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The Outer Limits is an Americanmarker television series that aired on ABC from 1963 to 1965. Similar in style to the earlier The Twilight Zone with more science fiction than fantasy stories, The Outer Limits is an anthology of discrete story episodes, sometimes with a plot twist at the end.

The series was revived in 1995, airing on Showtime from 1995–1999, then on Sci-Fi Channel from 1999 until its cancellation in 2002.

The first 32 episodes of the original series, comprising the entire first season, are available on Hulu.

Series overview


Each show would begin with a cold open, followed by narration by someone identifying himself as the Control Voice, which was played over visuals of an oscilloscope.

Many episodes used one of two shortened versions of this introduction. The first few episodes began simply with the title screen followed by the narration and no cold open.

Production information

The Outer Limits originally was broadcast from 1963 to 1965 on the U.S. television broadcasting network ABC; in total, 49 episodes. It was one of many series influenced by The Twilight Zone and Science Fiction Theatre, though it ultimately proved influential in its own right. In the un-aired pilot, the series was called Please Stand By, but ABC rejected that title. Series creator Leslie Stevens retitled it The Outer Limits. With a few changes, the pilot aired as the premiere episode, "The Galaxy Being".

Writers for The Outer Limits included creator Stevens and Joseph Stefano (screenwriter of Hitchcock's Psycho), who was the series' first-season producer and creative guiding force. Stefano wrote more episodes than any other writer for the show. Future Oscar winning screenwriter Robert Towne ("Chinatown") would write "The Chameleon", which was also the final episode filmed for the first season. Two especially notable second-season episodes "Demon with a Glass Hand" and "Soldier" were written by Harlan Ellison, with the latter episode winning a Writers' Guild Award. The former was for several years the only episode of The Outer Limits available on laser-disc.

The first season combined science-fiction and horror, while the second season was more focused on "hard" science-fiction stories, dropping the recurring scary monster motif of the first season. Each show in the first season was to have a monster or creature as a critical part of the story line. First-season writer and producer Joseph Stefano believed that this element was necessary to provide fear, suspense, or at least a center for plot development. This kind of story element became known as "the bear". This device was, however, mostly dropped in the second season when Stefano left. (Three first-season episodes without a "bear" are Forms of Things Unknown, Controlled Experiment, and The Borderland all three of which were produced as pilots for other never-realized series and then re-edited as Outer Limits episodes. Another early episode with no 'bear' was The Hundred Days of the Dragon made before the "bear" convention was established. Second season episodes with a "bear" are Keeper of the Purple Twilight , The Duplicate Man, and The Probe. Bears appear near the conclusion of second season episodes Counterweight, The Invisible Enemy, and Cold Hands, Warm Heart.)

The show's first season had distinctive music by Dominic Frontiere, who doubled as Production Executive; the second season featured music by Harry Lubin, with a variation of his Fear theme for One Step Beyond being heard over the end titles.

Comparison to The Twilight Zone

Like The Twilight Zone, The Outer Limits had an opening and closing narration in almost every episode, by the "Control Voice" (Vic Perrin). Both shows were unusually philosophical for science-fiction anthology series, but differed in style. The Twilight Zone stories were often like parables, employing whimsy (such as the Buster Keaton time-travel episode Once Upon a Time) or irony, or extraordinary problem-solving situations (such as the time-travel episode The Arrival). The Outer Limits was straight action and suspense which often had the human spirit in confrontation with dark existential forces within or without, such as in the alien abduction episode A Feasibility Study or the alien possession story The Invisibles.


The program sometimes made use of techniques (lighting, camerawork, even makeup) associated with film noir or German Expressionism (see for example, Corpus Earthling), and a number of episodes were noteworthy for their sheer eeriness. Credit for this is often given to cinematographer Conrad Hall, who would go on to win three Academy Awards (and many more nominations) for his work in film. However, it should be noted that Hall worked only on alternate episodes of the show during the first two-thirds of the first season; the show's other cinematographers included John M. Nickolaus and Kenneth Peach.

