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The Railway Series is a set of story books about a fictional railway system located on the fictional Island of Sodor and the engines that lived on it. There are currently 41 books in the series, the first being published in 1945. Twenty-six were written by Rev. W. Awdry, up to 1972. From 1983 to 1996, a further 14 were written by his son, Christopher Awdry. Christopher's fifteenth and most recent book, Thomas and Victoria, was released in September 2007.

Nearly all of The Railway Series stories were based upon real-life events. As a lifelong railway enthusiast, Wilbert was keen that his stories should be as realistic as possible. The engine characters were almost all based upon real classes of locomotive, and some of the railways themselves were directly based upon real lines in the British Isles.

The books are now best known as the basis of the children's television series Thomas and Friends .

Audio adaptations of The Railway Series have been recorded at various times under the title The Railway Stories.

The Rev. W. Awdry's books: the origins of the series

The stories began in 1942, when two-year-old Christopher Awdry had caught measles and was confined to a darkened room. His father would tell him stories and rhymes to cheer him up. One of Christopher's favourite rhymes was:

:Early in the morning,
:Down at the station,
:All the little engines
:Standing in a row.

:Along comes the driver,
:Pulls the little lever
:Puff, puff! Chuff, chuff!
:Off we go!

The precise origins of this rhyme are unknown, but research by Brian Sibley suggests that it originated at some point prior to the First World War. Wilbert Awdry's answers to Christopher's questions about the rhyme led to the creation of a short story, 'Edward's Day Out'. This told the story of Edward the Blue Engine, an old engine who is allowed out of the shed for a day. Another story about Edward followed, which this time also featured a character called Gordon the Big Engine, named after a rather bossy child who lived on the same road as Christopher.

A third story had its origins in a limerick of which Christopher was fond, and which Awdry used to introduce 'The Sad Story of Henry':

:Once, an engine attached to a train
:Was afraid of a few drops of rain
:It went into a tunnel,
:And squeaked through its funnel
:And never came out again.

As with the previous rhyme, the origins of this are uncertain, but Wilbert received a letter telling him that a similar poem had appeared in a book of children's rhymes, published in 1902:

:Once an engine when fixed to a train
:Was alarmed at a few drops of rain,
:So went 'puff' from its funnel
:Then fled to a tunnel,
:And would not come out again.

This story introduced the popular characters Henry the Green Engine and the Fat Director. Encouraged by Margaret, his wife, Wilbert submitted the three stories to Edmund Ward for publication in 1943. The head of the children's books division requested a fourth story to bring the three engines together and redeem Henry, who had been bricked up in a tunnel in the previous story. Although Wilbert had not intended that the three engines live on the same railway, he complied with the request in the story 'Edward, Gordon and Henry'. The four stories were published in 1945 as a single volume, The Three Railway Engines, illustrated by William Middleton.

Christmas 1942 saw the genesis of the character that grew to become the most famous locomotive in the world. Wilbert constructed a toy tank engine for Christopher, which gained the name Thomas. Stories about Thomas were requested by Christopher, and 1946 saw the publication of Thomas the Tank Engine. (The foreword from this book is used at the beginning of current seasons of Thomas & Friends), This was illustrated by Reginald Payne, whom Wilbert felt to be a great improvement over Middleton. Like its predecessor, this book was a success and Wilbert was asked to write stories about James, a character who first appeared in 'Thomas and the Breakdown Train', the final story in Thomas the Tank Engine. The book James the Red Engine appeared in 1948, the year in which the railways in Britain were nationalised, and from this point onwards the Fat Director was known by his familiar title of the Fat Controller.

James the Red Engine was notable as the first book to be illustrated by C. Reginald Dalby, perhaps the most famous of the Railway Series artists, and certainly the most controversial. Dalby illustrated every volume up to Percy the Small Engine (1956), and also produced new illustrations for The Three Railway Engines and made changes to those of Thomas the Tank Engine.

Successive books would introduce such popular characters as Annie and Clarabel, Percy the Small Engine and Toby the Tram Engine.

In making the stories as real as possible, Awdry took a lot of inspiration from a number of sources in his extensive library, and found the Railway Gazette's 'Scrapheap' column particularly useful as a source of unusual railway incidents that were recreated for the Railway Series characters.

