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Rodgers and Hammerstein's The Sound of Music is a musical film directed by Robert Wise and starring Julie Andrews. The film is based on the Broadway musicalmarker The Sound of Music, with songs written by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, and with the musical book written by the writing team of Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse. Ernest Lehman wrote the screenplay.

The musical originated with the book The Story of the Trapp Family Singers by Maria von Trapp. It contains many popular songs, including "Edelweiss", "My Favorite Things", "Climb Ev'ry Mountain", "Do-Re-Mi", "Sixteen Going on Seventeen", and "The Lonely Goatherd", as well as the title song.

The movie version was filmed on location in Salzburgmarker, Austriamarker and Bavariamarker in Southern Germanymarker, and also at the 20th Century Fox Studios in Californiamarker. It was photographed in 70 mm Todd-AO by Ted D. McCord. It won a total of five Academy Awards including Best Picture in 1965 and is one of the most popular musicals ever produced. The cast album was nominated for a Grammy Award for Album of the Year.

Adjusted for inflation, it made $1.022 billion domestically at 2009 prices, putting it third on the list of all-time inflation-adjusted box office hits, behind Gone with the Wind and Star Wars. In 2001, The United States Library of Congressmarker selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry as it was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".


Salzburg, Austria, 1938. Maria (Julie Andrews), a young postulant at the Nonnberg Abbey, is a free spirit, seldom on time, who constantly tries the patience of the nuns. Doubting her devotion to a life in service to God, the Mother Abbess (Peggy Wood) answers a call from Captain Georg Ludwig von Trapp (Christopher Plummer), a widowed former commander in the Austrian navy who is searching for a new governess for his seven children, and sends Maria out into the world to serve in the position.

Upon arrival at the von Trapp manor, Maria immediately gets into trouble; Captain von Trapp, still stricken with grief over the loss of his wife and not wanting to be reminded of the joy they once had--music is expressly forbidden--has been raising them according to the principles of military/navy discipline. He demonstrates this through stern discipline with his children -- teenaged Liesl (Charmian Carr), reserved Friedrich (Nicholas Hammond), aloof Louisa (Heather Menzies), headstrong Kurt (Duane Chase), sarcastic Brigitta (Angela Cartwright) and the two youngest, Marta (Debbie Turner) and Gretl (Kym Karath). Maria strongly objects to the treatment Captain von Trapp subjects them to-- blowing whistles and issuing orders, while making them wear uniforms.

The children, mischievous and initially hostile to Maria, begin warming to her during a thunderstorm, during which she introduces them to the pleasures of music and singing. Soon, the children--in fresh play clothes made from discarded draperies--begin learning the fundamentals of music and enjoying life beyond the confines of the manor. Maria becomes a strong support for Liesl in particular, who has started coming of age and is enjoying the advances of a bicycle messenger, Rolf (Daniel Truhitte), who encourages her to sneak out and meet him whenever he delivers a telegram to her father. Von Trapp's attentions are meanwhile focused elsewhere, as he entertains a visit by Baroness Elsa Schraeder (Eleanor Parker), a wealthy socialite from Vienna whom he has begun courting, and their mutual friend, an Austrian businessman and agent, Max Dettweiler (Richard Haydn). When von Trapp discovers his children have been climbing trees on the manor grounds, he confronts Maria and orders her to return to Nonnberg, but his mind is changed when the children perform a classic folk song, Edelweiss, for the Baroness. With music returned to the von Trapp household, the Captain softens, pleading with Maria to stay, and she agrees.

Baroness Schraeder, who does not share Maria's rapport with the children, becomes jealous of Maria's talents and the effect she has on the Captain; it becomes obvious to her that Maria and Georg have both begun to have feelings for each other. During a grand party at the manor, ostensibly to celebrate Schraeder and von Trapp's engagement, the Baroness convinces Maria to leave by exploiting her inner conflict about becoming a nun and her discomfort at the Captain's obvious affection towards her. Meanwhile, Max has begun pushing the captain to let the children perform in the forthcoming Salzburg Music Festival.

