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Drawing of the Act I finale
The Pirates of Penzance; or, The Slave of Duty, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. The opera's official premiere was at the Fifth Avenue Theatre in New York Citymarker on 31 December 1879, where the show was well-received by both audiences and critics. Its Londonmarker debut was on 3 April 1880, at the Opera Comiquemarker, where it ran for a very successful 363 performances, having already been playing successfully for over three months in New York.

The story concerns Frederic, who, having completed his 21st year, is released from his apprenticeship to a band of tenderhearted pirates. He meets Mabel, the daughter of Major-General Stanley, and the two young people fall instantly in love. Frederic finds out, however, that he was born on February 29, and so, technically, he only has a birthday each leap year. His apprenticeship indentures state that he remains apprenticed to the pirates until his 21st birthday, and so he must serve for another 63 years. Mabel agrees to wait for him faithfully.

Pirates was the fifth Gilbert and Sullivan collaboration and introduced the much-parodied Major-General's Song. The opera was performed for a century by the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company in Britain and many other opera companies and repertory companies worldwide. It has been refreshed with several modernised productions, including Joseph Papp's 1981 production on Broadwaymarker, which ran for 787 performances, winning the Tony Award for Best Revival and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical, and spawned many imitations. Pirates remains popular today, taking its place along with The Mikado and H.M.S. Pinafore as one of the most frequently played Gilbert and Sullivan operas.


The Pirates of Penzance was the only Gilbert and Sullivan opera to have its official premiere in New Yorkmarker. At the time, American law offered no copyright protection to foreigners. After their previous opera, H.M.S. Pinafore, was a hit in Londonmarker, over a hundred American companies quickly mounted unauthorized "pirated" productions, often taking considerable liberties with the text and paying no royalties to the creators. By mounting their next opera in New York, Gilbert and Sullivan hoped to forestall further "piracy" by establishing the official production in America before others could copy it. They did succeed, by mounting the first production themselves, as well as operating U.S. touring companies and delaying publication of the score and libretto, in keeping for themselves the direct profits of the venture. However, Gilbert, Sullivan, and their producer, Richard D'Oyly Carte, continued their efforts for many years to control the American performance copyrights over their operas, without success.

After the success of Pinafore, Gilbert was eager to get started on the next opera, and he began working on the libretto in December 1878. The composition of the music for Pirates was unusual, in that Sullivan composed the acts in reverse — intending to bring the completed Act II with him to New York, with Act I existing only in sketches. When he arrived in New York, however, he found that he had left the sketches behind, and he had to reconstruct the first act from memory. Gilbert told a correspondent many years later that Sullivan was unable to recall his setting of the entrance of the women's chorus, so they substituted the chorus "Climbing over rocky mountain" from their earlier opera, Thespis. Sullivan's manuscript for Pirates contains pages removed from a Thespis score, with the vocal parts altered from their original context as a four-part chorus.

scholars (e.g., Tillett and Spencer, 2000) have offered evidence that Gilbert and Sullivan had planned all along to re-use "Climbing over rocky mountain," and perhaps other parts of Thespis, noting that the presence of a Thespis score in New York when there were no plans to revive it might not have been accidental. In any event, "Climbing over rocky mountain," one other song, and a ballet are the only portions of the score of Thespis known to have survived.

On 10 December 1879, Sullivan wrote a letter to his mother about the new opera, upon which he was hard at work in New York. "I think it will be a great success, for it is exquisitely funny, and the music is strikingly tuneful and catching." True enough, The Pirates of Penzance was an immediate hit in New York, and later London, and takes its place today as one of the most popular G&S works. To secure Britishmarker copyright, there was a perfunctory performance the afternoon before the New York premiere, at the Royal Bijou Theatre Paigntonmarker, Devonmarker, organised by Helen Lenoir (who would later marry Richard D'Oyly Carte). The cast, having performed Pinafore the night before, read from scripts carried onto the stage, making do with whatever costumes they had on hand.

The work's title is a multi-layered joke. On the one hand, Penzancemarker was a docile seaside resort at the time, and not the place where one would expect to encounter pirates. On the other hand, the title was also a jab at the theatrical pirates who had staged unlicensed productions of H.M.S. Pinafore in America.

Sullivan's score borrowed from several musical traditions. In the Major-General's Act II song, "Sighing softly to the river", the composer imitates Schubert's partsongs for male voices. Also, the "Come, Friends Who Plough the Sea" section of "With Catlike Tread" resembles the anvil chorus from Il Trovatore. In another scene in Act II, Mabel addresses the police, who chant their response, in an imitation of the form of an Anglican church service's canticle and response. One of the most famous passages from the finale to Act I, referred to as "Hail Poetry", is a five-part musical piece, utilising all of the voices in a chorale style.

