The peninsular borough's maritime heritage is acknowledged in several ways. The City Island Historical Society and Nautical Museum occupies a former public school designed by the New York City school system's turn-of-the-last-century master architect C. B. J. Snyder. The state's Maritime College in Fort Schuylermarker (on the southeastern shore) houses the Maritime Industry Museum.. In addition, the Harlem River is reemerging as "Scullers' Row" [248] due in large part to the efforts of the Bronx River Restoration Project [249], a joint public-private endeavor of the city's parks department. Canoeing and kayaking on the borough's namesake river have been promoted by the Bronx River Alliance. The river is also straddled by the New York Botanical Gardensmarker, its neighbor, the Bronx Zoomarker, and a little further south, on the west shore, Bronx River Art Center.

The press and broadcasting

NewspapersThe Bronx has several local newspapers, including The Bronx News [250], Parkchestermarker News, City News, The Riverdale Press, Riverdale Review, The Bronx Times Reporter, Inner City Press [251] (which now has more of a focus on national issues) and Co-Op Citymarker Times. Four non-profit news outlets, Norwoodmarker News, Mount Hope Monitor, Mott Haven Herald and The Hunts Point Express serve the borough's poorer communities. The editor and co-publisher of The Riverdale Press, Bernard Stein, won the Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing for his editorials about Bronx and New York City issues in 1998. (Stein graduated from the Bronx High School of Sciencemarker in 1959.)

The Bronx once had its own daily newspaper, The Bronx Home News, which started publishing on January 20, 1907 and merged into the New York Post in 1948. It became a special section of the Post, sold only in the Bronx, and eventually disappeared from view.

Radio and televisionOne of New York City's major non-commercial radio broadcasters is WFUVmarker, an National Public Radio–affiliated 50,000-watt station broadcasting from Fordham Universitymarker's Rose Hill campus in the Bronx. The radio station's antenna is atop an apartment building owned by Montefiore Medical Center.

The City of New York has an official television station run by the NYC Media Group and broadcasting from Bronx Community College, and Cablevision operates News 12 The Bronx, both of which feature programming based in the Bronx. Co-op Citymarker was the first area in the Bronx, and the first in New York beyond Manhattanmarker, to have its own cable television provider. The local cable access station BRONXNET provides public affairs programming in addition to programming produced by Bronx residents.

The Bronx reflected on screen, in literature and in song

On screen (film and television)

Originally, movies set in the Bronx portrayed densely-settled, working-class, urban culture. Paddy Chayefsky's Academy Award-winning Marty is the epitome of this, with its tag line, "What are you doing, Marty? Nothing." This thematic line has continued in the 1993 Robert De Niro/Chazz Palminteri film, A Bronx Tale, Spike Lee's 1999 movie Summer of Sam, centered in an Italian-American Bronx community, 1994's I Like It Like That that takes place in the predominately Puerto Rican neighborhood of the South Bronx, and Doughboys, the story of two Italian-American brothers who are in danger of losing their bakery thanks to one brother's gambling debts.

The Bronx's gritty urban life had worked its way into the movies even earlier, with the use of the term "Bronx cheer", a loud flatulent-like sound of disapproval, allegedly first made by New York Yankees fans. In 1942, Spike Jones sings "Der Fuehrer's Face" (from the Disney animated film of the same name), repeatedly lambasting Adolf Hitler with: "We'll Heil! (Bronx cheer) Heil! (Bronx cheer) Right in Der Fuehrer's Face!"

Other movies have also used the term Bronx for comic effect, such as "Bronx", the character on the Disney animated series Gargoyles.

Starting in the 1970s, the Bronx often symbolized violence, decay, and urban ruin. The wave of arson in the South Bronx in the 1960s and 1970s launched the phrase the Bronx is burning: in 1974 it was the title of both a New York Times editorial and a BBC documentary film. The line entered the pop-consciousness with Game Two of the 1977 World Series, when a fire broke out near Yankee Stadiummarker as the team was playing the Los Angeles Dodgers. As the fire was captured on live television, announcer Howard Cosell intoned, "There it is, ladies and gentlemen: the Bronx is burning". Historians of New York City frequently point to Cosell's remark as a sign of both the city and the borough's decline. A new feature-length documentary film by Edwin Pagan called Bronx Burning is in production in 2006, chronicling what led up to the arson-for-insurance fraud fires of the 1970s and the subsequent rebirth of the community.