At Nonnberg, Maria keeps herself in seclusion until the Reverend Mother confronts her, convincing her to "climb ev'ry mountain" to find God's will for her life and how God "wants her to spend her love." After hearing that the children came to see her while she was in seclusion, Maria decides to return to the von Trapp family to explore where these feelings will grow, only to discover upon arrival that the Captain and Baroness Schraeder have announced their engagement. She tells Captain von Trapp she has returned, but only until another governess can be located. However, by now, von Trapp has realized the calling of his heart; he breaks the news to the Baroness that he cannot marry her, and she returns to Vienna. Von Trapp finds Maria in a gazebo on the manor grounds, where he confesses he is not able to marry Schraeder because he has fallen in love with Maria. Sometime later, the two finally wed.

As Georg and Maria enjoy their honeymoon, Max begins training the children to perform in the upcoming music festival, while the political situation in Austria takes a turn for the worse, as the Third Reich takes power in Austria as part of the Anschluss. Rolf joins the Nazi Party, subtly warning the von Trapps about the danger they face if they do not comply with new orders, which will call Captain von Trapp back into military service. Upon his return, the Captain, unwilling to serve the Reich, delays the matter by insisting to Zeller (Ben Wright), the district Gauleiter (party leader), that he is part of the von Trapp Family Singers group and must appear with them during their performance at the festival. With Georg von Trapp firmly expected to comply with the order, the theatre is heavily guarded during the festival, though not enough to dissuade the attendees from displaying their Austrian pride by singing Edelweiss together.

The von Trapps perform together, winning the first prize award at the Festival. But after they fail to appear for their curtain call to receive it, Zeller sends the military police after them, and a search party is formed to track the family fugitives. Rolf alone discovers the von Trapps hiding in a cemetery at Nonnberg Abbey, and after a brief confrontation with the Captain, alerts his fellow soldiers to their presence. The soldiers give chase as the family flees, but they are unable to catch up with the von Trapps: their vehicles have been sabotaged by the nuns at the Abbey, giving time for the von Trapps to escape. Sometime later, the von Trapps are shown making the journey over the Alps on foot, bound for Switzerlandmarker, and freedom.


Julie Andrews as Maria seeks guidance from the Mother Abbess, played by Peggy Wood.

When Darryl and Richard D. Zanuck originally asked Robert Wise to do the film, but he turned it down because it was "too saccharine". They then approached Stanley Donen, Vincent Donehue, Gene Kelly and George Roy Hill, but they all turned it down. Zanuck next asked William Wyler to direct the film. Because he was suffering from a loss of hearing that affected his ability to appreciate music fully, Wyler felt he was the wrong man for the job, but he agreed to fly to New York and see the Broadwaymarker production. Feeling many of the songs did not evolve organically from the plot, he remained undecided and wrote to the producer of Die Trapp-Familie, a 1956 non-musical film about the von Trapps, to ask his advice. "This cannot fail," he responded, and Wyler accepted the assignment.

Wyler had seen the original Broadway production of My Fair Lady and had been impressed by Julie Andrews, who was in the process of filming Mary Poppins. He met with her on the set and asked Walt Disney if he could see some of the dailies. Convinced she was perfect for the role of Maria, he signed her to a contract.

Wyler returned to New York and met with Maria von Trapp, then he and screenwriter Ernest Lehman and their wives flew to Austriamarker to begin scouting locations in the Tyrolean Alps. There they visited the convent where von Trapp had been a novice, and Wyler discussed the possibility of filming scenes there with the Mother Superior. He then met with the mayor of Salzburgmarker. Wyler was concerned the presence of a film crew shooting German troops parading before buildings draped with the Nazi flag would be a harsh reminder of the Anschluss for those who had experienced it. The mayor assured him the residents had managed to live through it the first time and would survive it again.

Wyler returned to Hollywood and began pre-production work on the film, but his wife realized his heart clearly wasn't in it. Then he was approached by Jud Kinberg and John Kohn, neophyte film producers who had purchased the rights to the John Fowles novel The Collector prior to its publication. They had a commitment from Terence Stamp to star in the film and a first draft screenplay by Stanley Mann. Wyler was impressed with the script and, feeling an affinity with the project he did not with The Sound of Music, he asked the Zanucks to release him from his contract. They agreed, and Robert Wise—who became available due to delays in production of The Sand Pebbles—was hired to replace Wyler.


