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The Remains of the Day (1989) is the third published novel by Japanese-British author Kazuo Ishiguro. The Remains of The Day is one of the most highly-regarded post-war British novels. It won the Booker Prize in 1989 for Best Fiction, and was later adapted into an Academy-Award nominated film, starring Anthony Hopkins and Emma Thompson. The novel ranks in the Sunday Times list of 100 greatest novels.

Plot introduction

Like Ishiguro's previous two novels, the story is told from the first person point of view with the narrator recalling his life through a letter to an unknown person, perhaps another butler, while progressing through the present. Events in the narrator's contemporary life remind him of events from his past.

The novel was Ishiguro's first not based in Japan or told from the point of view of a Japanese person, although his first novel, A Pale View of Hills, was told from the point of view of an elderly Japanese woman living in Britain and recalling her past in Japan.

Explanation of the title

  1. "The Remains of the Day" refers to evening, when a person can reflect on a day's work. Evening is symbolic for older age, when one can look back and assess one's life work. But "remains" also suggests what is left after a wreck, and it may be suggesting that this life was wrecked.
  2. "The Remains of the Day" also refers to the last vestiges of Great Britain's grand houses. Stevens is part of these "remains," paralleling the other trace remains of Britain's overseas empire. The action takes place during July 1956 which coincides with the Suez Canal Crisis, a notable marker of the decline of overseas British influence.
  3. At the end of the novel, Stevens reflects on the "remains of my day", referring to his future service with Mr. Farraday.
  4. "The remains of the day" is also a part of one sentence of this story, written under "day one — evening", as a summary of the first day of his journey. 'And yet tonight, in the quiet of this room, I find that what really remains with me from this first day's travel is not Salisbury Cathedral, nor any of the other charming sights of this city, but rather that marvellous view encountered this morning of the rolling English countryside.'


Plot summary

The novel The Remains of the Day tells the story of Stevens, an Englishmarker butler who dedicates his life to the loyal service of Lord Darlington (mentioned in increasing detail in flashbacks). The novel begins with Stevens receiving a letter from an ex colleague called Miss Kenton, describing her married life, which he believes hints at her unhappy marriage. The receipt of the letter allows Stevens the opportunity to revisit this once-cherished relationship, if only under the guise of possible re-employment. Stevens' new employer, a wealthy American, Mr Farraday, encourages Stevens to borrow a car to take a well-earned break, a "motoring trip." As he sets out, Stevens has the opportunity to reflect on his unmoving loyalty to Lord Darlington, the meaning of the term "dignity", and even his relationship with his father. Ultimately Stevens is forced to ponder the true nature of his relationship with Miss Kenton. As the book progresses, increasing evidence of Miss Kenton's one-time love for Stevens, and his for her, is revealed.

Working together during the years leading up to the Second World War, Stevens and Miss Kenton fail to admit their true feelings. All of their recollected conversations show a professional friendship, which came close, but never dared, to cross the line to romance.

Miss Kenton, it later emerges, has been married for over 20 years and therefore is no longer Miss Kenton but has become Mrs Benn. She admits to occasionally wondering what her life with Stevens might have been like, has come to love her husband, and is looking forward to the birth of their first grandchild. Stevens muses over lost opportunities, both with Miss Kenton and with his long-time employer, Lord Darlington. At the end of the novel, Stevens instead focuses on the "remains of [his] day", referring to his future service with Mr Farraday.

Characters in The Remains of the Day

  • James Stevens (Mr Stevens) – the narrator, an English butler who serves in Darlington Hall
  • Miss Kenton – housekeeper in Darlington Hall, afterwards married as Mrs Benn
  • Lord Darlington – the owner of Darlington Hall, whose failed efforts toward talks between English and German diplomats caused his political and social decline
  • William Stevens (Mr Stevens senior) – the 72-old father of the Mr Stevens serving as under-butler, suffered a severe stroke during the conference at Darlington Hall. His son was divided between serving and helping.
  • Mr Farraday – the new American employer of Stevens.
  • Young Mr Cardinal – a journalist and the son of one of Lord Darlington's closest friends who was killed in Belgium during the Second World War.
  • Dupont – a high ranking French politician who attends Darlington's conference.


On his motoring trip Stevens briefly comes into contact with several other characters. They are mirrors to Stevens and show the reader different facets of his character; they are also all kind and try to help him. Two in particular: Dr Carlisle and Harry Smith highlight themes in the book.

Themes

Dignity

The most important aspect of Stevens' life is his dignity as an English butler. Such aspects of refined dignity, especially when applied under stressful situations, are, to Stevens, what define a "great butler". As such, Stevens constantly maintains an inward and outward sense of dignity in order to preserve his own identity.

These philosophies of dignity, however, greatly affect his life, largely in regards to social constraints, loyalty and politics, and love and relationships. By preserving dignity at the expense of such emotions, Stevens, in a way, loses his sense of humanity in regards to his own personal self. Stevens' primary struggle within the novel is how his dignity relates to his own experiences, as well as the role his dignity plays in the past, present, and future.

Social constraints

The novel does not present the situation of Stevens as simply a personal one. It seems clear that Stevens's position as butler, and servant, has gradually made it impossible for him to live a fulfilling emotional life. His father dies, and Stevens is too occupied with worrying about whether his butlering is being carried out correctly to mourn. Stevens too cannot bring himself to express feelings about personal matters, as expressing such emotions would compromise his dignity.

The social rules at the time were certainly a major constraint. As we see in the book, servants who wish to get married and have children immediately find themselves without a job, since married life is seen as incompatible with total devotion to one's master. A truly "great butler" does not abandon his profession, and, as such, Stevens feels that such choices are foolish in regards to the life of a butler.

Loyalty and politics

Stevens is shown as totally loyal to Lord Darlington, whose friendly approach towards Germany, through his friendship to Mrs Charles Barnet, also results in close contacts to right-wing extremist organizations, such as the blackshirts of Sir Oswald Mosley. Due to this, he also discharges the two Jewish staff members (which he regretted later as a mistake). He also had contact with British and German diplomats. In "day four - afternoon" a meeting is described between the Prime Minister and German Ambassador Ribbentrop in the rooms of his estate. Stevens is quite incapable of believing his master to be wrong in this, as Lord Darlington's upbringing and heritage carry a certain type of dignity that is ascended above and beyond Stevens' own.

Love and relationships

Stevens is fully aware of Miss Kenton's feelings, but fails to reciprocate. It is not only the constraints of his social situation, but also his own emotional maturity (or immaturity) that holds him back. During their time spent at Darlington Hall, Stevens chose to maintain a sense of dignity, as opposed to searching and discovering the feelings that existed between himself and Miss Kenton.

Nonetheless, they enjoy each other's company (the cup of cocoa every evening) and find drama, if not intimacy, in the little games they play.

Allusions to real life events

The major theme of the decline of the British aristocracy can be linked to the 1911 Parliament Act, which reduced the powers of the House of Lords, and to the substantial inheritance tax increases imposed after World War I which forced the break-up of many estates that had been passed down for generations.

The pro-German stance of Lord Darlington has parallels in the warm relations with Germany favoured by some British aristocrats in the early 1930s, such as Lord Londonderry.

Awards and nominations

In 1989 the novel won the Booker Prize, one of the most prestigious literary prizes in the English speaking world.

Film, TV or theatrical adaptations



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References

External links




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