Rev. Awdry continued working on the Railway Series until 1972, when Tramway Engines (book 26 in the series) was published. However, he had been finding it increasingly difficult to come up with ideas for new stories, and after this he felt that "the well had run dry" and so decided that the time had come to retire. He wrote no further Railway Series volumes, but later wrote a spin-off story for the television series Thomas' Christmas Party and expanded versions of some of his earlier stories, as well as The Island of Sodor: Its People, History and Railways. In addition, he wrote a number of short stories and articles for Thomas the Tank Engine Annuals.

Christopher Awdry's books: the continuation of the series

Christopher Awdry, for whom the stories were first devised, continued writing the stories almost by accident. He was a keen railway enthusiast like his father, and it was on a visit to the Nene Valley Railwaymarker that he received the inspiration for his first story. A railwayman's account of a locomotive running out of steam short of its destination became 'Triple Header', a story in which Thomas, Percy and Duck take on Gordon's Express but find it more than they can handle. Christopher devised three other stories, 'Stop Thief!', 'Mind That Bike' and 'Fish'.

He showed them to his father, who suggested that he submit them for publication, with his blessing. At the time, work on the television adaptation was underway, and so Kaye and Ward (then publishers of the series) were willing to revive the Railway Series. The book Really Useful Engines was published in 1983. By coincidence, Rev. W. Awdry had considered this as a title for his own 27th volume before abandoning the project.

Thirteen more books followed, including the series' 50th anniversary volume, Thomas and the Fat Controller's Engines. A number of stories were also written for the television series, most notably More About Thomas the Tank Engine, the Railway Series' 30th volume.

However, Christopher Awdry found himself increasingly coming into conflict with his publishers, which ironically arose through the success of the television series. The television series had made Thomas its central character, and therefore the most well-known of the engines. Consequently, the publishers were increasingly demanding stories that would focus on Thomas at the expense of other characters. As a compromise, volumes appeared that were named after Thomas but did not actually focus upon him. Thomas and the Fat Controller's Engines featured only one story about Thomas and Thomas Comes Home did not feature Thomas until the last page.

The series' 40th volume, New Little Engine, appeared in 1996. The then publisher, Egmont Fleetway, expressed no further interest in publishing new Railway Series books and allowed the existing back catalogue to go out of print.

Despite this setback, in 2005 Christopher's own publishing company, Sodor Enterprises, published a book entitled Sodor: Reading Between the Lines. This volume expanded the fictional world of Sodor up to the present day and dealt with many of the factual aspects of the series. With this publishing company he also wrote several railway-based children's books, most of which were set on real railways in Britainmarker. He continues to promote the original stories and to participate in Railway Series-related events.

Fortunately, for fans of the series, the publishers reviewed their policy and, in 2006, started to re-introduce the books in their original format. After many years of being unavailable, the fourteen books written by Christopher were also re-released, early in August 2007.

Furthermore, Christopher has written a new book, extending the series to 41 volumes. The new book, titled "Thomas and Victoria", addresses issues relating to the railway preservation movement. It is illustrated by Clive Spong, and was published on 3 September 2007.

The Future of the Railway Series

For many years, many of the books in the Railway Series were unavailable to buy in their original format, and the publishers would not publish any new stories. There was a selected print run in 2004 consisting of just The Rev W Awdry's books (1-26), but by 2005, the sixtieth anniversary, there was still disappointment from the Awdry family that all of the stories were not being published in their original format. In August 2007, Christopher Awdry's first fourteen books were reissued, and number 41, Thomas and Victoria was released the following month. An omnibus edition of Christopher Awdry's books including book 41, The New Collection, was released at the same time.

Christopher Awdry has said that he has other material, which he hopes to be published, and at present there are further stories with the publishers. The subject of the stories isn't known, but what is known is that Christopher Awdry has read aloud new stories about the narrow gauge engines on 'Duncan Days' at the Tallylyn Railway in Wales. His book Sodor: Reading Between the Lines updates readers on developments since 1996, some of which could form the basis of stories in future books.


The Railway Series is perhaps as highly regarded for its illustrations as for its writing, which in the immediate post-Second World War era were seen as uniquely vivid and colourful. Indeed, some critics (notably Miles Kington) have claimed that the quality of the illustrations outshines that of the writing.

