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The Exorcist is a 1973 Americanmarker horror film directed by William Friedkin, adapted from the 1971 novel of the same name by William Peter Blatty, dealing with the demonic possession of a young girl, and her mother’s desperate attempts to win back her daughter through an exorcism conducted by two priests. The film features Ellen Burstyn, Linda Blair, Max von Sydow, Kitty Winn, Lee J. Cobb, Jason Miller, and Mercedes McCambridge. Both the film and novel took inspiration from a documented exorcism in 1949, performed on a fourteen-year-old boy. The film is one of a cycle of 'demonic child' movies produced in the late 1960s and early 1970s, including Rosemary's Baby and The Omen.

The film became one of the most profitable horror films of all time, grossing $402,500,000 worldwide. The film earned ten Academy Award nominations—winning two, one for Best Sound and Best Adapted Screenplay, and losing Best Picture to The Sting. Along with the novel on which it was based, Blatty's script has been published several times over the years. The Exorcist was commercially released in the United Statesmarker by Warner Bros. on December 26, 1973, and rereleased on March 17, 2000, with a restored version released on September 22, 2000. It was named the scariest movie of all time by Entertainment Weekly and Movies.com and by viewers of AMC in 2006.

Plot

Based on the 1971 novel by William Peter Blatty, The Exorcist marries three scenarios into one plot.

The movie opens with Father Merrin (Max von Sydow) on an archaeological dig in Al-hadarmarker near Ninevehmarker in Iraqmarker. He is then brought to a near-by hole where a small stone is found, resembling a grimacing, bestial creature. After talking to one of his supervisors, he then travels to a spot where a strange statue stands, specifically Pazuzu, with a head similar to the one he found earlier. He sees an ominous figure and two dogs bark loudly nearby, setting the tone for the rest of the film.

Meanwhile, Father Damien Karras (Jason Miller), a young priest at Georgetown Universitymarker in Washington, D.C.marker, begins to doubt his faith while dealing with his mother's terminal sickness.

In the central storyline, Chris MacNeil (Ellen Burstyn), an actress filming in Georgetown, notices dramatic and dangerous changes in the behavior of her 12-year-old daughter Regan MacNeil (Linda Blair). Regan first has a seizure, then exhibits strange, unnatural powers, including levitation and great strength. She often curses and blasphemes in a demonic male voice. At first, Chris believes that Regan's changes are related to the trauma of Chris's recent divorce, but doctors suspect a lesion in her brain. Regan is forced to endure a series of unpleasant medical tests. When X-rays show nothing out of the ordinary, a doctor advises that Regan be taken to a psychiatrist, whom she assaults. Paranormal occurrences continue to surround the MacNeil household, including a violently shaking bed, strange noises and unexplained movements. The director of Chris MacNeil's film is found brutally murdered after being asked to babysit for Regan.

When all medical explanations are exhausted, a doctor recommends exorcism, suggesting that if Regan's symptoms are a psychosomatic result of a belief in demonic possession, then perhaps an exorcism would likewise have the psychosomatic effect of ending them. In desperation, Chris consults Father Karras, since he is both a priest and a psychiatrist. Despite his doubts, Karras decides to request permission from the Church to conduct an exorcism.

Father Merrin, an archaeologist and also an experienced exorcist, is summoned to Washington to help. In a climactic series of scenes, he and Father Karras try to drive the spirit from Regan. Regan, or rather the spirit, claims she is not possessed by a simple demon, but by Satan himself.

At the climax of the exorcism, Father Merrin dies of a heart attack. Father Karras attempts to perform CPR to no avail. Regan giggles as Karras tries to save Merrin. Karras strikes her and challenges the demon to leave Regan and enter him. The demon does so, whereupon the priest throws himself through Regan's bedroom window and falls down the steps outside. At the bottom, a devastated Father Dyer (and friend of Father Karras) administers last rites as Father Karras dies. Regan is restored to health and does not appear to remember her ordeal. The film ends as Chris and Regan leave Georgetown and their trauma behind.

Cast



Production

Casting

The agency representing Blair brought her in to try out for the role. Pamelyn Ferdin, a veteran of science fiction and supernatural drama, was a candidate, but the producers may have felt she was too well-known. Denise Nickerson, who played Violet Beauregarde in Willy Wonka & The Chocolate Factory, was considered, but her parents pulled her out, troubled by the material. At one point the search for a young actress capable of playing Regan was so trying that Friedkin claims he even considered auditioning adult dwarf actors. The part went instead to Blair, a relative unknown except for a role in The Way We Live Now.