The character of Major-General Stanley was also based partly on Field Marshal Garnet Wolsely.


  • Chorus of Pirates, Police and General Stanley's Daughters


Act I

On the coast of Cornwallmarker, at the time of Queen Victoria's reign, Frederic, a young man with a strong sense of duty, celebrates, amidst the pirates, the completion of his twenty-first year and the apparent end of his apprenticeship ("Pour, oh pour the pirate sherry"). The pirates' maid of all work, Ruth, appears and reveals that, as Frederic's nursemaid long ago ("When Frederic was a little lad"), she had made a mistake "through being hard of hearing": she had misheard Frederic's father's instructions and apprenticed him to a pirate, instead of to a ship's pilot.

Frederic has never seen any woman other than Ruth, and he believes her to be beautiful. The pirates know better and suggest that Frederic take Ruth with him when he returns to civilisation. Frederic announces that, although it pains him to do so, such is his sense of duty that, once free from his apprenticeship, he will be forced to devote himself to their extermination. He points out that they are not very successful pirates, since, being orphans themselves, they allow their prey to go free if they too are orphans. Frederic notes that word of this has got about, so captured ships' companies routinely claim to be orphans. Frederic invites the pirates to give up piracy and go with him, so that he need not destroy them, but the Pirate King notes that, compared with respectability, piracy is comparatively honest ("Oh! better far to live and die"). The pirates depart, leaving Frederic and Ruth. Frederic sees a group of beautiful young girls approaching the pirate lair, and realizes that Ruth lied to him about her appearance ("Oh false one! You have deceived me!"). Sending Ruth away, Frederic hides before the girls arrive.

1880 poster
girls burst exuberantly upon the secluded spot ("Climbing over rocky mountain"). Frederic reveals himself ("Stop, ladies, pray!") and appeals to them to help him reform ("Oh! is there not one maiden breast?"). One of them, Mabel, responds to his plea, and chides her sisters for their lack of charity ("Oh sisters deaf to pity's name for shame!"). She sings to him ("Poor wand'ring one"), and Frederic and Mabel quickly fall in love. The other girls contemplate whether to eavesdrop or to leave the new couple alone ("What ought we to do?"), and eventually decide to "talk about the weather," although they steal a glance or two at the affectionate couple ("How beautifully blue the sky").

Frederic warns the girls of the pirates nearby ("Stay, we must not lose our senses"), but before they can flee, the pirates arrive and capture all the girls, intending to marry them ("Here's a first rate opportunity"). Mabel warns the pirates that the girls' father is a Major-General ("Hold, monsters!"), who soon arrives and introduces himself ("I am the very model of a modern Major-General"). He appeals to the pirates not to take his daughters, leaving him to face his old age alone. Having heard of the famous Pirates of Penzance, he pleads for their release on the ground that he's an orphan ("Oh, men of dark and dismal fate"). The soft-hearted pirates are sympathetic and release the girls ("Hail, Poetry!"), making Major-General Stanley and his daughters honorary members of their band ("Pray observe the magnanimity").

Act II

The Major-General sits in a ruined chapel on his estate, surrounded by his daughters. His conscience is tortured by the lie that he told the pirates, and the girls attempt to console him ("Oh dry the glist'ning tear"). The Sergeant of Police and his corps arrive to announce their readiness to go forth to arrest the pirates ("When the foeman bares his steel"). The girls loudly express their admiration of the police for facing likely slaughter at the hands of fierce and merciless foes. The police are unnerved by this, and remain around (to the Major-General's frustration) but finally leave.

"Have mercy on us!"
alone, Frederic, who is to lead the group, pauses to reflect on his opportunity to atone for a life of piracy ("Now for the pirate's lair"), at which point he encounters Ruth and the Pirate King. It has occurred to them that his apprenticeship was worded so as to bind him to them until his twenty-first birthday – and, because that birthday happens to be on 29 February (in a leap year), it means that technically only five birthdays have passed ("When you had left our pirate fold"), and he will not reach his twenty-first birthday until he is in his eighties. Frederic is convinced by this logic that he must rejoin the pirates, and thus he sees it as his duty to inform the Pirate King of the Major-General's deception. The outraged outlaw declares that their "revenge will be swift and terrible" ("Away, away, my heart's on fire").