The first edition of The Three Railway Engines was illustrated by the artist William Middleton, with whom Wilbert Awdry was deeply dissatisfied. The second artist to work on the series was Reginald Payne, who illustrated Thomas the Tank Engine in a far more realistic style. Despite an early disagreement as to how Thomas should look, Awdry was ultimately pleased with the pictures produced.

Payne proved impossible to contact to illustrate James the Red Engine, and so C. Reginald Dalby was hired. Dalby also illustrated the next eight books in the series. The Three Railway Engines was reprinted with Dalby's artwork replacing William Middleton's and he also touched up the artwork for the second book. His work on the series proved popular with readers, but not so with the author, who repeatedly clashed with him over issues of accuracy and consistency. Dalby resigned from the series in 1956, following an argument over the portrayal of Percy the Small Engine in the book of the same name. Despite the tempestuous relationship with Awdry, he is probably the best remembered of the series' artists.

The series was taken over from The Eight Famous Engines (1957) by John T. Kenney, whose style was less colourful but more realistic than Dalby's. As a result of his commitment to realism and technical accuracy, he enjoyed a far more comfortable working relationship with Awdry, which lasted until Gallant Old Engine (1962), when his eyesight began to fail him.

The artist initially chosen to replace him was the Swedishmarker-born artist Gunvor Edwards. She began illustrating Stepney the "Bluebell" Engine, but felt unsuited to the work. She was assisted for that volume by her husband Peter, who effectively took over from then on. Both artists retained credit for the work, and the "Edwards era" lasted until Wilbert Awdry's last volume, Tramway Engines. The style used in these volumes was still essentially realistic, but had something of an impressionist feel.

When Christopher Awdry took the series over in 1983, the publisher was keen to find an illustrator who would provide work that was appealing and colourful like Dalby's pictures, but also realistic like the Kenney and Edwards volumes. The artist chosen was Clive Spong. He illustrated all of Christopher Awdry's books, a greater number than any other artist working on the Railway Series. He also produced illustrations for a number of spin-off stories written by the Awdrys, and his artwork was used in The Island of Sodor: Its People, History and Railways.

Format and presentation

The books were produced in an unusual landscape format. Each one was around 60 pages long, 30 of which would be text and 30 illustrations. The books were each divided into four stories (with the exception of Henry the Green Engine, which was divided into five).

Each book from Thomas the Tank Engine onwards opened with a foreword. This would act as a brief introduction to the book, its characters or its themes. They were written as a letter, usually to the readers (addressed as "Dear Friends") but sometimes to individual children who had played some part in the story's creation. The foreword to Thomas the Tank Engine was a letter to Christopher Awdry. This section would often advertise real railways or acknowledge the assistance of people or organisations. The foreword to The Little Old Engine is unique in acknowledging the fact that Skarloey (and, by implication, the entirety of the Railway Series) is fictional.

The unusual shape of the books made them instantly recognisable. However, it did prompt complaints from booksellers that they were difficult to display, and even that they could easily be shoplifted. Nonetheless, the format was imitated by publishers Ian Allan for their Sammy the Shunter and Chuffalong books.

Unusually for children's books of the austerity period, the Railway Series was printed in full colour from the start, which is cited by many critics as one of its major selling points in the early days.

The Island of Sodor

The Rev. W. Awdry received numerous letters from young fans asking questions about the engines and their railway, as well as letters concerning inconsistencies within the stories. In an effort to answer these, Wilbert began to develop a specific setting for the books. On a visit to the Isle of Manmarker, he discovered that the bishop there is known as the Bishop of Sodor and Man. The "Sodor" part of the title comes from the Sudreysmarker, but Wilbert decided that a fictional island between the Isle of Man and Englandmarker by that name would be an ideal setting for his stories.

In partnership with his brother George (the librarian of the National Liberal Clubmarker), he gradually devised Sodor's history, geography, language, industries and even geology. The results were published in the book The Island of Sodor: Its People, History and Railways in 1987.

Cameo appearances

Rev. W. Awdry and Christopher Awdry both wrote about Sodor as if it were a real place that they visited, and that the stories were obtained first-hand from the engines and Controllers. This was often "documented" in the foreword to each book. However, in some of Rev. W. Awdry's later books, he made appearances as an actual character. The character was known as the Thin Clergyman and was described as a writer, though his real name and connections to the series were never made explicit.