The studio wanted Marlon Brando for the role of Father Merrin. Friedkin immediately vetoed this by stating it would become a "Brando movie." Jack Nicholson was up for the part of Father Karras before Stacy Keach was hired by Blatty. Friedkin then spotted Miller in a Broadwaymarker play. Even though Miller had never acted in a movie, Keach's contract was bought out by Warner Bros. and Miller was cast. Jane Fonda and Shirley MacLaine were approached to play Chris MacNeil. Fonda reportedly called the project a "capitalist piece of shit." Audrey Hepburn was approached, but said she would only agree if the film were to be shot in Rome. Anne Bancroft was another choice, but she was in her first month of pregnancy. Burstyn then agreed to do the movie.

Vasiliki Maliaros, who played Father Karras' mother, was discovered by Friedkin in a Greek restaurant. Her only acting experience was in Greek stage dramas. Friedkin claimed she bore an uncanny resemblance to his own mother and Blatty felt she resembled his mother too.

It was originally intended to use Linda Blair's voice, electronically deepened and roughened, for the demon's dialogue. Friedkin felt this worked fine in some places (including the infamous "Let Jesus fuck you" line, which was voiced by Blair herself despite the common misconception that an unnamed male actor provided it) but he felt scenes with the demon confronting the two priests lacked the dramatic power required. It was decided that an experienced voice actor would be required. Friedkin selected legendary radio actress Mercedes McCambridge. After filming, Warner Bros. attempted to conceal McCambridge's participation. It led to a lawsuit and a grudge between her and Friedkin that was never healed.

Direction

Warner Bros. had approached Stanley Kubrick (who thought it was run-of-the-mill horror), Arthur Penn (who was teaching at Yale), Peter Bogdanovich (who wanted to pursue other projects, subsequently regretting the decision) and Mike Nichols (who didn't want to shoot a film so dependent on a child's performance). John Boorman (who would direct Exorcist II: The Heretic) said he didn't want to direct it because it was "cruel towards children". Following the success of The French Connection (1971) the studio finally agreed to sign William Friedkin for the film.

Friedkin went to some extraordinary lengths, reminiscent of D.W. Griffith's manipulation of the actors, to get the genuine reactions he wanted. Yanked violently around in harnesses, both Blair and Burstyn suffered back injuries and their painful screams went right into the film. Burstyn later reported that she had permanent back injury after landing on her coccyx when a stuntman jerked her via cable during the scene when Regan slaps her mother. After asking Reverend William O'Malley if he trusted him and being told yes, Friedkin slapped him hard across the face before a take to generate a deeply solemn reaction that was used in the film, as a very emotional Father Dyer read last rites to Father Karras; this offended the many Catholic crew members on the set. He also fired a gun without warning on the set to elicit shock from Jason Miller for a take. Lastly, he had Regan's bedroom set built inside a freezer so that the actors' breath could be visible on camera, which required the crew to wear parkas and other cold-weather gear.

Music

Lalo Schifrin's working score was rejected by Friedkin. Schifrin had written six minutes of music for the initial film trailer but audiences were reportedly too scared by its combination of sights and sounds. Warner Bros. executives told Friedkin to instruct Schifrin to tone it down with softer music, but Friedkin did not relay the message. Schifrin's final score was thrown out into the parking lot by Friedkin, dubbing it "fucking Mexican marimba music".

In the soundtrack liner notes for his 1977 film Sorcerer, Friedkin said had he heard the music of Tangerine Dream earlier, he would have had them score The Exorcist. Instead, he used modern classical compositions, including portions of the 1971 Cello Concerto by Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki, as well as some original music by Jack Nitzsche. But the music was heard only during scene transitions. The 2000 "Version You've Never Seen" features new original music by Steve Boddacker, as well as brief source music by Les Baxter.

The original soundtrack LP has only been released once on CD, as an expensive and hard-to-find Japanese import. It is noteworthy for being the only soundtrack to include the main theme Tubular Bells by Mike Oldfield, which became very popular after the film's release, and the movement Night of the Electric Insects from George Crumb's string quartet Black Angels.

