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The Shadow is a collection of serialized dramas, originally on 1930s radio and then in a wide variety of media, that follow the exploits of the title character, a crime-fighting vigilante with psychic powers. One of the most famous pulp heroes of the 20th century, The Shadow has been featured in comic books, comic strips, television, video games, and at least five motion pictures. The radio drama is well-remembered for those episodes voiced by Orson Welles.

Introduced as a mysterious radio narrator by David Chrisman, William Sweets, and Harry Engman Charlot for Street and Smith Publications, The Shadow was fully developed and transformed into a pop culture icon by pulp writer Walter B. Gibson.

The Shadow debuted on July 31, 1930, as the mysterious narrator of the Street and Smith radio program Detective Story Hour. After gaining popularity among the show's listeners, the narrator became the star of The Shadow Magazine on April 1, 1931, a pulp series created and primarily written by the prolific Gibson.

Over the years, the character evolved. On September 26, 1937, The Shadow radio drama officially premiered with the story "The Deathhouse Rescue", in which the character had "the power to cloud men's minds so they cannot see him." The Shadow did not have the ability to become literally invisible; he could be detected by photoelectric beams and other mindless devices. Rather, the minds of his opponents simply overlooked him due to his psychic influence, even if they knew he was in the room.

Even after decades, the unmistakable introduction from The Shadow radio program, originally intoned by actor Frank Readick Jr., has earned a place in the American idiom: "Who knows what evil lurks in the hearts of men? The Shadow knows!" These words were accompanied by a an ominous laugh and a musical theme, Camille Saint-Saëns' Le Rouet d'Omphale ("Omphale's Spinning Wheel", composed in 1872). At the end of each episode, The Shadow reminded listeners, "The weed of crime bears bitter fruit. Crime does not pay.... The Shadow knows!"

Publication history

Detective Story Hour

In order to boost the sales of their Detective Story Magazine, Street and Smith Publications hired David Chrisman of the Ruthrauff & Ryan advertising agency and writer-director William Sweets to adapt the magazine's stories into a radio series. Chrisman and Sweets felt the upcoming series should be narrated by a mysterious storyteller with a sinister voice, and began searching for a suitable name. One of their scriptwriters, Harry Engman Charlot, suggested various possibilities, such as "The Inspector" or "The Sleuth." Charlot then proposed the ideal name for the phantom announcer: "... The Shadow."

Thus, beginning on July 31, 1930, "The Shadow" was the name given to the mysterious narrator of the Detective Story Hour. The narrator was voiced by James LaCurto and, later, Frank Readick. The episodes were drawn from the Detective Story Magazine issued by Street and Smith, "the nation's oldest and largest publisher of pulp magazines." Although the latter company had hoped the radio broadcasts would boost the declining sales of the Detective Story Magazine, the result was quite different. Listeners found the sinister announcer much more compelling than the unrelated stories. They soon began asking newsdealers for copies of "that Shadow detective magazine," even though it did not exist.

Development

Recognizing the demand and responding promptly, circulation manager Henry William Ralston of Street & Smith commissioned magician Walter B. Gibson to begin writing stories about "The Shadow." Using the pen name of Maxwell Grant and claiming that the stories were "from The Shadow's private annals as told to" him, Gibson wrote 282 out of 325 tales over the next 20 years: a novel-length story twice a month (1st and 15th). The first story produced was "The Living Shadow," published April 1, 1931.

Gibson initially fashioned the character as a man with villainous characteristics, who used them to battle crime. Clad in black, The Shadow operated mainly after dark, burglarizing in the name of justice, and terrifying criminals into vulnerability before he or someone else gunned them down. The character was a film noir anti-hero in every sense, likely inspired by mentalist Joseph Dunninger and illusionist Howard Thurston, both close friends of Gibson. Gibson himself claimed the literary inspirations for The Shadow were Bram Stoker's Dracula and Edward Bulwer-Lytton's The House and the Brain.

Because of the great effort involved in writing two full-length novels every month, several guest writers were hired to write occasional installments in order to lighten Gibson's work load. These guest writers included Lester Dent — who penned the Doc Savage stories — and Theodore Tinsley. In the late 1940s, mystery novelist Bruce Elliott would temporarily replace Gibson as the primary author of the pulp series.Richard Edward Wormser, a reader for Street & Smith, wrote two Shadow stories.