Frederic meets Mabel ("All is prepared"), and she pleads with him to stay ("Stay Frederic, stay"), but he explains that he must fulfill his duty to the pirates until his 21st birthday in 1940. He promises to return then and claim her. They agree to be faithful to each other until then, though to Mabel "It seems so long" ("Oh here is love and here is truth"), and Frederic departs. Mabel steels herself ("No, I'll be brave") and tells the police that they must go alone to face the pirates. They muse that an outlaw might be just like any other man, and it is a shame to deprive him of "that liberty which is so dear to all" ("When a felon's not engaged in his employment"). The police hide on hearing the approach of the pirates ("A rollicking band of pirates we"), who have stolen onto the grounds, meaning to avenge themselves for the Major-General's lie ("With cat-like tread").

The police and the pirates prepare for the fight ("Hush, hush! not a word"). Just then, the Major-General appears, sleepless with guilt, and the pirates also hide, while General Stanley listens to the soothing sighing of the breeze ("Sighing softly to the river"). The girls come looking for him ("Now what is this and what is that"). The pirates leap to the attack, and the police rush to the defence; but the police are easily defeated, and the Pirate King urges the captured Major-General to prepare for death. The Sergeant plays his trump card, demanding that the pirates yield "in Queen Victoria's name"; the pirates, overcome with loyalty to their Queen, do so. Ruth appears and reveals that the orphan pirates are in fact "all noblemen who have gone wrong". The Major-General is impressed by this and all is forgiven. Frederic and Mabel are reunited, and the Major-General is happy to marry his daughters to the noble pirates after all.

Musical numbers

  • Overture (includes "With cat-like tread", "Ah, leave me not to pine", "Pray observe the magnanimity", "When you had left our pirate fold", "Climbing over rocky mountain", and "How beautifully blue the sky")

Act I
  • 1. "Pour, oh pour, the pirate sherry" (Samuel and Chorus of Pirates)
  • 2. "When Fred'ric was a little lad" (Ruth)
  • 3. "Oh, better far to live and die ...I am a pirate king!" (Pirate King and Chorus of Pirates)
  • 4. "Oh! false one, you have deceiv'd me" (Frederic and Ruth)
  • 5. "Climbing over rocky mountain" (Chorus of Girls)
  • 6. "Stop, ladies, pray" (Edith, Kate, Frederic, and Chorus of Girls)
  • 7. "Oh, is there not one maiden breast?" (Frederic and Chorus of Girls)
  • 8. "Poor wand'ring one" (Mabel and Chorus of Girls)
  • 9. "What ought we to do?" (Edith, Kate, and Chorus of Girls)
  • 10. "How beautifully blue the sky" (Mabel, Frederic, and Chorus of Girls)
  • 11. "Stay, we must not lose our senses" ... "Here's a first-rate opportunity to get married with impunity" (Frederic and Chorus of Girls and Pirates)
  • 12. "Hold, monsters" (Mabel, Major-General, Samuel, and Chorus)
  • 13. "I am the very model of a modern Major-General" (Major-General and Chorus)
  • 14. Finale Act I (Mabel, Kate, Edith, Ruth, Frederic, Samuel, King, Major-General, and Chorus)
    • "Oh, men of dark and dismal fate"
    • "I’m telling a terrible story"
    • "Hail, Poetry"
    • "Oh, happy day, with joyous glee"
    • "Pray observe the magnanimity"
Act II

  • 15. "Oh, dry the glist'ning tear" (Mabel and Chorus of Girls)
  • 16. "Then, Frederic, let your escort lion-hearted" (Frederic and Major-General)
  • 17. "When the foeman bares his steel" (Mabel, Edith, Sergeant, and Chorus of Policemen and Girls)
  • 18. "Now for the pirates' lair!" (Frederic, Ruth, and King)
  • 19. "When you had left our pirate fold" ("A paradox") (Ruth, Frederic, and King)
  • 20. "Away, away! My heart's on fire!" (Ruth, Frederic, and King)
  • 21. "All is prepar'd; your gallant crew await you" (Mabel and Frederic)
  • 22. "Stay, Fred'ric, stay" ... "Oh, here is love, and here is truth" (Mabel and Frederic)
  • 23. "No, I'll be brave" ... "Though in body and in mind" (Reprise of "When the foeman bares his steel") (Mabel, Sergeant, and Chorus of Police)
  • 23a. "Sergeant, approach!" (Mabel, Sergeant of Police, and Chorus of Police)
  • 24. "When a felon's not engaged in his employment" (Sergeant and Chorus of Police)
  • 25. "A rollicking band of pirates we" (Sergeant and Chorus of Pirates and Police)
  • 26. "With cat-like tread, upon our prey we steal" (Samuel and Chorus of Pirates and Police)
  • 27. "Hush, hush, not a word!" (Frederic, King, Major-General, and Chorus of Police and Pirates)
  • 28. Finale, Act II (Ensemble)
    • "Sighing softly to the river"
    • "Now what is this, and what is that?"
    • "Frederic here! Oh, joy! Oh, rapture!"
    • "With base deceit you worked upon our feelings!"
    • "You/We triumph now"
    • "Away with them, and place them at the bar!"
    • "Poor wandering ones!"


