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Plaque placed by the Irish Government on the graves of the Volunteers
The Forgotten Ten is the term applied to ten members of the Irish Republican Army who were executed in Mountjoy Prisonmarker, Dublinmarker by British forces following courts martial from 1920-1921 during the Irish War of Independence. Based upon military law at the time, they were buried within the prison precincts, their graves unmarked in the unconsecrated ground. The names of the Forgotten Ten are Kevin Barry, Patrick Moran, Frank Flood, Thomas Whelan, Thomas Traynor, Patrick Doyle, Thomas Bryan, Bernard Ryan, Edmond Foley and Patrick Maher.

The executions were carried out by Thomas Pierrepoint and his assistant John Ellis, the official hangmen at that time.

Campaign for Reburial

Following the Irish War of Independence, Mountjoy Prison was transferred to the control of the Irish Free State, which became the State of Irelandmarker in 1937. In the 1920s, the families of the dead men requested their remains be returned to them for proper burial. This effort was joined in the later 1920s by the National Graves Association. Through the efforts of the Association, the graves of the men were identified in 1934, and in 1996 a Celtic Cross was erected in Glasnevin Cemeterymarker to commemorate them.

State Funeral

The Grave of nine of the Forgotten Ten in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin
The campaign to rebury the men would drag on for eighty years from their deaths. Following an intense period of negotiations, the Irish government relented. Plans to exhume the bodies of the ten men were announced on 1st November 2000, the 80th anniversary of the execution of Kevin Barry. On October 14, 2001, the Forgotten Ten were afforded full state honours, with a private service at Mountjoy Prison for the families of the dead, a requiem mass at St Mary's Pro-Cathedralmarker and burial in Glasnevin Cemeterymarker.

The plans stirred considerable controversy with some commentators suggesting that such an event glorified militant Republicanism . It was also suggested that the event smacked of political opportunism since it coincided with the Fianna Fail party conference.

The progress of the cortège through the centre of Dublin was witnessed by crowds estimated as being in the tens of thousands who broke into spontaneous applause as the coffins passed. . On O'Connell Streetmarker a lone piper played a lament as the cortege paused outside the General Post Officemarker, the focal point of the 1916 Easter Rising.. In his homily during the requiem mass, Cardinal Cahal Daly, a long-time critic of the IRA campaign in Northern Irelandmarker, insisted that there was a clear distinction between the conflict of 1916-22 and the paramilitary-led violence of the previous 30 years:

In his graveside oration the Taoiseach Bertie Ahern echoed these sentiments and also paid tribute to the Ten:

The state funeral, broadcast live on national television and radio, was only the thirteenth in the history of Irelandmarker since independence. . Patrick Maher would not be reburied with his comrades. In accordance with his wishes, and those of his family, he was reinterred in Ballylandersmarker, Co.marker Limerickmarker.

A feature length Irish language documentary on the re-interrments, An Deichniúr Dearmadta (The Forgotten Ten) aired on TG4 on 28 March 2002.

Photo Gallery

File:Kevin Barry.jpg|
Kevin Barry
File:Thomasbryan.jpg|
Thomas Bryan
File:Patrickdoyle.jpg|
Patrick Doyle
File:Frankflood.jpg|
Frank Flood
File:Patrickmoran.jpg|
Patrick Moran
File:Bernardryan.jpg|
Bernard Ryan
File:Tomwhelan.jpg|
Thomas Whelan
File:Thomastraynor.jpg|
Thomas Traynor
File:Patrickmaher.jpg|
Patrick Maher
File:Nedfoley.jpg|
Edmond Foley


Bibliography



References

  1. A Brief History Of The National Graves Association
  2. http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/ireland.html Southern Irish executions 1900 - 1954 from capitalpunishmentuk.org : Accessed 1 November 2008
  3. Source 1. above
  4. Dublin State Funeral for IRA Men October 15 2001 Guardian.co.uk : Accessed 1 November 2008
  5. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2001/oct/15/northernireland.ireland
  6. Ahern defends 1921 IRA men's state funeral 14 Oct 2001 Telegraph.co.uk : Accessed 1 November 2008
  7. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2001/oct/15/northernireland.ireland
  8. New York Times article Published: October 15, 2001
  9. http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/index.asp?locID=383&docID=511
  10. http://hcl.harvard.edu/hfa/films/2003marapr/biff.html
  11. http://www.tcd.ie/irishfilm/showfilm.php?fid=51577


See also

All preceding accessed 3 Nov. 2008


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