The Shadow Magazine ceased publication with the Summer 1949 issue. Gibson wrote three new "official" stories between 1963 and 1980. He later began a short series of updated Shadow novels for Belmont Books starting with Return of The Shadow under his own name. This novel was followed by The Shadow Strikes, Beware Shadow, Cry Shadow, The Shadow's Revenge, Mark of The Shadow, Shadow Go Mad, Night of The Shadow, and Destination: Moon, all of which were written by Dennis Lynds under the "Maxwell Grant" byline. The Shadow was given psychic powers in these later books, including the radio character's ability "to cloud men's minds" so that he effectively became invisible.

Character development

The character of The Shadow gradually evolved over his lengthy fictional existence.

In the pulps written by Gibson, The Shadow wore a slouch hat and a black, crimson-lined cloak with an upturned collar. (In the later comic books, and the 1994 film starring Alec Baldwin, he wore a crimson scarf across the lower part of his face.)

However, in the radio drama which debuted in 1937, The Shadow became an invisible avenger who had learned, while "traveling through East Asia", "the mysterious power to cloud men's minds, so they could not see him." This revision of the character was born out of necessity: Time constraints of 1930s radio made it difficult to explain to listeners where The Shadow was hiding and how he was remaining concealed. As such, the character was given the power to escape human sight.

In order to explain this power, The Shadow was described as a master of hypnotism, as explicitly stated in several radio episodes.

Background



In print, The Shadow's secret identity is Kent Allard, a famed aviator who fought for the Frenchmarker during World War I. He is known by the alias of The Black Eagle ("The Shadow's Shadow", 1933), although later stories revised this alias as The Dark Eagle ("The Shadow Unmasks", 1937). After the war, Allard seeks a new challenge and decides to wage war on criminals. Allard fakes his death in the South American jungles, then returns to the United States. Arriving in New York Citymarker, he adopts numerous identities to conceal his existence.

One of these identities is Lamont Cranston, a "wealthy young man about town." In the pulps, Cranston is a separate character; Allard frequently disguises himself as Cranston and adopts his identity ("The Shadow Laughs," 1931). While Cranston travels the world, Allard assumes his identity in New York. In their first meeting, Allard/The Shadow threatens Cranston, saying that he has arranged to switch signatures on various documents and other means that will allow him to take over the Lamont Cranston identity entirely unless Cranston agrees to allow Allard to impersonate him when he is abroad. Terrified, Cranston agrees. The two men sometimes meet in order to impersonate each other ("Crime over Miami," 1940). Apparently, the disguise works well because Allard and Cranston bear something of a resemblance to each other ("Dictator of Crime," 1941).

His other disguises include businessman Henry Arnaud, elderly gentleman Isaac Twambley, and Fritz, a doddering old janitor who works at Police Headquarters in order to listen in on conversations.

For the first half of The Shadow's tenure in the pulps, his past and identity are ambiguous, supposedly an intentional decision on Gibson's part. In "The Living Shadow," a thug claims to have seen The Shadow's face, and thought he saw "a piece of white that looked like a bandage." In "The Black Master" and "The Shadow's Shadow," the villains both see The Shadow's true face, and they both remark that The Shadow is a man of many faces with no face of his own. It was not until the August 1937 issue, "The Shadow Unmasks," that The Shadow's real name is revealed.

In the radio drama, the Allard secret identity was dropped for simplicity's sake. On the radio, The Shadow was only Lamont Cranston; he had no other aliases or disguises.

Supporting characters

The Shadow has a network of agents who assist him in his war on crime. These include:
  • Harry Vincent, an operative whose life he saved when Vincent tried to commit suicide
  • Moses "Moe" Shrevnitz, aka "Shrevy," a cab driver who doubles as his chauffeur
  • Margo Lane, a socialite created for the radio drama and later introduced into the pulps
  • Clyde Burke, a newspaper reporter
  • Burbank, a radio operator who maintains contact between The Shadow and his agents
  • Cliff Marsland, a wrongly convicted ex-con who infiltrates gangs using his crooked reputation
  • Dr. Rupert Sayre, The Shadow's personal physician
  • Jericho Druke, a giant, immensely-strong black man
  • Slade Farrow, who works with The Shadow to rehabilitate criminals
  • Miles Crofton, who sometimes pilots The Shadow's autogyro
  • Rutledge Mann, a stock-broker who collects information
  • Claude Fellows, the only agent of The Shadow ever to be killed ("Gangdom's Doom," 1931)
  • Hawkeye, a reformed underworld snoop who trails gangsters and other criminals
  • Myra Reldon, a female operative who uses the alias of Ming Dwan when in Chinatown