In the original New York production, the revelation by Ruth that the pirates are "all noblemen who have gone wrong" prompted the following exchange (recalling a famous passage in H.M.S. Pinafore):
GENERAL,POLICE & GIRLS: What, all noblemen?
KING & PIRATES: Yes, all noblemen!
KING: Well, nearly all!
ALL: They are nearly all noblemen who have gone wrong.
Then give three cheers, both loud and strong,
For the twenty noblemen who have gone wrong....

In the original London production, this exchange was shortened to:
GIRLS: Oh spare them! They are all noblemen who have gone wrong.
GENERAL: What, all noblemen?
KING: Yes, all noblemen!
GENERAL: What, all?
KING: Well, nearly all!

Gilbert deleted this exchange in the 1900 revival, and the Chappell vocal score was revised accordingly. The revived D'Oyly Carte Opera Company restored the original version in their 1989 production.

Production history

1881 programme cover
the beginning, The Pirates of Penzance has been one of Gilbert and Sullivan's most popular comic operas. After its unique "triple opening" in 1879–80, it was revived in London in 1888, in 1900, and for the Savoy repertory season of 1908–09. In the British provinces, the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company toured it almost continuously from 1880–1884, and again in 1888. It re-entered the touring repertory in 1893, and was never again absent through to the company's closure in 1982.

In America, after the New York opening on New Year's Eve, 1879, Richard D'Oyly Carte launched four companies that covered the United States on tours that lasted through the following summer. Gilbert and Sullivan themselves trained each of the touring companies through January and early February 1880, and each company's first performance – whether it was in Philadelphia, Newark, or Buffalo – was conducted by the composer. In Australia, its first authorized performance was on 19 March 1881 at the Theatre Royal, Sydneymarker, produced by J. C. Williamson.

There was still no international copyright law, and the first unauthorized New York production was given by the Boston Ideal Opera Company at Booth's Theatre in September 1880. The first non-D'Oyly Carte professional production in a country that had been subject to Gilbert's copyright (other than Williamsons' authorised productions) was in Stratford, Ontariomarker, Canadamarker, in September 1961. In 1979, the Torbaymarker branch of the Gilbert and Sullivan Society presented a centenary tribute to the world premiere performance of Pirates in Paignton, with a production at the Palace Avenue Theatre (situated a few metres from the former Bijou Theatre).

As discussed below, Joseph Papp's 1980–83 Pirates gave a boost to the opera's popularity. Professional and amateur productions of the opera continue with frequency. In 2007, the New York City Opera mounted a new production as did Opera Australia.

The following table shows the history of the D'Oyly Carte productions in Gilbert's lifetime:
Drawing from children's Pirates

Theatre Opening Date Closing Date Perfs. Details
Bijou Theatre, Paignton 30 December 1879 30 December 1879 1 English copyright performance.
Fifth Avenue Theatre, New York 31 December 1879 6 March 1880 100 Original run in New York. The company toured the Eastern seaboard between 8 March and 15 May. Three other touring companies were launched in January and February 1880.
17 May 1880 5 June 1880
Opera Comique 3 April 1880 2 April 1881 363 Original London run.
Savoy Theatre 23 December 1884 14 February 1885 37 Children's Pirates –series of matinées with a juvenile cast.
Savoy Theatre 17 March 1888 6 June 1888 80 First professional revival.
Savoy Theatre 30 June 1900 5 November 1900 127 Second professional revival.
Savoy Theatre 1 December 1908 27 March 1909 43 Second Savoy repertory season; played with five other operas. (Closing date shown is of the entire season.)