These themes have been especially pervasive in representations of the Bronx in cinema. There are good depictions of Bronx gangs in the 1974 novel The Wanderers by Bronx native Richard Price and the 1979 movie of the same name. They are set in the heart of the Bronx, showing apartment life and the then-landmark Krums ice cream parlor. In the 1979 film The Warriors, the eponymous gang go to a meeting in Van Cortlandt Parkmarker in the Bronx, and have to fight their way back to Coney Islandmarker in Brooklynmarker. The 2005 video game adaptation features levels called Pelham, Tremont, and "Gunhill" (an apparent corruption of the name Gun Hill Road).

This theme lends itself to the title of The Bronx Is Burning, an eight-part ESPN TV mini-series (2007) about the New York Yankees' drive to winning baseball's 1977 World Series. The TV series emphasizes the boisterous nature of the team, led by manager Billy Martin, catcher Thurman Munson and outfielder Reggie Jackson, as well as the malaise of the Bronx and New York City in general during that time, such as the blackout, the financial problems, the arson issues, and the election of Ed Koch as mayor.

The 1981 film Fort Apache, The Bronx is another film that used the Bronx's gritty image for its storyline. The movie's title is from the nickname for the 41st Police Precinct in the South Bronx which was nicknamed "Fort Apache". Also from 1981 is the horror film Wolfen making use of the rubble of the South Bronx as a home for werewolf type creatures. Knights of the South Bronx, a true story of a teacher who worked with disadvantaged children, is another film also set in the Bronx released in 2005.

The Bronx was the setting for the 1983 film Fuga dal Bronx, also known as Bronx Warriors 2 and Escape 2000, an Italian B-movie best known for its appearance on the television series Mystery Science Theatre 3000. The plot revolves around a sinister construction corporation's plans to depopulate, destroy and redevelop the Bronx, and a band of rebels who are out to expose the corporation's murderous ways and save their homes. The film is memorable for its almost incessant use of the phrase, "Leave the Bronx!" Amusingly, many of the movie's scenes were filmed in Queensmarker, not the Bronx.

Bronx born and reared Nancy Savoca's 1989 comedy True Love, explores two Italian-American Bronx sweethearts in the days before their wedding. The film, which debuted Annabella Sciorra and Ron Eldard as the betrothed couple, won the Grand Jury Prize at that year's Sundance Film Festival.

The CBS television sitcom Becker, 1998–2004, was more ambiguous. The show starred Ted Danson as Dr. John Becker, a doctor who operated a small practice and was constantly annoyed by his patients, co-workers, friends, and practically everything and everybody else in his world. In a stylized manner, it showed the everyday life of a small businessman in the Bronx.

Penny Marshall's 1990 film Awakenings, which was nominated for several Oscars, is based on neurologist Oliver Sacks' 1973 account of his psychiatric patients at Beth Abraham Hospital in the Bronx who were paralyzed by a form of encephalitis but briefly responded to the drug L-dopa. Robin Williams played the physician; Robert De Niro was one of the patients who emerged from a catatonic (frozen) state. The home of Williams' character was shot not far from Sacks' actual City Islandmarker residence. A 1973 Yorkshire Television documentary and "A Kind of Alaska", a 1985 play by Harold Pinter , were also based on Sacks' book.

Gus Van Sant's 2000 Finding Forrester was quickly billed "Good Will Hunting in the Hood." Sean Connery is in the title role of a reclusive old man who 50 years earlier wrote a single novel that garnered the Pulitzer Prize. He meets 16 year old Jamal - actor Rob Brown - a gifted, Bronx reared basketball player and aspiring writer, and becomes his mentor. The movie includes stock footage of Bronx housing projects from 1990, as well as other scenes shot in Manhattan and Brooklyn.