  • Julie Andrews as Maria von Trapp, a free-spirited young Austrian woman, studying to become a nun. Due to her often singing and seeming somewhat out of place in the abbey, Mother Abbess sends her to the nearby town of Salzburgmarker to be governess to the seven children of Captain von Trapp. Although initially hostile toward her, the children come to love Maria through her introducing the joys of music and singing, and she develops a special relationship with Liesl, the eldest. Throughout the film, the Captain grows closer to both his children and Maria through the reintroduction of music, and Maria falls in love with him. Fearful of how returning the Captain's affections might seem in God's eyes (as she is the children's governess), Maria returns to the abbey, but is convinced to return and see what her love might bring. Eventually, the Captain admits his feelings for her, and they marry. However, the Third Reich is taking power via the Anschluss, prompting Maria and her new family to leave Austria. Julie Andrews was nominated for Best Actress at the Academy Awards for her performance.

  • Christopher Plummer as Captain Georg von Trapp, a veteran Austrian navy captain whose wife died, leaving behind their seven children. He extends his military background into raising his children, at first represented as a strict disciplinarian. However, the Captain's attitude toward both the children and Maria softens considerably after she reintroduces music into the family. The Captain is courting Baroness Elsa Schraeder throughout the film, and becomes engaged to her, but they call it off, and he proclaims his love to Maria, marrying her instead. The Captain firmly believes in Austrian independence, proudly displaying the Austrian flag and tearing down the Nazi one, as well as refusing to join the Nazis. He, Maria and the children leave Austria at the end of the film by crossing the Alps to Switzerland.

  • Richard Haydn as Max Detweiler, a good friend of both the Baroness and the Captain, he is one of the few to call him Georg. Max seeks out talented musicians and singers, and reveals them to the public eye. In searching Salzburg for talented singers, he finds what he wants in the von Trapp family, and constantly tries to convince the Captain to let him enter the children in the Salzburg Music Festival. He is also somewhat neutral when it comes to the Third Reich, and although he doesn't like or approve of it, Max is more willing than the Captain to let it quietly take place. Nevertheless, due to their close friendship, he helps the von Trapps escape during the festival.

  • Eleanor Parker as Baroness Elsa Schraeder, the Captain's lady friend from Viennamarker, and later his temporary fiancee. The Baroness becomes jealous of Maria's talent, and convinces her to leave during a grand party at the house by exploiting Maria's inner conflict about becoming a nun and her discomfort at the Captain's obvious affection towards her. The Captain announces their engagement to the children, but she doesn't go over well with them. After Maria's return, the Captain confesses to the Baroness that he is being unfair to her. Seeing the marriage wouldn't work, she decides to return to Vienna.

  • Charmian Carr as Liesl von Trapp, the eldest of the von Trapp children, sixteen ("going on seventeen"). She at first believes she doesn't need a governess, but soon comes to trust Maria. Liesl is in love with a messenger named Rolf, who delivers their telegrams. However, Rolf changes after joining the Nazis, no longer caring for Liesl. She seeks advice from Maria about this, who tells her to "wait a year or two" to find love. She is shocked to see Rolf is one of the search party, and begs him to stop and to let them escape.

  • Nicholas Hammond as Friedrich von Trapp, the second oldest of the children, fourteen. He is very quiet; he is also somewhat of a gentleman, despite his involvement in the tricks against the previous governesses, which the children confess were merely to get the Captain's attention.

  • Heather Menzies as Louisa von Trapp, the third of the children, thirteen. She and Brigitta are often together, and Louisa is somewhat of a daydreamer.

  • Duane Chase as Kurt von Trapp, the second boy, eleven. Kurt often tries to act manly and is outspoken against the previous governesses and often questions Maria about things, once trying to learn an Austrian waltz. He is notable for being somewhat loud and boisterous at times.

  • Angela Cartwright as Brigitta von Trapp, the fifth child, ten. Brigitta is very sharp-witted, honest, and somewhat nonconformist, not afraid to speak her mind about things (e.g., Maria's dress being ugly). She is sometimes shown to have her head in a book.

  • Debbie Turner as Marta von Trapp, the sixth child, seven. Marta gets along well with Maria, sharing her love of pink and being the first to like her.

  • Kym Karath as Gretl von Trapp, the seventh and youngest of the children, five. She speaks very little, and is often shy.