Historical casting

The following tables show the casts of the principal original productions and D'Oyly Carte Opera Company touring repertory at various times through to the company's 1982 closure:

Role Paignton

New York

Opera Comique

Savoy Theatre

Savoy Theatre

Major-General Richard Mansfield J. H. Ryley George Grossmith George Grossmith Henry Lytton
Pirate King F. Federici Sgr. Brocolini Richard Temple Richard Temple Jones Hewson
Samuel G. J. Lackner Furneaux Cook George Temple Richard Cummings W. H. Leon
James John Le Hay role eliminated
Frederic Llewellyn Cadwaladr Hugh Talbot George Power J. G. Robertson Robert Evett
Sergeant Fred Billington Fred Clifton Rutland Barrington Rutland Barrington Walter Passmore
Mabel Emilie Petrelli Blanche Roosevelt Marion Hood Geraldine Ulmar Isabel Jay
Edith Marian May Jessie Bond Julia Gwynne Jessie Bond Lulu Evans
Kate Lena Monmouth Rosina Brandram Lilian La Rue Nellie Kavanagh Alice Coleman
Isabel Kate Neville Billie Barlow Neva Bond Nellie Lawrence Agnes Fraser
Ruth Fanny Harrison Alice Barnett Emily Cross Rosina Brandram Rosina Brandram

Role Savoy Theatre

D'Oyly Carte

1915 Tour
D'Oyly Carte

1925 Tour
D'Oyly Carte

1935 Tour
D'Oyly Carte

1945 Tour
Major-General Charles H. Workman Henry Lytton Henry Lytton Martyn Green Grahame Clifford
Pirate King Henry Lytton Leicester Tunks Darrell Fancourt Darrell Fancourt Darrell Fancourt
Samuel Leo Sheffield Frederick Hobbs Joseph Griffin Richard Walker Hilton Layland
Frederic Henry Herbert Dewey Gibson Charles Goulding John Dean John Dean
Sergeant Rutland Barrington Fred Billington Leo Sheffield Sydney Granville Richard Walker
Mabel Dorothy Court Elsie McDermid Elsie Griffin Kathleen Frances Helen Roberts
Edith Jessie Rose Nellie Briercliffe Eileen Sharp Marjorie Eyre Marjorie Eyre
Kate Beatrice Boarer Betty Grylls Aileen Davies Maisie Baxter Ivy Sanders
Isabel Ethel Lewis Kitty Twinn Hilary Davies Elizabeth Nickell-Lean Rosalie Dyer
Ruth Louie René Bertha Lewis Bertha Lewis Dorothy Gill Ella Halman

Role D'Oyly Carte

1950 Tour
D'Oyly Carte

1958 Tour
D'Oyly Carte

1968 Tour
D'Oyly Carte

1975 Tour
D'Oyly Carte

1981 Tour
Major-General Martyn Green Peter Pratt John Reed James Conroy-Ward Alistair Donkin
Pirate King Darrell Fancourt Donald Adams Donald Adams John Ayldon John Ayldon
Samuel Donald Harris George Cook Alan Styler Jon Ellison Michael Buchan
Frederic Leonard Osborn Thomas Round Philip Potter Colin Wright Meston Reid
Sergeant Richard Watson Kenneth Sandford George Cook Michael Rayner Clive Harre
Mabel Muriel Harding Jean Hindmarsh Valerie Masterson Julia Goss Vivian Tierney
Edith Joan Gillingham Joyce Wright Peggy Ann Jones Patricia Leonard Jill Pert
Kate Joyce Wright Marian Martin Pauline Wales Caroline Baker Helene Witcombe
Isabel Enid Walsh Jane Fyffe Susan Maisey Rosalind Griffiths Alexandra Hann
Ruth Ella Halman Ann Drummond-Grant Christene Palmer Lyndsie Holland Patricia Leonard

Joseph Papp's Pirates

In 1980, Joseph Papp and the Public Theatermarker of New York City brought a new production of Pirates, directed by Wilford Leach and choreographed by Graciela Daniele, to the Delacorte Theatremarker in Central Parkmarker, one of the series of Shakespeare in the Park summer events. The show played for 10 previews and 35 performances. It then transferred to Broadwaymarker, opening on 8 January 1981 for a run of 20 previews and 787 performances at the Urismarker and Minskoffmarker Theatres. This take on Pirates earned several Tony Awards, including a Tony Award for Best Revival and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical.

Compared to traditional productions of the opera, Papp's Pirates featured a more swashbuckling Pirate King and Frederic, and a broader, more musical comedy style of humour. It also featured an adapted orchestration and a number of key changes. The "Matter Patter" trio from Ruddigore and "Sorry her lot" from H.M.S. Pinafore were interpolated into the show. The production also restored Gilbert and Sullivan's original New York ending, with a reprise of the Major-General's song in the Act II finale.