In literature

The Bronx has been featured in much fiction. All of the characters in Herman Wouk's City Boy: The Adventures of Herbie Bookbinder (1948) live in the Bronx, and about half of the action is set there. Kate Simon's Bronx Primitive: Portraits of a Childhood is directly autobiographical, a warm account of a Polish-Jewish girl in an immigrant family growing up before World War II, and living near Arthur Avenue and Tremont Avenue. In Jacob M. Appel's short story, "The Grand Concourse" (2007), a woman who grew up the in the iconic Lewis Morris Building returns to the Morrisaniamarker neighborhood with her adult daughter. Similarly, in Avery Corman's book The Old Neighborhood (1980), an upper-middle class white protagonist returns to his birth neighborhood (Fordham Road and the Grand Concoursemarker), and learns that even though the folks are poor, Hispanic and African-American, they are good people.

By contrast, Tom Wolfe's Bonfire of the Vanities (1987) portrays a wealthy, white protagonist, Sherman McCoy, getting lost off the Major Deegan Expressway in the South Bronx and having an altercation with locals. A substantial piece of the last part of the book is set in the resulting riotous trial at the Bronx County Court House. However, times change, and in 2007, the New York Times reported that "the Bronx neighborhoods near the site of Sherman's accident are now dotted with townhouses and apartments." In the same article, the Reverend Al Sharpton (whose fictional analogue in the novel is "Reverend Bacon") asserts that "twenty years later, the cynicism of The Bonfire of the Vanities is as out of style as Tom Wolfe's wardrobe."

Don DeLillo's Underworld (1997) is also extensively set in the Bronx and offers a perspective on the decline of the area from the 1950s onwards.

In poetry, the Bronx has been immortalized by one of the world's shortest couplets:
The Bronx
No Thonx
: Ogden Nash, The New Yorker, 1931


Nash repented 33 years after his calumny, penning in 1964 the following prose poem to the Dean of Bronx Community College:
I can't seem to escape
the sins of my smart-alec youth;
Here are my amends.
I wrote those lines, "The Bronx?
No thonx";
I shudder to confess them.
Now I'm an older, wiser man
I cry, "The Bronx? God
bless them!"


In song

Passing through: The theme song to the 1960s U.S. television comedy series Car 54, Where Are You? begins "There's a holdup in the Bronx." And the song "New York, New York" (by Betty Comden and Adolph Green from the 1940s musical comedy and film, "On the Town") explains that "The Bronx is up and the Batterymarker's down." Another song, "Manhattan" (by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart for the 1925 musical "Garrick Gaieties"), declares "We'll have Manhattan,/The Bronx and Staten/Island too./It's lovely going through/the zoo."

Bronx Local: While hundreds of songs about New York City, Manhattan and Brooklyn can be found in Wikipedia's List of songs about New York City and also in Marc Ferris's 5-page, 15-column list of "Songs and Compositions Inspired by New York City" in The Encyclopedia of New York City (1995), only a handful refer to the Bronx.

Ferris's extensive but selective 1995 list mentions only four songs referring specifically to the Bronx:



But Wikipedia's own list also currently mentions:



