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The Cramps were an American punk rock band formed in 1976 and active until 2009, with the death of lead singer Lux Interior. Their line-up rotated much over their existence, with the husband and wife duo of Interior and lead guitarist Poison Ivy the only permanent members. Guitarist Bryan Gregory and drummer Pam Ballam rounded out the first complete lineup in April 1976.

They were part of the early CBGB punk movement that had emerged in New York. The Cramps are noted as influencing a number of musical styles: not only are they one of the first garage punk bands but also by being the first known band to blend punk rock with rockabilly, The Cramps are widely recognized as one of the prime innovators of psychobilly, and they inspired many of the early goth rock bands.


Their music is mostly in rockabilly form, played at varying tempos, with a very minimal drumkit. An integral part of the early Cramps sound is dual guitars, without a bassist. The content of their songs and image is campy, Americana, sexual fetishism, humor, and retro horror/sci-fi b-movie clichés.

Their sound was heavily influenced by early rockabilly, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll like Link Wray and Hasil Adkins, 1960s surf music acts such as The Ventures and Dick Dale, 1960s garage rock artists like The Standells, The Gants, The Trashmen, The Green Fuz and The Sonics, as well as the post-glam/early punk scene from which they emerged. They also were influenced to a degree by The Ramones and Screamin' Jay Hawkins, who was an influence for their style of theatrical horror-blues.

In turn, The Cramps have strongly influenced countless subsequent bands in the garage, punk and rockabilly revival subgenres, and helped create the psychobilly genre. "Psychobilly" was a term coined by The Cramps, although Lux Interior maintained that the term did not describe their own style.



Lux Interior
Lux Interior (born Erick Lee Purkhiser) and Poison Ivy (born Kristy Marlana Wallace) met in Sacramento, Californiamarker in 1972. Due to their common artistic interests and shared devotion to record collecting, they decided to form The Cramps. Lux took his stage name from a car ad, and Ivy claimed to have received hers in a dream (she was first Poison Ivy Rorschach, taking her last name from that of the inventor of the Rorschach test). In 1973, they moved to Akron, Ohiomarker, and then to New York in 1975, soon entering into CBGB'smarker early punk scene with other emerging acts like The Ramones, Patti Smith, and Television. The lineup in 1976 was Poison Ivy Rorschach, Lux Interior, Bryan Gregory (guitar) and his sister Pam "Ballam" Gregory (drums).

In a short period of time, the Cramps changed drummers twice; Miriam Linna (later of Nervus Rex, The Zantees, and The A-Bones and co-owner of Norton Records) replaced Pam Ballam, and Nick Knox (formerly with the Electric Eels) replaced Linna in September 1977. In the late 1970s, the Cramps briefly shared a rehearsal space with The Fleshtones, and performed regularly in New York at places like CBGB'smarker and Max's Kansas Citymarker, releasing two independent singles produced by Alex Chilton at Ardent Studios in Memphismarker in 1977 before being signed by Miles Copeland to the young I.R.S. Records label.

In June 1978 they gave a free concert for patients at the California State Mental Hospital in Napa, recorded on a Sony Portapak video camera by the San Francisco collective Target Video and later released as Live at Napa State Mental Hospital. They released the two singles again on their 1979 Gravest Hits EP, before Chilton brought them back that year to Memphis to record their first full length album, Songs The Lord Taught Us, at Phillips Recording, operated by former Sun Records label owner Sam Phillips.


The Cramps relocated to Los Angeles in 1980 and hired guitarist Kid Congo Powers of The Gun Club. While recording their second LP, Psychedelic Jungle, the band and Miles Copeland began to dispute royalties and creative rights. The ensuing court case prevented them from releasing anything until 1983, when they recorded Smell of Female live at New York's Peppermint Loungemarker; Kid Congo Powers subsequently departed. Mike Metoff of The Pagans (cousin of Nick Knox) was the final second guitarist - albeit only live - of the Cramps' pre-bass era. He accompanied them on an extensive European tour in 1984 (that had been cancelled twice because they couldn't find a suitable guitarist) which included four sold out nights at the legendary Hammersmith Palais. They also recorded performances of "The Most Exalted Potentate of Love" and "You Got Good Taste" which were broadcast on the acclaimed UK music show The Tube (the mid-summer night special).