Special effects

The various monsters and creatures from the first season and most props were developed by a loose-knit group organized under the name Project Unlimited. Members of the group included Wah Chang, Gene Warren and Jim Danforth. Makeup was executed by Fred B. Phillips along with John Chambers.

Characters and Models

Many creatures that appeared on 1960s Outer Limits episodes have in the 1990s or 2000s been sold as models or action figures, a large variety in limited editions as model kits to be assembled and painted by the purchaser issued by Dimensional Designs, and a smaller set of out-of-the-box action figures sold in larger quantity by Sideshow Toys. The former produced a model kit of The Megazoid from The Duplicate Man, and both created a figure of Gwyllm as an evolved man from The Sixth Finger.

Influence on Star Trek

A few of the monsters reappeared in Gene Roddenberry's Star Trek series of the late 1960s. A prop head from "Fun and Games" was used in Star Trek to make a Talosian appear as a vicious creature. The moving carpet beast in "The Probe" later was used as the "Horta", and operated by the same actor (Janos Prohaska). The process used to make pointed ears for David McCallum in "The Sixth Finger" was reused in Star Trek as well. The "ion storm" seen in "The Mutant" (a projector beam shining through a container containing glitter in liquid suspension) became the transporter effect in Trek. The black mask from The Duplicate Man, is used by the character Dr. Leighton,in The Conscience of the King . The Megazoid, from The Duplicate Man, was seen briefly near Captain Christopher Pike in the Star Trek pilot "The Cage ".

Actors who would later appear in Star Trek included Leonard Nimoy who appeared in two episodes, "Production and Decay of Strange Particles" and "I, Robot" and William Shatner appeared in the episode "Cold Hands, Warm Heart" as an astronaut working on a Project Vulcan. Other actors who subsequently appeared in Star Trek were James Doohan in a supporting role as a policeman in "Expanding Human", and Grace Lee Whitney in the episode "Controlled Experiment".

Gene Roddenberry paid a lot of attention to what The Outer Limits team was doing at the time, and he was often present in their studios. He hired several Outer Limits alumni, among them Robert Justman and Wah Chang for the production of Star Trek.

Lawsuit on behalf of Harlan Ellison

Harlan Ellison contended that inspiration for James Cameron's Terminator had come in part from Ellison's work on The Outer Limits. Cameron conceded the influence. Ellison was awarded money and an end-credits mention in The Terminator (1984), stating the creators' wish to acknowledge the works of Harlan Ellison.


The series fared rather poorly in the Nielsen ratings at the time of initial broadcast (as reflected in its cancellation after only 1 and 1/2 seasons) in comparison to the more popular Twilight Zone series. However, the series was well-liked by those who did watch it. Many decades later, revered horror writer Stephen King called it "the best program of its type ever to run on network TV."

In a 2002 review of the original series, Mark Holcomb wrote that The Twilight Zone and Star Trek were more popular in part because they played things more safely than The Outer Limits, choosing to "never stray far from the rationalism that drives most American entertainment". Holcomb writes:


The "bear" in The Architects of Fear, the monstrously-altered Leighton, was judged by some local stations to be so frightening that the creature's eyes were obscured on some prints at the time of broadcast.

DVD releases

MGM Home Entertainment has released both seasons of The Outer Limits on DVD in Region 1. In 2007, they re-released the series in 3 volume sets. In October, 2008, MGM released a 6-disc boxset featuring all 49 episodes of the series.

DVD name Episodes Release date
Season 1 32 September 3, 2002
Season 2 17 September 2, 2003
The Complete Series 49 October 21, 2008

The DVDs include a revised version of the original intro, heard over the episode menu:

See also

Similar series


  1. [1]
  2. [2]
  3. The Outer Limits Official Companion, Schow & Frentzen, p. 361.

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