See also



References

  1. Bronx County, New York, retrieved on May 15, 2009
  2. While the Bronx has an area of only 42 square miles (110 km²), those 42 square miles have more residents than the 665,000 square miles (1.7 million km²) of Alaska and Wyoming combined, according to Table 348 of the Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2008) Ranked areas of the boroughs from U.S. Census Bureau, County and City Data Book:2007 Table B-1, Area and Population, retrieved on July 12, 2008.
  3. U.S. Census Bureau, County and City Data Book:2007 Table B-1, Area and Population, retrieved on July 12, 2008. New York County (Manhattan) was the nation's densest-populated county, followed by Kings County (Brooklyn), Bronx County, Queens County and San Francisco, California.
  4. See the "Historical Populations" table in History above and its sources.
  5. , excerpted at The Bronx... Its History & Perspective
  6. [1]
  7. See, for example, New York City Administrative Code §2–202
  8. See, for example, references on the New York City website
  9. Lloyd Ultan, Bronx Borough Historian, letter to William F. Buckley, Jr. in "Notes & Asides", National Review, January 28, 2002, retrieved on July 3, 2008.
  10. Steven Hess, "From The Hague to the Bronx: Definite Articles in Place Names", Journal of the North Central Name Society, Fall 1987.
  11. Rev. David J. Born, letter to William F. Buckley, Jr. in "Notes & Asides", National Review, January 28, 2002, retrieved on July 3, 2008.
  12. Jordan L. Mott (1798–1866), inventor of a coal-fired, cast-iron stove and founder of the J. L. Mott Iron Works, formerly of the Bronx. See: John Thomas Scharf, History of Westchester County, New York.., vol. 1, pt. 2 (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: L. E. Preston & Co., 1886), pages 830-886. Available on-line at: Google Books (retrieved July 27, 2009). See also: J. L. Bishop, E. T. Freedley, and E. Young, A History of American Manufactures from 1608 to 1860..., vol. II (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Edward Young & Co., 1868), pages 576-578. also available on-line at Google Books (retrieved July 27, 2009)
  13. New York. Laws of New York. 1873, 96th Session, Chapter 613, Section 1. p.928.
  14. Articles on "consolidation" (by David C. Hammack) and the "Bronx" (by David C. Hermalyn and Lloyd Ultan) in The Encyclopedia of New York City, Yale 1995 (see Further reading below)
  15. New York. Laws of New York. 1895, 118th Session, Chapter 934, Section 1. p.1948.
  16. Peck, Richard. "In the Bronx, the Gentry Live On; The Gentry Live On", The New York Times, December 2, 1973. Accessed July 17, 2008. "But the Harlem riverfront was industrializing, and in 1874 the city annexed the area west of the Bronx River: Morrisania, West Farms and Kingsbridge. A second annexation in 1894 gathered in Westchester and portions of Eastchester and Pelham." However, 1894 must refer to the referendum, since the enabling act was not passed or signed until 1895.
  17. New York. Laws of New York. 1912, 135th Session, Chapter 548, Section 1. p.1352.
  18. On the start of business for Bronx County: BRONX COUNTY IN MOTION. New Officials All Find Work to Do on Their First Day. The New York Times, January 3, 1914 (PDF retrieved on June 26, 2008): :"Despite the fact that the new Bronx County Court House is not completed there was no delay yesterday in getting the court machinery in motion. All the new county officials were on hand and the County Clerk, the District Attorney, the Surrogate, and the County Judge soon had things in working order. The seal to be used by the new county was selected by County Judge Louis D. Gibbs. It is circular. In the centre is a seated figure of Justice. To her right is an American shield and over the figure is written 'Populi Suprema.' ..." :"Surrogate George M. S. Schulz, with his office force, was busy at the stroke of 9 o'clock. Two wills were filed in the early morning, but owing to the absence of a safe they were recorded and then returned to the attorneys for safe keeping. ..." :"There was a rush of business to the new County Clerk's office. Between seventy-five and a hundred men applied for first naturalization papers. Two certificates of incorporation were issued, and seventeen judgments, seven lis pendens, three mechanics' liens and one suit for negligence were filed." :"Sheriff O'Brien announced several additional appointments."
  19. Lloyd Ultan, Bronx Borough Historian, "History of the Bronx River," Paper presented to the Bronx River Alliance, November 5, 2002 (notes taken by Maarten de Kadt, November 16, 2002), retrieved on August 29, 2008. This 2-1/2 hour talk covers much of the early history of the Bronx as a whole, in addition to the Bronx River.
  20. Christopher Gray, "Streetscapes: The New York Coliseum; From Auditorium To Bus Garage to..." The New York Times, Real Estate section, March 22, 1992, retrieved on July 2, 2008