Though initially wanted by the police, The Shadow also works with them and through them, notably gleaning information from his many chats with Commissioners Ralph Weston and Wainright Barth at the Cobalt Club. Weston believes that Cranston is a merely a rich playboy who dabbles in detective work. Another police contact is Detective Joe Cardona, a key character in many Shadow novels.

In contrast to the pulps, The Shadow radio drama limited the cast of major characters to The Shadow, Commissioner Weston, and Margo Lane (created specifically for the radio series) as it was believed the abundance of agents would make it difficult to distinguish between characters. Clyde Burke and Moe Shrevnitz (identified only as "Shrevvy") made occasional appearances, but not as agents of The Shadow. Shrevvy was merely an acquaintance of Cranston and Lane, and occasionally Cranston's chauffeur.

Enemies

The Shadow also faces a wide variety of enemies, ranging from kingpins and mad scientists to international spies and supervillains, many of whom were predecessors to the rogues galleries of comic super-heroes. Among The Shadow's recurring foes are Shiwan Khan, The Voodoo Master, The Prince of Evil, and The Wasp.

The series also featured several one-shot villains, including The Red Envoy, The Death Giver, Gray Fist, The Black Dragon, Silver Skull, The Red Blot, The Black Falcon, The Cobra, Zemba, The Black Master, Five-Face, The Gray Ghost, and Dr. Z.

The Shadow also battles collectives of criminals, such as The Silent Seven, The Hand, The Brothers of Doom, and The Hydra.

Radio program

In early 1930, Street & Smith Publications hired David Chrisman and Bill Sweets to adapt the Detective Story Magazine to radio format. Chrisman and Sweets felt the program should be introduced by a mysterious storyteller. A young scriptwriter, Harry Charlot, suggested the name of "The Shadow." Thus, "The Shadow" premiered over CBS airwaves on July 31, 1930, as the host of the Detective Story Hour, narrating "tales of mystery and suspense from the pages of the premier detective fiction magazine." The narrator was first voiced by James LaCurto, but became a national sensation when radio veteran Frank Readick, Jr. assumed the role and gave it "a hauntingly sibilant quality that thrilled radio listeners."

Early years

Following a brief tenure as narrator of Street & Smith's Detective Story Hour, "The Shadow" character was used to host segments of The Blue Coal Radio Revue, playing on Sundays at 5:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. This marked the beginning of a long association between the radio persona and sponsor Blue Coal.

While functioning as a narrator of The Blue Coal Radio Revue, the character was recycled by Street & Smith in October 1931, to oddly serve as the storyteller of Love Story Hour.

In October 1932, the radio persona temporarily moved to NBC. Frank Readick again played the role of the sinister-voiced host on Mondays and Wednesdays, both at 6:30 p.m., with LaCurto taking occasional turns as the title character.

Readick returned as The Shadow to host a final CBS mystery anthology that fall. The series disappeared from CBS airwaves on March 27, 1935, due to Street & Smith's insistence that the radio storyteller be completely replaced by the master crime-fighter described in Walter B. Gibson's ongoing pulps.

Radio drama

Street & Smith entered into a new broadcasting agreement with Blue Coal in 1937, and that summer Gibson teamed with scriptwriter Edward Hale Bierstadt to develop the new series. As such, The Shadow returned to network airwaves on September 26, 1937, over the new Mutual Broadcasting System. Thus began the "official" radio drama that many Shadow fans know and love, with 22-year-old Orson Welles starring as Lamont Cranston, a "wealthy young man about town." Once The Shadow joined Mutual as a half-hour series on Sunday evenings, the program did not leave the air until December 26, 1954.

Welles did not speak the signature line of "Who knows what evil lurks in the hearts of men?" Instead, Readick did, using a water glass next to his mouth for the echo effect. The famous catch phrase was accompanied by the strains of an excerpt from Opus 31 of the Camille Saint-Saëns classical composition, Le Rouet d'Omphale.