He was invariably accompanied by the Fat Clergyman, the Reverend "Teddy" Boston, who was a fellow railway enthusiast and close friend. The two Clergymen were portrayed as railway enthusiasts, and were responsible for annoying the Small Engines and discovering Duke the Lost Engine. They were often figures of fun, liable to be splashed with water or to fall through a roof.

Rev. W. Awdry also appeared in a number of illustrations, usually as a joke on the part of the illustrator. In one illustration by John T. Kenney in Duck and the Diesel Engine he appears with a figure who bears a strong resemblance to C. Reginald Dalby, which Brian Sibley has suggested might be a dig at Dalby's inaccurate rendition of the character of Duck.

A vicar appears in Edward the Blue Engine and other volumes as the owner of Trevor the Traction Engine. This may be a reference to Teddy Boston, who had himself saved a traction engine from scrap.

Christopher Awdry never appeared in the books, but would often describe meetings with the engines in the book forewords, usually with some degree of humour.

Other people associated with the Railway Series were also referenced. In Dalby's books, he made allusions to himself twice on store signs (Seen in 'Off the Rails' and 'Saved from Scrap') and a reference to E.T.L. Marriott, who edited the Railway Series, in 'Percy Takes the Plunge' on a 'Ship Chandlers' company sign. Peter Edwards also notes that he based Gordon's face on Eric Marriot's.

The Fat Controller (originally The Fat Director in the earliest books which pre-dated the nationalisation of Britain's railways in 1948) was a fictional character, although Mr Gerard Fiennes, one of the highest-regarded managers on British Railways, published his autobiography "I tried to run a Railway" on his retirement in 1968, and says that he originally wanted to call the book "The Fat Controller" but the publishers would not permit this.

The Thin Controller, in charge of the narrow-gauge trains in the book which are based on the Talyllyn Railwaymarker in Wales, was based on Mr Edward Thomas, the manager of the Talyllyn Railway in its last years before enthusiasts took it over in 1951.

A number of the stories are based on articles (often quite brief mentions) which appeared in railway enthusiast publications of the period. There were very few of these compared to modern times, but the monthly Railway Magazine was a long-running enthusiasts' companion and the origins of several stories can be recognised, as also the railway books and histories written by Mr Hamilton Ellis, one of the early railway book writers.

The Railway Series and British Railways

Developments on British Railways were often mirrored, satirised and even attacked in the Railway Series. The book Troublesome Engines (1950), for example, dealt with industrial disputes on British Railways. As the series went on, comparisons with the real railways of Britain became more explicit, with engines and locations of British Railways (always known as "The Other Railway") making appearances in major or cameo roles.

The most obvious theme relating to British Railways was the decline of steam locomotion and its replacement with diesels. The first real instance of this was in the book Duck and the Diesel Engine (1958) in which an unpleasant diesel shunter arrives, causes trouble and is sent away. The 1963 volume Stepney the "Bluebell" Engine explained that steam engines were actually being scrapped to make way for these diesels, and again featured a diesel getting his comeuppance. The book Enterprising Engines was published in 1968, the year when steam finally disappeared from British Railways, and was the most aggressive towards dieselisation and Dr Beeching's modernisation plan. It features yet another arrogant diesel who is sent away, an additional one who stays on the Island of Sodor, a visit by the real Flying Scotsman locomotive and a steam engine, Oliver, making a daring escape to Sodor.

Thereafter, the books were less critical towards BR. Indeed, by the time of Christopher Awdry's 1984 book James and the Diesel Engines, the series was acknowledging that diesels could, in fact, be useful.

The Railway Series and the preservation movement

With the series' popularity and Rev. W. Awdry's interest in railways, it was perhaps inevitable that he would use the books to promote steam railways in the UK. The first instance of this was the creation of the Skarloey Railway, a railway on Sodor that closely resembled the Talyllyn Railwaymarker in Walesmarker, of which Rev. W. Awdry was a member. Books focusing on this railway would inevitably include a promotion for the Talyllyn Railway, either in the stories themselves, in a footnote or in the foreword.

From the 1980s onwards, this association was carried further, with the Awdrys permitting the Talyllyn Railway to repaint one of their engines in the guise of its Sodor "twin". The first engine to receive this treatment was their No. 3, Sir Haydn, which was repainted to resemble the character Sir Handel. The second was No. 4, Edward Thomas, which became Peter Sam. In 2006 No. 6, Douglas runs in the guise of Duncan. These characters' appearances have been written into the Railway Series' continuity by Christopher Awdry in the form of visits by the fictional engines to the Talyllyn Railway.