  21. The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1943, page 494, citing the American Jewish Committee and the Jewish Statistical Bureau of the Synagogue Council of America
  22. Remembrance of Synagogues Past: The Lost Civilization of the Jewish South Bronx, by Seymour J. Perlin, Ed.D. (retrieved on August 10, 2008), citing population estimates in "The Jewish Community Study of New York: 2002", UJA [United Jewish Appeal] Federation of New York, June 2004, and his own survey of synagogue sites.
  23. Quick Tables QT-P15 and QT-P22, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved on August 10, 2008
  24. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1974; ISBN 0-394-72024-5
  25. Roderick Wallace: "A synergism of plagues: 'planned shrinkage,' contagious housing destruction, and AIDS in the Bronx." Environmental Research, October 1988, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 1–33, and "Urban desertification, public health and public order: 'planned shrinkage', violent death, substance abuse and AIDS in the Bronx", Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 7 (1990) pp. 801–813 — abstracts retrieved on July 5, 2008 from PubMed. One sentence in the abstract of the 1990 article reads, "Empirical and theoretical analyses strongly imply present sharply rising levels of violent death, intensification of deviant behaviors implicated in the spread of AIDS, and the pattern of the AIDS outbreak itself, have been gravely affected, and even strongly determined, by the outcomes of a program of 'planned shrinkage' directed against African-American and Hispanic communities, and implemented through systematic and continuing denial of municipal services--particularly fire extinguishment resources--essential for maintaining urban levels of population density and ensuring community stability."
  26. Issues such as redlining, hospital quality and what looked like the planned shrinkage of garbage collection became the contentious issues that sparked the Puerto Rican activists known as the Young Lords. The Young Lords coalesced with similar groups fighting for neighborhood empowerment, such as the Black Panthers, to protest urban renewal and arson for profit with sit-ins and marches. See pages 6–9 of the guide to ¡Palante Siempre Palante! The Young Lords a "P.O.V." (Point of View) documentary on the Public Broadcasting Service.
  27. For an example of this argument, as well as of several other theses mentioned here, see "When the Bronx was burning" City-data forum (blog), 2007, where rubygreta writes:"Rent control destroyed the Bronx, especially starting in the 1960s and 1970s, when oil prices rose through the roof, and heavily subsidized Coop City opened in the East Bronx. Essentially, tenants never moved out of their apartments because they had below-market rents thanks to rent control. The apartments deteriorated and common areas deteriorated because the landlords had no cash-flow. And no cash flow meant that they could not get mortgages for major repairs such as boilers, roofs and window replacement."
  28. PERSPECTIVES: The 10-Year Housing Plan; Issues for the 90's: Management and Costs, The New York Times, January 7, 1990
  29. Neighborhood Change and the City of New York’s Ten-Year Housing Plan Housing Policy Debate • Volume 10, Issue 4. Fannie Mae Foundation 1999.
  30. NOS QUEDAMOS/WE STAY Melrose Commons, Bronx, New York Sustainable Communities Network Case Studies Sustainability in Action 1997, retrieved on July 6, 2008
  31. David Gonzalez, Yolanda Garcia, 53, Dies; A Bronx Community Force, The New York Times, February 19, 2005, retrieved on July 6, 2008
  32. Meera Subramanian, HOMES AND GARDENS IN THE SOUTH BRONX, Portfolio, November 8, 2005, New York University Department of Journalism, retrieved on July 6, 2008
  33. Wealthy are drowning in new bank branches, says study, New York Daily News, Monday, September 10 2007
  34. Superintendent Neiman Addresses the Ninth Annual Bronx Bankers Breakfast June 15, 2007. Among the remarks of Richard H. Neiman, New York State's Superintendent of Banks, were these: "The Bronx was an economically stable community until the mid 1960s when the entire South Bronx struggled with major construction, real estate issues, red-lining, and block busting. This included a thoroughfare that divided communities, the deterioration of property as a result of rent control, and decrease in the value of real estate. By the mid 1970s, the South Bronx was considered one of the most blighted urban cities in the country, with a loss of 60% of the population and 40% of housing units. The entire area struggled during the 1980s and 1990s to recover from this damage. However, thanks to strong community leadership and the involvement of many of you, today, the Bronx is undergoing a resurgence, with new housing developments and thriving business. From 2000 to 2006, there was a 2.2% increase in population and home ownership rates increased by 19.6%. ... When I look at maps of the Bronx, it’s not difficult to see the areas that don’t have bank branches. These areas, which are prime locations for new bank branches, include Community districts 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12."