After Welles departed the show in 1938, Bill Johnstone was chosen to replace him and voiced the character for five seasons. Following Johnstone's departure, The Shadow was portrayed by such actors as Bret Morrison (the longest tenure, with 10 years in two separate runs), John Archer, and Steve Courtleigh.

The Shadow also inspired another radio hit, The Whistler, whose protagonist likewise knows "many things, for I walk by night. I know many strange tales, many secrets hidden in the hearts of men and women who have stepped into the shadows. Yes, I know the nameless terrors of which they dare not speak."

Margo Lane

The radio drama also introduced female characters into The Shadow's realm, most notably Margo Lane (played by Agnes Moorehead, among others) as Cranston's love interest and crime-solving partner. Four years later, the character was introduced into the pulp novels. Her sudden, unexplained appearance in the pulps annoyed readers and generated a flurry of hate mail printed in The Shadow Magazine's letters page.

Lane was described as Cranston's "friend and companion" in later episodes, although the exact nature of their relationship was unclear. In the early scripts of the radio drama the character's name was spelled "Margot." The name itself was originally inspired by Margot Stevenson, the Broadwaymarker ingénue who would later be chosen to voice Lane opposite Welles' Shadow during "the 1938 Goodrich summer season of the radio drama." In the 1994 film in which Penelope Ann Miller portrayed the character, she is characterized as a telepath.

Comic strips,comic books, graphic novels

Vernon Greene's first daily on The Shadow (1940).


The Shadow has been adapted for the comics a number of times, first in 1938 with a syndicated daily newspaper comic strip, drawn by Vernon Greene. This strip was eventually collected decades later in two comic book series by two different comics publishers (see below).

Street & Smith published 101 issues of the comic book Shadow Comics from #1 - vol. 9, #5 (March 1940 - Sept. 1949)

In Mad #4 (April-May 1953), The Shadow was spoofed by Harvey Kurtzman and Bill Elder. Their character was called the Shadow' (with an apostrophe), which is short for Lamont Shadowskeedeeboomboom. In this satire, Margo Pain gets Shad, as she calls him, into predicaments, including fights with gangsters and a piano falling on him. At the conclusion, after Margo is tricked into going inside an outhouse surrounded by dynamite, he pushes the plunger down.

During the superhero revivial in the 1960s, Archie Comics published an eight-issue series, The Shadow (Aug. 1964 - Sept. 1965) under the company's Mighty Comics imprint. In the first issue, The Shadow depicted was loosely based on the radio version, but with blonde hair. In issue #2 (Sept. 1964), the character was transformed into a campy superhero by writer Robert Bernstein and artist John Rosenberger.

During the mid-1970s, DC Comics published a critically acclaimed, 12-issue series (Nov. 1973 - Sept. 1975) written by Dennis O'Neil and initially drawn by Michael William Kaluta (#1-4 & 6). Faithful to both the pulp-magazine and radio-drama character, the series guest-starred fellow pulp fiction hero The Avenger in issue #11. The Shadow appeared in DC's Batman #253 (Nov. 1973), in which Batman teams with an aging Shadow and calls the famous crimefighter his "greatest inspiration". In Batman #259 (Dec. 1974), Batman again meets The Shadow, and we learn The Shadow saved Bruce Wayne's life when the future Batman was a boy.

In the late 1980s, another DC reincarnation was created by Howard Chaykin, Andy Helfer, Bill Sienkiewicz, and Kyle Baker. This four issue mini-series, also collected as a one-shot graphic novel, brought The Shadow to modern-day New York. While initially successful, this version proved unpopular with traditional Shadow fans because it depicted The Shadow using Uzi submachine guns and rocket launchers, as well as featuring a strong strain of black comedy throughout.

In 1988, O'Neil and Kaluta, with inker Russ Heath, returned to The Shadow with the Marvel Comics graphic novel Hitler's Astrologer, set in 1941 during World War II.