Filming locations



The movie's eerie opening sequence was filmed in the Iraqimarker town of Sinjarmarker, near the Syrianmarker border. The people of Sinjar are mostly Kurdish members of the ancient Yezidi sect, which worships a deity often equated with the Devil. The archaeological dig site seen at the beginning of the movie is the actual site of ancient Ninevehmarker in Hatramarker.

The "Exorcist steps", stone steps at the end of M Street in Georgetownmarker, Washington DCmarker, were padded with 1/2"-thick rubber to film the death of Karras. The stunt man tumbled down the stairs twice. Georgetown Universitymarker students charged people around $5 each to watch the stunt from the rooftops.

The MacNeil residence interiors were filmed at CECO Studios in Manhattanmarker. The bedroom set had to be refrigerated to capture the authentic icy breath of the actors in the exorcizing scenes, the bedroom scenes along with many other scenes were filmed in the basement of Fordham University in New York. The temperature was brought so low that a thin layer of snow fell onto the set one morning. Linda Blair, who was only in a thin nightgown, says to this day she cannot stand being cold.

Urban legends and on-set incidents

Some claim the film was cursed. Blatty has stated on video some strange occurrences. Burstyn indicated some rumors to be true in her 2006 autobiography Lessons in Becoming Myself. The interior sets of the MacNeil residence, except for Regan's bedroom, were destroyed by a studio fire and had to be rebuilt. Friedkin has claimed that a priest was brought in numerous times to bless the set. Other issues include Blair's harness breaking when she is thrashing on the bed, injuring the actress. Burstyn noted she was slightly hurt when Regan throws her across the room. Actor Jack MacGowran (Burke Dennings) died during filming.

Alternate and Uncut versions

There have been several versions of The Exorcist released and altered. The 1979 theatrical re-issue was reconverted to 70MM, with its 1.85:1 ratio modified to 2.20:1 to take advantage of the picture and audio fidelity 70MM offers. This was also the first time the sound was remixed to six-channel Dolby Stereo sound. Almost all video versions feature this soundtrack.

In both the TV-PG and TV-14 versions of the network version, the image of the obscenely defiled statue of the Virgin Mary stays intact. It stays on screen several seconds longer for the TV-14 version. On original TV airings, the shot was replaced with one where the statue's face is smashed in but without other defilement. The scene in which Reagan, possessed by the demons, commits sacrilege against a crucifix was also removed due to its extremely graphic nature.

The Special Edition released on DVD for the 25th Anniversary includes the original theatrical ending, and includes the extended ending with Father Dyer and Lt. Kinderman as a special feature (as opposed the "Version You've Never Seen" ending which features Father Dyer and Lt. Kinderman but omits the Casablanca reference). The Special Edition DVD also includes a 75-minutes documentary titled The Fear of God on the making of The Exorcist (although PAL releases feature an edited, 52 minute version). The documentary includes screen tests and additional deleted scenes. The Exorcist: The Complete Anthology (box set) was released in October, 2006. This DVD collection includes the original theatrical release version The Exorcist; the extended version, The Exorcist: The Version You've Never Seen; the sequel with Linda Blair, Exorcist II: The Heretic; the supposed end of the trilogy, The Exorcist III; and two different prequels: Exorcist: The Beginning and Dominion: A Prequel to The Exorcist.

The "Spider-Walk Scene"

Contortionist Linda R. Hager was hired to perform the infamous "spider-walk scene" that was filmed on April 11, 1973. Friedkin deleted the scene just prior to the original December 26, 1973 release date because he felt it was ineffective technically. However, with advanced developments in digital media technology, Friedkin worked with CGI artists to make the scene look more convincing for the 2000 theatrically re-released version of The Exorcist: The Version You've Never Seen. Since the original release, myths and rumors still exist that a variety of spider-walk scenes were filmed despite Friedkin's insistence that no alternate version was ever shot.

In 1998, Warner Brothers re-released the digitally remastered DVD of The Exorcist: 25th Anniversary Special Edition. This DVD includes the special feature BBC documentary, The Fear of God: The Making of The Exorcist, highlighting the never-before-seen original non-bloody version of the spider-walk scene. The updated "bloody version" of the spider-walk scene appears in the 2000 re-release of The Exorcist: The Version You've Never Seen utilizing CGI technology to incorporate the special effect of blood pouring from Regan's mouth during this scene’s finale.