Linda Ronstadt starred as Mabel, Rex Smith as Frederic, Kevin Kline as the Pirate King, Patricia Routledge as Ruth (replaced by Estelle Parsons for the Broadway transfer), George Rose as the Major-General, and Tony Azito as the Sergeant of Police. Notable replacements during the Broadway run included Pam Dawber, Karla DeVito and Maureen McGovern as Mabel; Robby Benson, Patrick Cassidy and Peter Noone as Frederic; James Belushi, Gary Sandy, Wally Kurth, and Treat Williams as the Pirate King; David Garrison as the Sergeant; George S. Irving as the Major-General; and Kaye Ballard as Ruth. The national tour of the production featured Barry Bostwick as the Pirate King, Jo Anne Worley as Ruth, Clive Revill as the Major-General, Pam Dawber as Mabel, Paxton Whitehead as The Sergeant, and Andy Gibb as Frederic.

The production opened at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lanemarker, London, on 26 May 1982 to generally warm reviews for a run of 601 performances. Notable among the cast were George Cole and Ronald Fraser as the Major-General; Michael Praed and Peter Noone as Frederic; Tim Curry, Timothy Bentinck, Oliver Tobias and Paul Nicholas as the Pirate King; Chris Langham as the Sergeant of Police; Pamela Stephenson as Mabel; Annie Ross as Ruth; Bonnie Langford as Kate; and Louise Gold as Isabel.

1984 Australian Production
The Australian production opened in Melbournemarker in January 1984 at the Victorian Arts Centre and was the first work staged in the new performing arts complex. It was directed by John Feraro and starred Jon English as the Pirate King, Simon Gallaher as Frederic, June Bronhill as Ruth, David Atkins as the Sergeant of Police, and Marina Prior as Mabel. The six week limited season was followed by an Australian national tour throughout 1984, 1985, 1986 and also another come-back tour with same cast in the mid 90's. In 1985, Pirates was the first production in the new Queensland Performing Arts Centre in Brisbanemarker and set attendance records that were not surpassed until many years later by The Phantom of The Opera.

The Papp production was turned into a film in 1983, with all of the original Broadway cast reprising their roles, except that Angela Lansbury replaced Estelle Parsons as Ruth. The minor roles used British actors miming to their Broadway counterparts. The film was not a success, but, according to the IMDB, this "had nothing to do with the reviews, which were often quite positive. The real problem lay with Universal Pictures' decision to release the film simultaneously to SelecTV (a Los Angelesmarker subscription television service) and to theaters. Theater owners were so angry that they boycotted the film; in the end, only 92 theaters agreed to show it, and it enjoyed a long run at only one of them." The film has been shown occasionally on television. Another film based loosely on the opera, The Pirate Movie, was released during the Broadway run.

The Papp production design has been widely imitated in other modern productions of Pirates, even where traditional orchestration and standard score are used. Many modern productions are also influenced by the popular Disney film franchise Pirates of the Caribbean.


This opera has been recorded many times. Of the recordings by the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, the 1968 recording (with complete dialogue) is regarded as the best: "This recording is one of the best D'Oyly Carte sets of all time, and certainly the best Pirates." The 1957 D'Oyly Carte recording is also well rated. The 1993 Mackerras recording is admired for its musical values, and the 1981 Papp recording is excellent, although it has adapted orchestrations. Of the available commercial videos, the Brent Walker is considered better than the Papp version.

Selected recordings
  • 1929 D'Oyly Carte – Conductor: Malcolm Sargent
  • 1957 D'Oyly Carte – New Symphony Orchestra of London; Conductor: Isidore Godfrey
  • 1961 Sargent/Glyndebourne – Pro Arte Orchestra, Glyndebourne Festival Chorus; Conductor: Malcolm Sargent
  • 1968 D'Oyly Carte (with dialogue) – Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; Conductor: Isidore Godfrey
  • 1981; 1983 Papp's Pirates (with dialogue) – Director: Wilford Leach; Musical Director: William Elliott; Choreographer: Graciela Daniele
  • 1982 Brent Walker Productions (with dialogue) – Ambrosian Opera Chorus, London Symphony Orchestra; Conductor: Alexander Faris; Stage Director: Michael Geliot
  • 1990 New D'Oyly Carte – Conductor: John Pryce-Jones
  • 1993 Mackerras/Telarc – Orchestra and Chorus of the Welsh National Opera; Conductor: Charles Mackerras
  • 1994 Essgee Entertainment (video adaptation) – Director and Choreographer: Craig Schaefer; Orchestrator and Conductor: Kevin Hocking; Additional Lyrics: Melvyn Morrow