From 1989 to 1992, DC published a new series, The Shadow Strikes, written by Gerard Jones and Eduardo Barreto. This series was set in the 1930s and returned The Shadow to his pulp origins. During its run, it featured The Shadow's first team-up with Doc Savage, another very popular hero of the pulp magazine era. Both characters appeared together in a four-issue story that crossed back and forth between each character's DC comic series. "The Shadow Strikes" series often led The Shadow into encounters with well-known celebrities of the 1930s, such as Albert Einstein, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh, union organizer John L. Lewis, and Chicagomarker gangsters Frank Nitti and Jake Guzik. In issue #11, The Shadow meets a radio announcer named Grover Mills — a character based on the young Orson Welles — who has been impersonating The Shadow on the radio. The character's name is taken from Grover's Mill, New Jerseymarker, the name of the small town where the Martians land in Welles' famous 1938 radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds.

During the early-to-mid-1990s, Dark Horse Comics acquired the comics rights to the Shadow. It published the Shadow miniseries "In The Coils of Leviathan", (four issues) in 1993, and "Hell's Heat Wave" (three issues) in 1995. "In the Coils of the Leviathan" was later collected and issued by Dark Horse in 1994 as a trade paperback graphic novel. Both series were written by Joel Goss and Michael Kaluta, and drawn by Gary Gianni. A one-shot Shadow issue "The Shadow and the Mysterious Three" was also published by Dark Horse in 1994, again written by Joel Goss and Michael Kaluta, with Stan Manoukian and Vince Roucher taking over the illustration duties but working over Kaluta's layouts. A comics adaptation of the 1994 film The Shadow was published in two issues by Dark Horse as part of the movie's merchandising campaign. The script was by Goss and Kaluta and once again drawn from cover to cover by Kaluta. It was collected and published in England by Boxtree as a graphic novel tie-in for the film's British release. Emulating DC's earlier team-up, Dark Horse also published a two-issue mini-series in 1995 called "The Shadow and Doc Savage." It was written by Steve Vance, and illustrated once again by Manoukian and Roucher. Of special note, both issues' covers were drawn by Rocketeer creator Dave Stevens. The final Dark Horse Shadow team-up was published in 1995. It was a single issue of "Ghost and the Shadow," written by Doug Moench, pencilled by H. M. Baker, and inked by Bernard Kolle.

Alan Moore has credited The Shadow as one of the key influences for the creation of "V," the title character in his DC Comics miniseries V for Vendetta, that later became a big-budget film release from Warner Bros.

Films

The character has been adapted for several motion pictures.

The Shadow Strikes (1937)

The film The Shadow Strikes was released in 1937, starring Rod La Rocque in the title role. Lamont Cranston assumes the secret identity of "The Shadow" in order to thwart an attempted robbery at an attorney's office. Both The Shadow Strikes (1937) and its sequel, International Crime (1938), were released by Grand National Pictures.

International Crime (1938)

La Rocque returned the following year in International Crime. In this version, reporter Lamont Cranston is an amateur criminologist and detective who uses the name of "The Shadow" as a radio gimmick. Thomas Jackson portrayed Police Commissioner Weston, and Astrid Allwyn was cast as Phoebe Lane, Cranston's assistant.

The Shadow (1940)

A fifteen-chapter serial produced by Columbia Studios starring Victor Jory premiered in 1940. The Black Tiger is a criminal mastermind who has been sabotaging rail lines and factories across the United Statesmarker, and Lamont Cranston must become his shadowy alter ego to uncover the fiend and halt his schemes.

The problem of devising chapter cliffhangers for a hero who cannot be seen by his opponents was lamely solved by having eight of the cliffhangers be explosions that bury him in rubble.

The Shadow Returns (1946)

Low-budget motion picture studio Monogram produced a trio of films in 1946 starring Kane Richmond: The Shadow Returns, Behind the Mask and The Missing Lady. Richmond's Shadow, in fact, wore a black face-mask similar to the type worn by the serial hero The Masked Marvel.

The Shadow (1994)



In 1994, the character was adapted once again into a feature film, The Shadow, starring Alec Baldwin as Lamont Cranston, alongside Penelope Ann Miller as Margo Lane. Cranston is depicted as a brutal warlord and opium smuggler in 1930s Mongoliamarker who is kidnapped by a tulku, who reforms him and teaches him to cloud men's minds in order to fight crime. His nemesis in the film is an evil warlord and fellow telepath named Shiwan Khan (John Lone), the last descendant of Genghis Khan, who seeks to destroy New York Citymarker with an atomic bomb. The Shadow eventually defeats him by telekinetically stabbing Khan in the head with a mirror shard; one of the Shadow's agents — the administrator of an insane asylum — surgically removes the part of Khan's frontal lobe that controls his telepathic powers, declares him insane, and has him institutionalized.