Sequels and related films

John Boorman's Exorcist II: The Heretic was released in 1977, and re-visited Regan four years after her initial ordeal. The plot dealt with an investigation into the legitimacy of Father Merrin's exorcism of Regan in the first film. In flashback sequences we see Regan giving Merrin his fatal heart attack, as well as scenes from the exorcism of a young boy named Kokumo in Africa many years earlier. The film was so sharply criticized that Director John Boorman re-edited the film immediately after its premiere. Both versions have now been released on video; the cut version on VHS and the original uncut version now on DVD.

The Exorcist III appeared in 1990, written and directed by Blatty himself from his own 1983 novel Legion. Jumping past the events of Exorcist II, this book and film presented a continuation of the story of Father Karras. Following the precedents set in The Ninth Configuration, Blatty turned a minor character from the first film — in this case, Det. Kinderman — into the chief protagonist. Though the characters of Karras and Kinderman were related through the murder investigation in The Exorcist and Kinderman was in fact fond of Karras, in Exorcist III Blatty has Kinderman remembering Karras as "his best friend".

A parody entitled Repossessed was released the same year as The Exorcist III, with Blair lampooning the role she played in the original.

A prequel, Exorcist: The Beginning (2004) attracted attention and controversy even before its release. It went through a number of directorial and script changes, such that two versions were ultimately released. Paul Schrader was originally hired as director for this project, but upon completion the studio rejected his version as being too slow. Renny Harlin was then hired as director after John Frankenheimer was forced from the project due to the illness. Harlin reused some of Schrader's footage and shot new material to create a more conventional horror film. Harlin's new version Exorcist: The Beginning was released, but was not well received. At that point Schrader's original version, named Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist was subsequently released. It received better, but still mostly negative, critical responses. Both films are now available on DVD. Like Exorcist III, both films made significant changes from the original storyline. The plot of these films centered around an exorcism that Father Merrin had performed as a young priest in Africa, many years prior to the events in The Exorcist. This exorcism was first referenced in the The Exorcist, and in the first sequel Exorcist II: The Heretic flashback scenes were shown of Merrin exorcising the demon Pazuzu from an African boy named Kokumo. Although the plot for both Beginning and Dominion centered around Merrin's exorcism in Africa, they both took a significant departure from the original story, making no effort to be faithful to those original details. The African boy was not named Kokomu, and eventually discovered not to actually be the possessed character.

A made-for-television film entitled Possessed was broadcast on Showtime on October 22, 2000. It claimed to follow the true accounts that inspired Blatty to write The Exorcist. It was directed by Steven E. de Souza and written by de Souza and Michael Lazarou, from the book of the same name by Thomas B. Allen. Main characters were played by Timothy Dalton, Henry Czerny and Christopher Plummer.

Blatty directed The Ninth Configuration, a post-Vietnam War drama set in a mental institution. Released in 1980, it was based on Blatty's novel of the same name. Though it contrasts sharply with the tone of The Exorcist, Blatty regards Configuration as its true sequel. The lead character is the astronaut from Chris' party, Lt. Cutshaw.

A 1974 Turkishmarker movie Şeytan (Turkish for Satan, the original movie was also shown with the same name) is almost a scene-by-scene remake of the original. It has gained a reputation among cult movie enthusiasts as the "Turkish Exorcist". That same year the German film Magdalena, vom Teufel besessen was also released with an Exorcist plot.

Similarly, a blacksploitation film was also released in 1974 titled Abby. While the films Şeytan and Magdalena, vom Teufel besessen were more legally free to be made due to being filmed in other countries, the makers of Abby (filmed in Louisiana) were sued by Warner Bros. and was pulled from theatres, but not before making 4 million dollars at box office.

In November 2009 was announced that William Peter Blatty planned a miniseries of his film.

DVD and Blu-Ray

A limited edition box set was released in 1998. It was limited to 50,000 copies, with available copies circulating around the Internet. There are two versions; a special edition VHS and a special edition DVD. The only difference between the two copies is the recording format.

On the DVD

  • The original film with restored film and digitally remastered audio, with a 1.85:1 widescreen aspect ratio.
  • An introduction by director William Friedkin
  • The 1998 BBC documentary The Fear of God: The Making of "The Exorcist"
  • 2 audio commentaries
  • Interviews with the director and writer
  • Theatrical trailers and TV spots


In the Box

  • A commemorative 52-page tribute book, covering highlights of the film's preparation, production, and release; features previously-unreleased historical data and archival photographs
  • Limited edition soundtrack CD of the film's score, including the original (unused) soundtrack (Tubular Bells and Night of the Electric Insects omitted)
  • 8 lobby card reprints.
  • Exclusive senitype film frame (magnification included)


Blu-ray

In an interview with DVD Review, William Friedkin mentioned that he is scheduled to begin work on a 'The Exorcist' Blu-ray on December 2, 2008. This edition will feature a new restoration, including both the 1973 theatrical version and the "version you've never seen" from 2000. The release is currently scheduled for Fall 2010.