Cultural impact

Pirates is one of the most frequently referenced works of Gilbert and Sullivan. The Major-General's Song, in particular, is frequently parodied, pastiched and used in advertising. Its challenging patter has proved interesting to comics, a notable example being Tom Lehrer's song "The Elements", and it is used in film and on television, unchanged in many instances, as a character's audition piece, or seen in a "school play" scene. Examples include:
  • In Family Guy, in the episode "Peter's Got Woods", there is a clip in which Brian Griffin sings "Sighing Softly", with Peter Griffin appearing in the middle to sing the tenor line.
  • In Animaniacs, Yakko Warner, in the episode "H.M.S. Yakko," sings the famous pastiche, "I am the very model of a cartoon individual";
  • The computer-animated series ReBoot ended its third season with a recap of the entire season, set to the song's tune;
  • In the Babylon 5 Episode "Atonement", Marcus Cole uses the Major-General's Song to drive Dr Stephen Franklin crazy on a long journey to Mars.
  • In the Doctor Who Big Finish Productions audio, Doctor Who and the Pirates, the Doctor sings, "I am the very model of a Gallifreyan buccaneer" (and other songs, from Pirates, Pinafore and Ruddigore, are parodied);
  • The Muppet Show (season 3, episode 52) staged a duet of the song with guest host and commedienne Gilda Radner and a seven-foot tall talking carrot (The scene bore an ironic parody to another scene in Pirates, as Radner had requested a six-foot tall talking parrot, but was misheard);
  • David Hyde Pierce's monologue, as host of Saturday Night Live, was a parody of the song;
  • In the Frasier episode Fathers and Sons, Frasier, Niles and Leland Barton sing the first verse of the song. Martin tries to join in but confuses the lyrics, singing about a "scary hippopotamus" (instead of "the square of a hypotenuse");
  • In the Mad About You episode "Moody Blues," Paul directs a charity production of Penzance starring his father, Burt, as the Major-General. Parts of rehearsal and performance of the song are shown. When the lyrics slip Burt's mind, he improvises a few lines about his son.
  • In The Wild Thornberrys episode "Sir Nigel," Nigel Thornberry sings a song about the family to the tune of the song;
  • In a VeggieTales episode entitled "The Wonderful World of Auto-Tainment!", Archibald Asparagus sings the first two verses of this song when asked to sing about "Military Intelligence";
  • In the Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip episode "The Cold Open" (2006), the cast performs a sketch including a parody of the song: "We'll be the very model of a modern network TV show"; and
  • In an episode of Pinky and The Brain, The Brain sings a typically megalomaniacal parody of the song.
  • In The Simpsons episode "Deep Space Homer" (1F13), Barney Gumble quotes the first lines while executing difficult gymnastic tumbles for astronaut training.
  • In an Assy McGee episode entitled "Pegfinger", Detective Sanchez's wife is a member of a community theater that performs the opera.
  • In an episode of Home Improvement, Al Borland sings half of the first verse when tricked into thinking he is in a soundproof booth.
Other songs from the show that have been used frequently include the chorus of With cat-like tread, which begins "Come, friends, who plough the sea," which was used in the popular American song, "Hail, Hail, the Gang's All Here," popularized by Fred Astaire. It is also part of the soundtrack, along with other Gilbert and Sullivan songs, in the 1981 film, Chariots of Fire. The song was also pastiched in an episode of Animaniacs in a song about surfing a whale.

Other notable instances of references to Pirates include a New York Times article on 29 February 1940, memorializing that Frederic was finally out of his indentures. Six years previously, the arms granted to the municipal borough of Penzancemarker in 1934 contain a pirate dressed in Gilbert's original costuming, and Penzance had a rugby team called the Penzance Pirates, which is now called the Cornish Pirates. In 1980, Isaac Asimov wrote a short story called "The Year of the Action", concerning whether the action of Pirates took place on 1 March 1873, or 1 March 1877. That is, did Gilbert take into account the fact that 1900 was not a leap year?

Film references to Pirates include Kate and Leopold, where there are multiple references, including a scene where Leopold sings "I Am The Very Model of A Modern Major General" while accompanying himself on the piano; and in Pretty Woman, Edward Lewis (Richard Gere) covered a social gaffe by prostitute Vivian Ward (Julia Roberts), who said that the opera La Traviata was so good that she almost "peed in [her] pants" by saying that she had said that she liked it almost as much as "The Pirates of Penzance." In Walt Disney's cartoon Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers (2004), there is a performance of The Pirates of Penzance that becomes the setting for the climactic battle between the Musketeers and Captain Pete. Pirates songs sung in the cartoon are "With cat-like tread", "Poor wand'ring one", "Climbing over rocky mountain" and the Major General's song.