  • Peggy Wood as Mother Abbess, the head of Maria's abbey, who convinces her to leave the abbey and explore life as a governess for a while. When Maria returns, she has her explain why she left and realizes Maria is in love, and convinces her to return and face her problems, to see what might come of this love. This proves to be good advice, as Maria later marries the Captain. Mother Abbess also shelters Maria and her family while they are hiding from the Nazis and helps them escape to Switzerland. Peggy Wood was nominated for Best Supporting Actress at the Oscars for her performance.

  • Anna Lee as Sister Margaretta, a nun who looks fondly on Maria. She, as well as Sister Berthe, helps her to escape by sabotaging Gauleiter's car.

  • Portia Nelson as Sister Berthe, a nun who doesn't believe Maria belongs in the abbey; she nevertheless helps her escape by sabotaging Gauleiter's car.

  • Daniel Truhitte as Rolf, a messenger who is in love with Liesl. The two become estranged after he joins the Nazi Party, as he realizes that her father has no regard for him and does not support Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. Rolf subtly warns the von Trapps about the danger they face for not obeying the summons of the Reich.

  • Ben Wright as Hans Zeller, Gauleiter, an enforcer of the Third Reich, who is oppositional against the Captain as early on as the party held for the Baroness. He later returns to inform Max that the Captain is to be escorted to his new position in the German Navy, personally meeting the Captain himself. Through the intervention of the abbey and the festival, the von Trapps ultimately elude his grasp.

Historical accuracy

The film presents a history of the von Trapp family, albeit one that is not completely accurate. Georg Ludwig von Trapp, who was indeed anti-Nazi, lived with his family in a villa in a district of Salzburg called Aigen. Maria and Georg had been married 10 years before the Anschluss and had two of their three children before that time. Unlike in the film, Georg considered a position in the Kriegsmarine but ultimately did decide to emigrate with his family.

While the film shows the von Trapp family hiking over the Alps to Switzerland, they actually walked to the local train station and boarded the next train to Italy, from which they fled to London and ultimately the United States. Salzburgmarker is only a few kilometres away from the Austrian-German border and is much too far from either the Swiss or Italian borders for a family to escape by walking. Had the von Trapps hiked over the mountains they would have in all likelihood ended up in Germany near the Kehlsteinhausmarker, Hitler's mountain retreat in Berchtesgadenmarker.

Although the film does not recount an entirely accurate story of the family, it was filmed at original locations in the city and county of Salzburg and Upper Austria, including Nonnberg Abbeymarker, and St.Peter cemetery. Leopoldskron Palacemarker, Frohnburg Palace, and Hellbrunn Palacemarker were some of the locations used for the Trapp Villa in the film. The opening scene and aerial shots were filmed in Anifmarker (Anif Palacemarker), Mondseemarker, and Salzkammergutmarker (Fuschl am Seemarker, St. Gilgenmarker and Saint Wolfgang). Hohenwerfen Castlemarker served as the main backdrop for the song "Do-Re-Mi." At the Mirabell Gardens in Salzburg, Maria and the children sing "Do-Re-Mi", dancing around the Horse fountain and using the steps as a musical scale.


The Sound of Music LP cover.