Reception

US critical reception

Upon its release on December 26, 1973, the film received mixed reviews from critics, “ranging from ‘classic’ to ‘claptrap'." Stanley Kauffmann, in The New Republic, wrote, “This is the most scary film I’ve seen in years — the only scary film I’ve seen in years…If you want to be shaken — and I found out, while the picture was going, that that’s what I wanted — then The Exorcist will scare the hell out of you.” Variety noted that it was “an expert telling of a supernatural horror story…The climactic sequences assault the senses and the intellect with pure cinematic terror.” In Castle of Frankenstein, Joe Dante opined, “[A]n amazing film, and one destined to become at the very least a horror classic. Director William Friedkin’s film will be profoundly disturbing to all audiences, especially the more sensitive and those who tend to 'live' the movies they see…Suffice it to say, there has never been anything like this on the screen before.”

However, Vincent Canby, writing in the New York Times, dismissed The Exorcist as “a chunk of elegant occultist claptrap…[A] practically impossible film to sit through…it establishes a new low for grotesque special effects...” Andrew Sarris complained that “Friedkin’s biggest weakness is his inability to provide enough visual information about his characters…whole passages of the movie’s exposition were one long buzz of small talk and name droppings…The Exorcist succeeds on one level as an effectively excruciating entertainment, but on another, deeper level it is a thoroughly evil film.” Writing in Rolling Stone, Jon Landau felt the film was, “[N]othing more than a religious porn film, the gaudiest piece of shlock this side of Cecil B. DeMille (minus that gentleman’s wit and ability to tell a story) …”

Over the years, The Exorcist’s critical reputation has grown considerably. The film currently has an 85% "Certified Fresh" approval rating on the Rotten Tomatoes website, based on 40 reviews the website collected. Some critics regard it as being one of the best and most effective horror films; admirers say the film balances a stellar script, gruesome effects, and outstanding performances. However, the movie has its detractors as well, including Kim Newman who has criticized it for messy plot construction, conventionality and overblown pretentiousness, among other perceived defects. Writer James Baldwin provides an extended negative critique in his book length essay The Devil Finds Work. Director Martin Scorsese placed The Exorcist on his list of the 11 scariest horror films of all time.

Earnings

The film earned $66,300,000 in distributors' domestic (U.S. and Canada) rentals during its theatrical release in 1974, becoming the second most popular film of that year (trailing The Sting). After several reissues, the film eventually earned $89,000,000 in domestic rentals.To date, it has a total gross of $402,500,000 worldwide; if adjusted for inflation, this would be the top-grossing R-rated film of all time. It was nominated for ten Academy Awards, including Best Picture, and also won four Golden Globes, including the award for Best Picture – Drama for the year 1974.

UK reception

In the United Kingdom, the movie was included in the 'video nasty' phenomenon of the early 1980s. Although it had been released uncut for home video in 1981, this was prior to the the implementation of the Video Recording Act 1984. When the Act came into force, Warner Bros. decided against submitting it to the BBFC for a rating following the 'Video Nasties' scare. It is a widely-reported myth that the BBFC banned the film, but it was never rejected by them. Following a successful re-release in cinemas in 1998, the film was submitted for home video release for the first time in February 1999
and was passed uncut with an 18 certificate rating, signifying a relaxation of the censorship rules with relation to home video in the UK. The movie was shown on terrestrial television in the UK for the first time in 2001, on Channel 4.


British film critic Mark Kermode proclaimed The Exorcist as the greatest film ever made on his weekly film review program on BBC Radio 5 Live.

Special effects and filmgoer reception

The Exorcist contained a number of special effects, engineered by makeup artist Dick Smith. Roger Ebert, while praising the film, believed the effects to be so unusually graphic he wrote, "That it received an R rating and not the X is stupefying."

Theaters provided "Exorcist barf bags".

Because of death threats against Linda Blair, Warner Bros. hired bodyguards to protect her for six months after the film's release.