In 1985 the Cramps recorded a one-off track for the horror movie The Return of the Living Dead called "Surfin' Dead", on which Ivy played bass as well as guitar. With the release of 1986's A Date With Elvis, the Cramps permanently added a bass guitar to the mix, but had trouble finding a suitable player, so Ivy temporarily filled in as the band's bassist. Fur joined them on the world tour to promte the album. Their popularity in the UK was at its peak as evidenced by the six nights at Hammersmith in London, three at the Odeon (as well as many other sell out dates throughout the UK) and then three at the Palais when they returned from the continent. Each night of the tour opened with the band coming on one at a time each: Knox, Fur, Ivy and then Lux before launching into their take on Elvis' "Heartbreak Hotel". The album featured what was to become a pre-dominating theme of their work from here on: a move away from the B-movie horror focus to an increased emphasis on sexual double entendre. The album met with differing fates on either side of the Atlantic: in Europe, it sold over 250,000 copies, while in the U.S. the band had difficulty finding a record company prepared to release it until 1990. It also included their first UK Singles Chart hit: "Can Your Pussy Do The Dog?"

It was not until 1986 that the Cramps found a suitable permanent bass player: Candy del Mar (of Satan's Cheerleaders), who made her recorded debut on the raw live album RockinnReelininAucklandNewZealandxxx, which was followed by the studio album Stay Sick in 1990.


Knox left in 1991. The Cramps hit the top 40 singles chart in the UK for the first and only time with "Bikini Girls with Machine Guns"; Ivy posed as such both on the cover of the single and in the promotional video for the song. The Cramps went on to record more albums and singles through the 1990s and 2000s, for various labels and with varying degrees of success.

In 1995 The Cramps appeared on the TV-series Beverly Hills, 90210 in the Halloween episode "Gypsies, Cramps and Fleas." They played 2 songs in show: "Mean Machine" and "Strange Love." Lux started the song by saying "Hey boys and ghouls, are you ready to raise the dead?".

In honor of the excess of The Cramps, the Rock and Roll Hall of Famemarker has on display a shattered bass drum head that Lux's head went through during a live show.


On January 10, 2001, Bryan Gregory died at Anaheim Memorial Medical Center of complications following a heart attack. He was 46.

On February 4, 2009 at 4:40 AM PST, Lux Interior died at the Glendale Memorial Hospital after suffering an aortic dissection which, contrary to inital reports about a pre-existing condition, was "sudden, shocking and unexpected". He was 62.


Final line-up

Former members

  • Bryan Gregory (Greg Beckerleg) – guitar, April 1976 – May 1980
  • Julien Grindsnatch – guitar, July 1980 – September 1980
  • Kid Congo Powers (Brian Tristan) – guitar, December 1980 – September 1983
  • Mike Metoff (as Ike Knox) – guitar, October 1983 – November 1983; January 1984 – July 1984
  • Click Mort - guitar, December 1983
  • Scott "Chopper" Franklin – bass & guitar, January 2002 – September 2006

  • Sean Yseult (Shauna Reynolds, of White Zombie) – bass, October/November 2006
  • Touch Hazard (Tim Maag of The Mechanics) - bass, 1985
  • Fur (Jennifer Dixon) - bass, March 1986 - May 1986
  • Candy del Mar – bass, July 1986 – January 1991
  • Slim Chance – bass, March 1991-August 1998
  • Doran Shelley – bass, 1998 - 1999
  • SugarPie Jones – bass, 2000

  • Pam Ballam (Pam Beckerleg) – drums, April 1976 – September 1976
  • Miriam Linna – drums, October 1976 – June 1977
  • Nick Knox – drums, July 1977 - January 1991
  • Jim Sclavunos – drums, 1991
  • Nickey Alexander – drums, June 1991 – January 1993
  • Bill "Buster" Bateman – drums, June 2004 – August 2006
  • Jen Hanrahan - castanets June 2000 - August 2000.
  • "Jungle" Jim Chandler – "Laid down the primal beat" for the European tour 2004


Studio albums



  1. [The Wild Wild World of The Cramps: Ian Johnston, Omnibus Press 1990]
  2. Lux Interior: maniacal front man of the Cramps, The Times February 6, 2009 Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  3. Adam Sweeting, The Guardian, Friday 6 February 2009 Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  4. By August Brown, LA Times February 4, 2009,0,462309.story Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  5. SuicideGirls > Interviews > The Cramps
  6. [The Cramps, A Short Rock n Roll History: Dick Porter, Plexus 2007; pg 111]

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