All songs have music by Richard Rodgers and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II unless otherwise noted. Instrumental underscore passages were adapted by Irwin Kostal.
  • "Prelude and The Sound of Music"
  • "Overture" (Main Titles, consisting of "The Sound of Music", "Do-Re-Mi", "My Favorite Things", "Something Good" and "Climb Ev'ry Mountain") segué into the Preludium
  • "Preludium: Dixit Dominus", "Morning Hymn" (Rex admirabilis and Alleluia, based on traditional songs)
  • "Maria"
  • "I Have Confidence" (lyrics and music by Rodgers)
  • "Sixteen Going on Seventeen"
  • "My Favorite Things"
  • "Salzburg Montage" (instrumental underscore based on "My Favorite Things")
  • "Do-Re-Mi"
  • "The Sound of Music" (reprise)
  • "The Lonely Goatherd"
  • "Edelweiss"
  • "The Grand Waltz" (instrumental underscore, based on "My Favorite Things")
  • "Ländler" (instrumental based on "The Lonely Goatherd")
  • "So Long, Farewell"
  • "Processional Waltz" (instrumental underscore)
  • "Goodbye Maria/How Can Love Survive Waltz" (instrumental underscore, incorporating "Edelweiss" and the deleted song "How Can Love Survive?")
  • "Edelweiss Waltz" (instrumental, Act 1 Finale, based on "Edelweiss")
  • "Entr'acte" (instrumental, consisting of "I Have Confidence", "So Long, Farewell", "Do-Re-Mi", "Something Good" and "The Sound of Music")
  • "Climb Ev'ry Mountain"
  • "My Favorite Things" (reprise)
  • "Something Good" (lyrics and music by Rodgers)
  • "Processional" (instrumental) and "Maria"
  • "Sixteen Going On Seventeen" (reprise)
  • "Do-Re-Mi" (Salzburg Folk Festival reprise)
  • "Edelweiss" (Salzburg Folk Festival reprise)
  • "So Long, Farewell" (Salzburg Folk Festival reprise)
  • "Climb Ev'ry Mountain" (reprise)
  • "End Titles"

"Edelweiss", thought by some to be a traditional Austrian song or even the Austrian national anthem, was written expressly for the musical by Hammerstein. Originally unknown in Austria, it has been promoted heavily there ever since, especially in Salzburg.


Maria with the von Trapp children.

The film premiered in the United States on March 2, 1965. It ultimately grossed over US$158 million at the U.S. and Canada box office, and displaced Gone with the Wind as all-time champion. Adjusted for inflation, it made $1.022 billion at 2009 prices, putting it third on the list of all-time inflation-adjusted box office hits, behind Gone with the Wind and Star Wars.

The soundtrack album on the RCA Victor label has sold over 11 million copies worldwide, and has never been out of print. The soundtrack album was included in the stockpile of records held in 20 underground radio stations of Great Britain's Wartime Broadcasting Service, designed to provide public information and morale-boosting broadcasts for 100 days after a nuclear attack.

Despite the enormous popularity of the movie, some critics were unimpressed. Walter Kerr of the New York Herald Tribune had written the one negative review of the stage musical by calling it "not only too sweet for words but almost too sweet for music"; similarly, noted film critic Pauline Kael blasted the film by calling it "the sugar-coated lie people seem to want to eat," and "we have been turned into emotional and aesthetic imbeciles when we hear ourselves humming the sickly, goody-goody songs." This review allegedly led to Kael's dismissal from McCall's magazine.

Kael herself admits that her review of "The Sound of Music" was not the sole reason for her dismissal from McCall's, but was, she says, "...because of [reviews of] a lot of movies." McCall's then-editor, Bob Stein, says her dismissal was the result of a long series of infractions in which her reviews were deemed "personal attacks" on the life choices of the actors and producers themselves, and not of just the movie itself. "I don't know what particularly brought it on," Stein states, "...[M]y own guess is that reviewing for a mass magazine, she seemed to have some need to make it clear how independent she was." 20th Century Fox executives close to the "Kael incident" categorically denied having anything to do with it. They even met with Kael shortly after her dismissal to clear this up with her. By the time Kael's review came out, they asserted, "The Sound Of Music" was a world-wide hit of such proportions that "another high-brow blast would not effect business."

Controversy surrounded the film's release in Germany. According to a 2000 documentary, "...the film's Nazi overtones brought about the unauthorized cutting of the third act," which begins directly after Maria's wedding to the Baron and contains images of post-Anschluss Austria. Eventually, the third act was restored to the German release, but audience attendance did not improve, and the movie is ironically unknown in Germany and Austria. This can be mainly attributed to the former German-made movie "Die Trapp-Familie" (1956) and its sequel "Die Trapp-Familie in Amerika" (1958), but also to the dark period of Austrian history, cursorily displayed in the latter movie.

Ten years later, Robert Wise would later make another historical film known as The Hindenburg which also used at least some of the film's plot keywords and settings.

The Sound of Music is credited as the film that saved 20th Century Fox, after high production costs and low revenue for Cleopatra nearly bankrupted the studio.