Alleged subliminal imagery

The Exorcist was also at the center of controversy due to its alleged use of subliminal imagery. A detailed article in the July / August 1991 issue of Video Watchdog examined the phenomenon, providing still frames identifying several usages of subliminal "flashing" throughout the film. In an interview from the same issue, Friedkin explained, "I saw subliminal cuts in a number of films before I ever put them in The Exorcist, and I thought it was a very effective storytelling device... The subliminal editing in The Exorcist was done for dramatic effect — to create, achieve, and sustain a kind of dreamlike state."However, these quick, scary flashes have been labeled "[not] truly subliminal" and "quasi-" or "semi-subliminal". True subliminal imagery must be, by definition, below the threshold of awareness. In an interview in a 1999 book about the movie, The Exorcist author William Blatty addressed the controversy by explaining that, "There are no subliminal images. If you can see it, it's not subliminal."

Awards and honors

Academy Awards

The Exorcist was nominated for a total of ten Academy Awards in 1973. At the 46th Annual Academy Awards ceremony, the film won two statuettes.



The film was nominated for

Golden Globe Awards

The Exorcist was nominated for a total of five Golden Globes in 1973. At the Golden Globes ceremony that year, the film won four awards.

The film was nominated for

Others

American Film Institute recognition

References

  1. The Exorcist - Box Office Data, Movie News, Cast Information - The Numbers
  2. The Exorcist (1973) - Plot summary
  3. Behind The Screams Of "The Exorcist"-Part Two
  4. http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=20061106&s=diarist110606
  5. William Friedkin's - The Exorcist
  6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6n0pgaYJVg
  7. http://captainhowdy.com/?page_id=38&xdforum_action=viewthread&xf_id=1&xt_id=888&pstart=0
  8. http://pages.zoom.co.uk/the.exorcist/Html/friedkin_faqs.htm
  9. Collectors' Tribute to the Film that Frightened the World!!! The Exorcist 25th Anniversary Special Edition
  10. 'The Exorcist' Miniseries Reteams Original Writer/Director?
  11. Cemetery Dance #62: The William Peter Blatty special issue shipping now!
  12. http://www.blu-ray.com/news/?id=1956
  13. Travers, Peter and Rieff, Stephanie. The Story Behind ‘The Exorcist’, Pg. 149, Signet Books, 1974. ISBN 978-0451062079
  14. Kauffmann, Stanley. New Republic review reprinted in The Story Behind ‘The Exorcist’, written by Peter Travers and Stephanie Rieff, pgs. 152 - 154, Signet Books, 1974. ISBN 978-0451062079
  15. Dante, Joe. Castle of Frankenstein, Vol 6, No. 2 (Whole Issue #22), pgs. 32-33. Review of The Exorcist
  16. Canby, Vincent. New York Times review reprinted in The Story Behind ‘The Exorcist’, written by Peter Travers and Stephanie Rieff, pgs. 150 - 152, Signet Books, 1974. ISBN 978-0451062079
  17. Sarris, Andrew. Village Voice review reprinted in The Story Behind ‘The Exorcist’, written by Peter Travers and Stephanie Rieff, pgs. 154–158, Signet Books, 1974. ISBN 978-0451062079
  18. Landau, Jon. Rolling Stone review reprinted in The Story Behind ‘The Exorcist’, written by Peter Travers and Stephanie Rieff, pgs. 158 - 162, Signet Books, 1974. ISBN 978-0451062079
  19. Gebert, Michael. The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards (listings of 'Box Office (Domestic Rentals)' for 1974, taken from Variety magazine), pg. 314, St. Martin's Paperbacks, 1996. ISBN 0-668-05308-9. "Rentals" refers to the distributor/studio's share of the box office gross, which, according to Gebert, is normally roughly half of the money generated by ticket sales.
  20. Original BBFC.co.uk entry
  21. :: rogerebert.com :: Reviews :: The Exorcist (xhtml)
  22. Screen shockers | Independent, The (London) | Find Articles at BNET.com
  23. Lucas, Tim and Kermode, Mark. Video Watchdog Magazine, issue #6 (July/August 1991), pgs. 20 - 31, "The Exorcist: From the Subliminal to the Ridiculous"
  24. Friedkin, William. Interviewed in Video Watchdog Magazine, issue #6 (July/August 1991), pg. 23, "The Exorcist: From the Subliminal to the Ridiculous"
  25. )


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