Two other railways on Sodor are directly based on real railways. The Culdee Fell Railway (usually known as the Mountain Railway) is based on the Snowdon Mountain Railwaymarker, also in Wales. The Small Railway, more correctly known as the Arlesdale Railway, is based on the Ravenglass and Eskdale Railwaymarker in Cumbriamarker. Some other lines on Sodor are heavily inspired by real lines. For example, Duke's railway (the Mid Sodor Railway) acknowledges the Ffestiniog Railwaymarker and Corris Railwaymarker and Duck's branch line (aka the Little Western) bears a resemblance to the South Devon Railwaymarker.

From Duck and the Diesel Engine onwards, a number of real engines and railways were explicitly featured. The characters of Flying Scotsman, City of Truro, Stepney and Wilbert were all real locomotives that made significant appearances in the Railway Series, the latter two having entire volumes dedicated to them, Stepney the "Bluebell" Engine and Wilbert the Forest Engine . Wilbert's appearance was of particular significance. The locomotive in question was named in tribute to Rev. W. Awdry, the president of the Dean Forest Railwaymarker at the time. Christopher Awdry wrote Wilbert the Forest Engine in gratitude.

Thomas and the Great Railway Show (1991) featured a visit by Thomas to the National Railway Museummarker in York, along with appearances by several of the real locomotives living there. At the end of this book, Thomas is made an honorary member of the National Collection. This was mirrored by the real life inclusion of the Railway Series in the National Railway Museum's extensive library of railway books in recognition of their influence on railway preservation.

The latest book, Thomas and Victoria, focuses on the rescue and restoration of a coach. Victoria had been used as a summerhouse in an orchard by the railway, but was rescued by the Fat Controller who then sent her to the works at Crovan's Gate to be restored. She then became part of the vintage train, working with Toby and Henrietta. The formation of a vintage train is based on the activities by the Furness Railway Trust[97747], but coach restoration is common on heritage railways.

Characters from The Railway Series

The series has featured numerous characters, both railway-based and otherwise. Some of the more notable ones are:

For other characters, see:

Books in The Railway Series

The following table lists the titles of all 41 books in The Railway Series.

Books 01 - 26 were written by Rev. W. Awdry.

Books 27 - 41 were written by Christopher Awdry.

Vol. Title Year First Appearance by Characters: Illustrated by:
Books written by Rev. W. Awdry
1 The Three Railway Engines 1945 Edward Gordon Henry (pre-rebuild) Fat Director William Middleton
(later completely redrawn by C.

Reginald Dalby)
2 Thomas the Tank Engine 1946 Thomas James Reginald Payne
(later partially redrawn by C.