This movie combined the radio and pulp novel versions of The Shadow, with the aforementioned ability to cloud minds, described only on radio, along with the huge red-lined black cloak, the black trench coat and slouch hat, and the dual .45 semi-automatic pistols with which The Shadow was customarily outfitted in the pulp novels.

Upcoming film

On December 11, 2006, the website SuperHero Hype reported that director Sam Raimi and Michael Uslan will co-produce a new Shadow film for Columbia Pictures. Siavash Farahani will write the screenplay. Raimi had tried (and failed) to gain the rights in the late 1980s, which resulted in his 1990 feature film, Darkman.

On October 16, 2007, Raimi stated that: "I don't have any news on 'The Shadow' at this time, except that the company that I have with Josh Donen, my producing partner, we've got the rights to 'The Shadow.' I love the character very much and we're trying to work on a story that'll do justice to the character."

According to the Internet Movie Database, production is slated for 2012.

TV series

Two attempts were made to make a television series based on the character. The first in 1954 was called The Shadow, starring Tom Helmore as Lamont Cranston.

The second attempt in 1958 was called The Invisible Avenger, which compiled the first two unaired episodes and was released theatrically instead. This film was later re-released in 1962 as Bourbon Street Shadows, with additional footage meant to appeal to "adult" audiences. Starring Richard Derr as The Shadow, The Invisible Avenger centers upon Lamont Cranston investigating the murder of a New Orleansmarker bandleader. The film is notable as the second directorial effort of James Wong Howe.

Influence on Superheroes

Characters such as Batman and The Green Hornet reference Lamont Cranston's alter ego. Both characters operate mostly by night, and the Green Hornet in particular operates outside the law, insinuating himself into criminal plots in order to put an end to the activities of master criminals. But whereas The Shadow carries a real gun, the Green Hornet carries only a lightweight pistol that fired non-lethal gas.

When Bob Kane and Bill Finger first conceived "the Bat-Man", Finger suggested they pattern the character after pulp mystery men such as The Shadow. Finger then used "Partners of Peril"—a Shadow pulp written by Theodore Tinsley—as the basis for Batman's debut story, "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate." Finger later publicly acknowledged that "my first [Batman] script was a take-off on a Shadow story" and that "Batman was originally written in the style of the pulps." This influence was further evident with Batman showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals and was not above using firearms.

Other Influence

  • The Laughing Man, a 1949 short story by J. D. Salinger, reprinted in his 1953 collection Nine Stories, is based on the episodic nature of The Shadow radio show and draws upon references to the character's famous laugh and red mask.




See also



References

  • Steranko, James, (1970), Sternako's History of the Comics, Vol. 1, Supergraphics, no ISBN
  • Steranko, James, (1972), Sternako's History of the Comics, Vol. 2, Supergraphics, no ISBN
  • Goulart, Ron (1972), Cheap Thrills: An Informal History of the Pulp Magazine, Arlington House, ISBN 0-87000-1722-8.
  • Steranko, James, (1978), Unseen Shadows, Supergraphics, no ISBN
  • Gibson, Walter Brown, Tollin, Anthony (1979), The Shadow Scrapbook, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, ISBN 0-15-681475-7
  • Murray, Bill, (1980), Duende History of the Shadow Magazine, Odyssey Publications, ISBN 0-933752-12-0
  • Sampson, Robert, (1982), The Night Master, Pulp Press, ISBN 0-934498-08-3
  • Eisgruber, Jr., Frank, (1985), Gangland's Doom, The Shadow of the Pulps, Starmont House, ISBN 0-930261-74-7
  • J. Randolph Cox (1988), Man of Magic & Mystery, A Guide to the Work of Walter B. Gibson, (comprehensive bibliography of Gibson's works), Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-2192-3
  • Van Hise, James, (1989), The Serial Adventures of the Shadow, Pioneer Books, no ISBN
  • Shimfield, Thomas J., (2004), Walter B. Gibson and The Shadow, (comprehensive Gibson biography) McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-7864-1466-9
  • Overstreet, Robert, (2005), The Official Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide, 35th Ed., House of Collectibles, ISBN 0-375-72107-X


Footnotes

External links




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