In the TV series The West Wing, Pirates and other Gilbert and Sullivan operas are mentioned, especially by Deputy Communications Director, Sam Seaborn, who was recording secretary of his school's Gilbert and Sullivan society. In Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip, a poster from Pirates hangs on Matt Albie's office wall. Both TV series were created by Aaron Sorkin. In the pilot episode of the 2008 CBS series, Flashpoint, a police officer and his partner sing the policeman's song.

The show is referred to in video games. In Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, a casino is called "Pirates in Men's Pants", a crude play on "Pirates of Penzance". The opera has also lent itself to other cultural references, such as the unlikely slang used by Melburnianmarker youths, who refer to marijuana as "Pirates of Penzance" or the "Gilbert & Sullivan Special."


See also


  1. Prestige, Colin. "D'Oyly Carte and the Pirates", a paper presented at the International Conference of G&S held at the University of Kansas, May 1970
  2. Ainger, p. 166
  3. Ainger, p. 177
  4. Ainger, p. 179
  5. Smith, Tim. "A consistent Pirates of Penzance", The Baltimore Sun, July 16, 2009
  6. Ainger, pp. 180–81
  7. In medieval times and later, however, Penzance was subject to frequent raiding by Turkish pirates, according to Canon Diggens Archive 1910.
  8. Information from NY City Opera website
  9. The first performance was by invitation only. The official opening was on 26 December 1884. The Times announcement, 20 December 1884, p. 8
  10. Rollins and Witts, p. 30
  11. Rollins and Witts, p. 32
  12. Rollins and Witts, p. 7
  13. Rollins and Witts, p. 11
  14. Rollins and Witts, p. 18
  15. Rollins and Witts, p. 22
  16. Rollins and Witts, p. 132
  17. Rollins and Witts, p. 148
  18. Rollins and Witts, p. 160
  19. Rollins and Witts, p. 170
  20. Rollins and Witts, p. 175
  21. Rollins and Witts, p. 183
  22. Rollins and Witts, 2nd Supplement, p. 15
  23. Rollins and Witts, 3rd Supplement, p. 28
  24. Information from the IMDB database
  25. Shepherd, Marc. "The 1968 D'Oyly Carte Pirates", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 7 September 2008, accessed 20 August 2009
  26. Shepherd, Marc. List and assessments of recordings of the opera, A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 9 July 2009, accessed 20 August 2009
  27. Shepherd, Marc. "The 1929 D'Oyly Carte Pirates", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 29 March 2009, accessed 20 August 2009
  28. Shepherd, Marc. "The 1957 D'Oyly Carte Pirates", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 23 December 2003, accessed 20 August 2009
  29. Shepherd, Marc. "The Sargent/EMI Pirates (1961)", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 12 July 2009, accessed 20 August 2009
  30. Shepherd, Marc. "Papp's Pirates (1980)", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 7 September 2008, accessed 20 August 2009
  31. Shepherd, Marc. "The Brent Walker Pirates (1982)", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 13 April 2009, accessed 20 August 2009
  32. Shepherd, Marc. "The New D'Oyly Carte Pirates (1990)", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 2 December 2001, accessed 20 August 2009
  33. Shepherd, Marc. "The Mackerras/Telarc Pirates (1993)", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 7 September 2008, accessed 20 August 2009
  34. Shepherd, Marc. "The Essgee Pirates (1994)", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 9 July 2009, accessed 20 August 2009
  35. Schillinger, Liesl. "Dress British, Sing Yiddish", The New York Times, 22 October 2006
  36. "Frederic Goes Free", The New York Times, 29 February 1940, p. 18
  37. Description of the story, which appears in Banquets of the Black Widowers (1984)
  38. "The Pirates of Penzance... in Yiddish?", Montreal Express, 25 May 2009
  39. Saltzman, Simon. CurtainUp New Jersey Review 2007, CurtainUp. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
  40. Nesti, Robert. "Pirates! (Or, Gilbert and Sullivan Plunder’d)", EDGE, June 8, 2009


  • Bordman, Gerald. American Operetta: From H. M. S. Pinafore to Sweeney Todd Oxford University Press, 1981.
  • Lamb, Andrew. "From Pinafore to Porter: United States-United Kingdom Interactions in Musical Theater, 1879-1929" in American Music, Vol. 4, No. 1, British-American Musical Interactions (Spring, 1986), pp. 34-49 University of Illinois Press.
  • Also, five supplements, privately printed.

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