Reginald Dalby
3 James the Red Engine 1948 Fat Controller (his title after Nationalisation) C. Reginald Dalby
4 Tank Engine Thomas Again 1949 Annie and Clarabel Terence the Tractor Bertie the Bus C. Reginald Dalby
5 Troublesome Engines 1950 Percy C. Reginald Dalby
6 Henry the Green Engine 1951 Henry (post-rebuild) C. Reginald Dalby
7 Toby the Tram Engine 1952 Toby Henrietta the Coach C. Reginald Dalby
8 Gordon the Big Engine 1953 C. Reginald Dalby
9 Edward the Blue Engine 1954 Trevor the Traction Engine C. Reginald Dalby
10 Four Little Engines 1955 Skarloey Rheneas Sir Handel Peter Sam Thin Controller The Owner
Carriages: Agnes, Ruth, Lucy, Jemima, Beatrice Mrs Last
C. Reginald Dalby
11 Percy the Small Engine 1956 Duck Harold the Helicopter C. Reginald Dalby
12 The Eight Famous Engines 1957 The Foreign Engine Jinty and Pug John T. Kenney
13 Duck and the Diesel Engine 1958 City of Truro Diesel John T. Kenney
14 The Little Old Engine 1959 Rusty the diesel Duncan
Carriages: Cora, Ada, Jane, Mabel, Gertrude, Millicent
John T. Kenney
15 The Twin Engines 1960 Donald and Douglas Spiteful Brake Van John T. Kenney
16 Branch Line Engines 1961 Daisy the Diesel Rail-Car John T. Kenney
17 Gallant Old Engine 1962 George the Steamroller Nancy the Guard's Daughter John T. Kenney
18 Stepney the "Bluebell" Engine 1963 Stepney Caroline the car The Diesel/D4711 Gunvor & Peter Edwards
19 Mountain Engines 1964 Culdee Ernest Wilfred Godred Lord Harry Alaric Eric
Catherine The Truck Lord Harry Barrane Mr Walter Richards
Peter & Gunvor Edwards
20 Very Old Engines 1965 Neil Peter & Gunvor Edwards
21 Main Line Engines 1966 BoCo Bill and Ben Peter & Gunvor Edwards
22 Small Railway Engines 1967 Mike Rex Bert Ballast Spreader
The Small Controller
Peter & Gunvor Edwards
23 Enterprising Engines 1968 Flying Scotsman D199 Bear Oliver Toad
Coaches: Isabel, Dulcie, Alice, Mirabel
Peter & Gunvor Edwards
24 Oliver the Western Engine 1969 S.C.Ruffey Fred Pelhay Bulgy Peter & Gunvor Edwards
25 Duke the Lost Engine 1970 Duke Falcon Stuart Stanley Peter & Gunvor Edwards
26 Tramway Engines 1972 Mavis Peter & Gunvor Edwards
Books written by Christopher Awdry
27 Really Useful Engines 1983 Tom Tipper Clive Spong
28 James and the Diesel Engines 1984 Old Stuck-up The Works Diesel Clive Spong
29 Great Little Engines 1985 Clive Spong
30 More About Thomas the Tank Engine 1986 Clive Spong
31 Gordon the High-Speed Engine 1987 Pip & Emma 31 120 D10751 Clive Spong
32 Toby, Trucks and Trouble 1988 The Old Engine Bulstrode Clive Spong
33 Thomas and the Twins 1989 Clive Spong
34 Jock the New Engine 1990 Arlesdale Railway engines: Frank, Jock Clive Spong
35 Thomas and the Great Railway Show 1991 Engines at the National Railway Museum Clive Spong
36 Thomas Comes Home 1992 Clive Spong
37 Henry and the Express 1993 Clive Spong
38 Wilbert the Forest Engine 1994 Wilbert Sixteen Clive Spong
39 Thomas and the Fat Controller's Engines 1995 Clive Spong
40 New Little Engine 1996 Fred Kathy & Lizzie (cleaners) Ivo Hugh Clive Spong
41 Thomas and Victoria 2007 Victoria (a coach) Helena (a coach similar to Victoria) Albert Clive Spong

Criticism of Thomas

Some commentators have criticised the Railway Series as representing values more relevant to the 1940s and 1950s, when Awdry invented the characters, than to the 21st Century. In their book "Train Tracks: Work, Play and Politics on the Railways", Gillian Reynolds and Gayle Letherby criticised the race, gender and class politics of the stories. In a critique of Letherby and Reynolds's work in The Guardian, Ian Jack was deeply critical of their findings: "...the real charm of the books lies in the illustrations rather than the words. The stories themselves are plain little things, with jerky sentences that are hard to read aloud with much parental conviction, and four basic plot lines: Troublesome Trucks, Proud Engine Gets His Comeuppance, Small Engine Shows His Worth, New Engine Is Shunned (And Then Wins Friends)." Jack is particularly scathing about Reynolds' and Letherby's assertion that Toby the Tram Engine somehow reflects the "marginalisation and assimilation" of West Indian migrants arriving in Britian in the 1950s: "It seems unlikely that West Indian migration was much on [Awdry's] mind in rural East Anglia, but, yes, the subconscious is a funny thing — though not quite as funny a thing as social studies."

References in popular culture

Satirical magazine Private Eyemarker produced a book Thomas the Privatised Tank Engine, written in the style of The Railway Series. The stories were strongly critical of private railway companies and the Government of John Major, and covered subjects such as the Channel Tunnelmarker, London Underground, transport of radioactive waste and the perceived dangerous state of the railways.


  1. Sibley, pp96
  2. Sibley, pp98
  3. Sibley, pp99-100
  4. Mansfield, Susan Steaming ahead for six decades, 6 May 2005, The Scotsman. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  5. Teddy Boston - the Fat Clergyman


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