  35. New bank targets Latinos in South Bronx December 11, 2007
  36. On June 30, 2005, there were 129 Federally-insured banking offices in the Bronx, for a ratio of 1.0 offices for every 10,000 inhabitants. By contrast the national financial center of Manhattan had 555 for a ratio of 3.5/10,000, Staten Island a ratio of 1.9, Queens 1.7 and Brooklyn 1.1. In New York State as a whole the ratio was 2.6 and in the United States, 3.5 (a single office can serve more people in a more-densely-populated area.) U.S. Census Bureau, City and County Data Book, 2007 Table B-11. Counties -- Banking, Retail Trade, and Accommodation and Food Services For 1997 and 2007, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Summary of Deposits; summary tables Deposits of all FDIC-Insured Institutions Operating in New York: State Totals by County — all retrieved on July 15–16, 2008.
  37. FUTURE OF NEW WARDS; New-York's Possession in Westchester County Rapidly Developing. The New York Times, Wednesday, May 17, 1896, page 15 (The subheadlines continue "TROLLEY AND STEAM ROAD SYSTEMS Vast Areas Being Brought Close to the Heart of the City -- Miles of New Streets and Sewers. BOTANICAL AND ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS. Advantages That Will Soon Relieve Crowded Sections of the City of Thousands of Their Inhabitants.") This is a very useful glimpse into the state of the Bronx (and the hopes of Manhattan's pro-Consolidation forces) as parks, housing and transit were all being rapidly developed.
  38. Bronx High Point and Ascent of Bronx Point on 2008-6-24 at Peakbaggers.com, retrieved on July 22, 2008
  39. Waterfront Development Initiative, Bronx Borough President's office, March 19, 2004, retrieved on July 29, 2008
  40. U.S. Census 2000 Gazetteer Files retrieved n July 26, 2008
  41. Last Section Of Macombs Dam Park Closes To The Public For Redevelopment On-site construction begins on Garage A and the New Macombs Dam Park, Press Release, November 1, 2007, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation retrieved on July 19, 2008
  42. Ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is blooming! by Beth J. Harpaz, Travel Editor of The Associated Press (AP), June 30, 2008, retrieved on July 11, 2008
  43. Crotona Park New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, retrieved on July 20, 2008
  44. Article on the Bronx by Gary D. Hermalyn and Lloyd Ultan in The Encyclopedia of New York City (1995 - see Further reading for bibliographic details)
  45. Jerome Park (New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, retrieved on July 12, 2008).
  46. Bronx Parks for the 21st Century, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, retrieved on July 20, 2008. This links to both an interactive map and a downloadable (1.7 MB PDF) map showing nearly every public park and greenspace in the Bronx.
  47. As Maps and Memories Fade, So Do Some Bronx Boundary Lines by Manny Fernandez, The New York Times, September 16, 2006, retrieved on August 3, 2008
  48. Most correlations with Community Board jurisdictions in this section come from Bronx Community Boards at the Bronx Mall web-site, and New York: a City of Neighborhoods, New York City Department of City Planning, both retrieved on August 5, 2008
  49. Quick Table QT-P4. Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2000; Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data; Geographic Area: Bronx County, New York drawn from U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1, Matrices P3 and P4, retrieved on August 7, 2008. Basic Census classifications kept but some data and percentages renamed, resorted or recalculated to match local conditions.
  50. Quick Table QT-P9. Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2000; Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data; Geographic Area: Bronx County, New York drawn from U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1, Matrix PCT11, retrieved on August 7, 2008
  51. Historical Census Browser University of Virginia, Geospatial and Statistical Data Center, retrieved on August 7, 2008, querying 1930 Census for New York State. "The data and terminology presented in the Historical Census Browser are drawn directly from historical volumes of the U.S. Census of Population and Housing."
  52. Oscar Johnson, "Chilly Coexistence: Africans and African Americans in the Bronx", Race Anthology (Columbia University journalism program), Spring 2000, retrieved on August 7, 2008. According to this story, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service data show that in 1996, about two-thirds of those Ghanaians visiting the United States, and nearly three-fourths of those naturalized, arrived in New York City.
  53. American Factfinder 2000 Ancestry: Bronx County, NY