The film was adapted for other countries, including:

  • Brazilmarker (A Noviça Rebelde, or The Rebel Novice)
  • Chinamarker (音乐之声, The Sound of Music)
  • Francemarker ("La mélodie du bonheur", The Melody of Happiness)
  • Germanymarker (retitled Meine Lieder, Meine Träume, or My Songs, My Dreams)
  • Greecemarker (Η μελωδία της ευτυχίας,I melodia tis eftihias, The Melody of Happiness)
  • Hungarymarker (A muzsika hangja, The Sound of Music)
  • Indiamarker (Santhi Nilayam 1969 by Gemini Pictures) & (Raja Chinna roja) this film's songs were used as a base by Ilayaraja for three films and by A.R.Rahman for Lagan. Chandrabose used this movie's song in Raja Chinna roja
  • Iranmarker اشکها و لبخندها (Ashkha va labkhandha, Tears and Smiles)
  • Israelmarker (צלילי המוזיקהTzeliley ha-muzika, The Sound of Music)
  • Italymarker (Tutti insieme Appassionatamente, All Together with Passion)
  • Japanmarker (サウンド・オブ・ミュージック, Sound of Music)
  • Latin America (La Novicia Rebelde, The Rebel Novice)
  • Lithuaniamarker (Muzikos garsai,The Sound of Music)
  • Netherlandsmarker (De mooiste muziek, The Most Beautiful Music)
  • Portugalmarker (Música no Coração, or Music in the Heart)
  • Saudi Arabiamarker (صوت الموسيقى Saut al-musiqa, Sound of the Music)
  • Spainmarker (Sonrisas y Lágrimas, Smiles and Tears)
  • Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian: Moje pjesme, moji snovi, My Songs, My Dreams; Slovene: Moje pesmi, moje sanje, My Songs, My Dreams)
  • Taiwanmarker (真善美, Truth, Kindness and Beauty)
  • Thailandmarker ( มนต์รักเพลงสวรรค์ , Love Spell, Heavenly Songs)

Awards and nominations

Academy Awards



Golden Globe Awards



Television and video releases

Video box cover
The first American television airing was on ABC on February 29, 1976 to record ratings. ABC then had a contract dispute with FOX. The film wasn't seen on TV again until NBC acquired the broadcast rights. Their first telecast of the film was on February 11, 1979. NBC continued to air it annually for twenty years, often preempting regular programming. During most of its run on NBC, the film was heavily edited to fit a three-hour time slot (approximately 140 minutes without commercials).

Starting in 1995, the movie aired in an uncut form on NBC (on April 9, 1995, minus the entr'acte). Julie Andrews hosted the four-hour telecast which presented the musical numbers in a letterbox format. As the film's home video availability cut into its TV ratings, NBC let their contract lapse at the turn of the 21st century. In 2001 it had a one time airing on the Fox network, again in its heavily-edited 140-minute version. Currently, it airs at Christmas time on ABC since 2003 and around Easter on its sister cable network, ABC Family, where its most recent runs have been the full version in a four-hour time slot, complete with the entr'acte. ABC broadcast the movie in HD resolution on December 28, 2008.

In the UK, the first television airing was on BBC One, on Christmas Day, 1978 at 4.20pm.

The film has been released on VHS, Laserdisc, and DVD numerous times. The movie is often included in box sets with other Rodgers & Hammerstein film adaptations. A 40th anniversary DVD, with 'making of' documentaries and special features, was released in 2005.

The Film is going to have a future BLU-RAY DVD release to mark the films 45th anniversay.


It has topped numerous lists from the American Film Institute including:

Every year starting in 2005 the Hollywood Bowlmarker in Los Angeles, California holds an annual Sound of Music sing-a-long, where the film is played with song lyrics underneath the screen. The actors who played the Von Trapp Children in the film along with the real Von Trapp children have made appearances at this event. Called "The Rocky Horror Picture Show on Prozac", this event has sold out every year since its inception.


  1. Classic American films: conversations with the screenwriters. William Baer. 2008: Greenwood.
  2. Herman, Jan, A Talent for Trouble: The Life of Hollywood's Most Acclaimed Director. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons 1995. ISBN 0-399-14012-3, pp. 419-422
  3. "Conversations with Pauline Kael" (Ed.: Will Brantley); Pub.: Jackson : University Press of Mississippi, [1996], p. 22
  4. Ibid, p. 23


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