  54. Cornell Law School Supreme Court Collection: Board of Estimate of City of New York v. Morris, accessed June 12, 2006
  55. Kappstatter, Bob, (2/18/09), Bronx Beep Bound for D.C., New York Daily News
  56. Trymaine Lee, Voters Elect Díaz as New Borough President, The New York Times, New York edition, April 22, 2009, page A24, retrieved on May 13, 2009
  57. Kappstatter, Bob, (4/22/09), Ruben Diaz Cruises to Victory in Bronx Borough President Special Election, New York Daily News
  58. Board of Elections in the City of New York, Bronx Borough President special election results, April 21, 2009 (PDF with details by Assembly District, April 29, 2009), retrieved on May 13, 2009
  59. The Almanac of American Politics 2008 , edited by Michael Barone with Richard E. Cohen and Grant Ujifusa, National Journal Group, Washington, D.C., 2008 ISBN 978-0-89234-117-7 (paperback) or -116-0 (hardback), chapter on New York state
  60. U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2003, Section 31, Table 1384. Congressional District Profiles — 108th Congress: 2000
  61. New York State Board of Elections: 2006 Results Page, retrieved on July 23, 2008.
  62. Board of Elections in the City of New York Summary of Election Results (1999–2008), retrieved on July 21, 2008.
  63. The World Almanac and Book of Facts for 1929 & 1957; Our Campaigns (New York Counties Bronx President History);The Encyclopedia of New York City (see Further reading below), article on "government and politics"
  64. (The Republican line exceeded the ALP's in every other borough)
  65. To see a comparison of borough votes for Mayor, see New York City mayoral elections#How the Boroughs voted
  66. " NYC Post Offices to observe Presidents’ Day." United States Postal Service. February 11, 2009. Retrieved on May 5, 2009.
  67. " Post Office Location - BRONX GPO." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 5, 2009.
  68. QT-P19. School Enrollment: 2000; Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data; Geographic Area: Bronx County, New York, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved August 22, 2008
  69. U.S. Census Bureau, County and City Data Book:2007, Table B-4. Counties -- Population Characteristics
  70. In September 2008, Fordham University and its neighbor, the Wildlife Conservation Society, a global research organization which operates the Bronx Zoo, will begin a joint program leading to a Master of Science degree in adolescent science education (biology grades 7-12).
  71. Monroe College history (from the College's web site) retrieved on July 27, 2008.
  72. Edgar Allan Poe Cottage, accessed October 9, 2006
  73. 2007 Fort Greene Park Summer Literary Festival website. See also the Flickr.com photograph album of the 2007 Festival
  74. David Gonzalez, "Will Gentrification Spoil the Birthplace of Hip-Hop?", The New York Times, May 21, 2007, retrieved on July 1, 2008
  75. Jennifer Lee, "Tenants Might Buy the Birthplace of Hip-Hop", The New York Times, January 15, 2008, retrieved on July 1, 2008
  76. Tukufu Zuberi ("detective"), BIRTHPLACE OF HIP HOP, History Detectives, Season 6, Episode 11, New York City, found at PBS official website. Accessed February 24, 2009.
  77. Johan Kugelberg, Born in the Bronx; New York: Rizzoli (Universe), 2007; ISBN 978-0-7893-1540-3.
  78. Christopher Gray, "Sturm und Drang Over a Memorial to Heinrich Heine", The New York Times, May 27, 2007, retrieved on July 3, 2008. See also Public Art in the Bronx: Joyce Kilmer Park, from Lehman College
  79. Maritime Industry Museum, retrieved on August 21, 2008
  80. Its website showcases very short selections (less than 20 seconds and over 2 MB each in uncompressed AIFF format) from Bronx Music Vol.1, an out-of-press compact disc of the old and new sounds and artists of the Bronx.
  81. David Hinkley, "Scorn and disdain: Spike Jones giffs Hitler der old birdaphone, 1942." New York Daily News,"March 3, 2004.http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/news/2004/03/03/2004-03-03_scorn_and_disdain_spike_jone.html
  82. (ISBN 057312129X)
  83. Kate Simon, Bronx Primitive: Portraits in a Childhood. New York: Harper Colophon, 1983.
  84. The Threepenny Review, Volume 109, Spring 2007
  85. Avery Corman, The Old Neighborhood, Simon and Schuster, 1980; ISBN 0671414755
  86. Tom Wolfe, The Bonfire of the Vanities, Farrar, Straus and Giroux 1987 (hardback) ISBN 978-0-37411-535-7, Picador Books 2008 (paperback) ISBN 978-0-31242-757-3
  87. Anne Barnard, Twenty Years After 'Bonfire,' A City No Longer in Flames, The New York Times, December 10, 2007, retrieved on July 1, 2008
  88. Car 54, Where Are You?#Theme song
  89. The Encyclopedia of New York City, edited by Kenneth T. Jackson (Yale University Press and The New York Historical Society, New Haven, Connecticut, 1995 ISBN 0-300-05536-6), pages 1091–1095


Further reading



External links

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Places in the Bronx



Bronx history



The Bronx today




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