The Full Wiki

The Wall: Map

  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



The Wall is the ninth studio album by English progressive rock group Pink Floyd. Presented as a double album, it was released on 30 November 1979. It was subsequently performed live, with elaborate theatrical effects, and adapted into the film Pink Floyd The Wall.

The Wall is a rock opera that centres on the character Pink, who is largely based on the band's bassist and lyricist Roger Waters. Pink encounters obstacles throughout his life, beginning with the loss of his father during World War II, continuing with abuse from his schoolteachers, an overprotective mother, and the desertion of his wife – all of which factor into Pink's isolation from society, represented by the metaphorical "Wall" of the album title.

As with most of their previous albums, The Wall is a concept album that deals largely with the theme of personal isolation. The concept was inspired by an event that occurred during the band's 1977 In the Flesh Tour, where Waters' frustration with the behaviour of the audience reached a point where he spat in the face of a fan near the stage. Waters would come to regret his actions and spoke of his desire to build a wall between himself and the audience. The Wall features a notably harsher and more theatrical style than their previous releases. Keyboardist Richard Wright left the band during production of the album, but returned to perform during later concert performances as a salaried musician.

Hugely successful upon its release, The Wall was the best selling album of 1980 in the United States. It is one of the best-selling double albums of all time, and is in the top five best-selling albums of all time in the US.

Background

Pink Floyd's In the Flesh Tour was their first playing in large stadiums, and in July 1977—on the final date at the Montreal Olympic Stadiummarker—a small group of noisy and excited fans in the front row of the audience irritated Waters to such an extent that he spat at one of them. Waters was not the only person who felt depressed about playing to such large audiences, as Gilmour refused to perform the band's usual twelve-bar blues encore. Waters injured his foot in a playfight backstage with manager Steve O'Rourke, and returning from the hospital to his hotel he spoke to Bob Ezrin and a psychiatrist sharing the car of his sense of alienation on the tour. He hated playing in stadiums, and told of how he sometimes felt like building a wall to separate himself from the audience. With both Gilmour and Wright now in France recording solo albums, and Mason producing Steve Hillage's Green, Waters busied himself writing new material.

The spitting incident became the basis for a new concept, based around the audience's separation from the performers on stage. In July 1977 the band reconvened at Brittania Row, where Waters presented them with two new ideas. The first was a ninety-minute demo given the provisional title Bricks in the Wall, and the other was what would later become his first solo album, The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking. The former was chosen to be their next album, although both Mason and Gilmour were initially cautious, as Waters as yet had offered only a basic outline of the new concept. By September 1977, however, the band's finances were in dire straits. In 1976 the band had become involved with financial advisers Norton Warburg Group (NWG), who became their collecting agents and financial planners. Between £1.6M and £3.3M of the band's money was invested in high-risk venture capital schemes, primarily to reduce the band's exposure to high UK taxes. It soon became obvious that the band were losing money. Not only did NWG invest in failing businesses, they also left the band liable for tax bills as high as 83% of their income. Pink Floyd terminated their relationship with NWG, demanding the return of any cash not yet invested.

The band therefore urgently needed to earn money, and the scope of the new concept (26 tracks across four sides) was such that it needed to be a double album. Bob Ezrin was therefore brought in as co-producer. Ezrin had recently worked on Peter Gabriel's debut solo album, and was recommended by Waters' girlfriend, Carolyne Christie, who had worked as Ezrin's secretary. From the start, Waters left Ezrin in no doubt as to who was in charge: "You can write anything you want. Just don't expect any credit". Ezrin, Waters, and Gilmour read Waters' concept, keeping what they liked, and discarding what they thought was not good enough. Waters and Ezrin worked mostly on the story, improving the concept. Ezrin then wrote a forty-page script, and presented it to the rest of the band: "The next day at the studio, we had a table read, like you would with a play, but with the whole of the band, and their eyes all twinkled, because then they could see the album." Ezrin broadened the storyline to distance it from the autobiographical work that Waters had written, and instead based it on the central character of Pink. Although Waters wrote most of the material on the album, Gilmour contributed to songs like "Run Like Hell", and "Young Lust". Ezrin also co-wrote "The Trial". Engineer Nick Griffiths later said of the Canadian producer: "Ezrin was very good in The Wall, because he did manage to pull the whole thing together. He's a very forceful guy. There was a lot of argument about how it should sound between Roger and Dave, and he bridged the gap between them."

Concept and storyline

The album's overriding themes are based upon the causes and implications of self-imposed isolation, symbolised by the metaphorical wall of the title. The songs create an approximate storyline of events in the life of the protagonist, Pink. His father dies during Pink's childhood (Waters' father was killed during World War II). He is oppressed by his overprotective mother, and tormented at school by tyrannical, abusive teachers. Each of these traumas becomes "another brick in the wall". Pink becomes a rock star, his relationships marred by infidelity, drug use, and outbursts of violence. As his marriage crumbles, Pink finishes building the wall, completing his isolation from human contact.

Now hidden behind his freshly completed "wall", Pink's crisis escalates, culminating in an hallucinatory on-stage performance where he believes that he is a fascist dictator, and that his concerts are like Neo-Nazi rallies, where he sets his men on fans he considers unworthy. Tormented with guilt, he places himself on trial, his inner judge ordering him to "tear down the wall", opening Pink to the outside world. The album's end runs into its beginning with the closing words "Isn't this where..."; the first song on the album, "In the Flesh?", begins with the words "...we came in?"—with a continuation of the melody of the last song, "Outside the Wall"—hinting at the cyclical nature of Waters' theme.

The album includes several references to former band-member Syd Barrett. "Nobody Home" hints at Barrett's condition during Pink Floyd's abortive US tour of 1967, such as "wild, staring eyes", "Hendrix perm", and "elastic bands keeping my shoes on". The following song, "Comfortably Numb", is an allegory of Waters' experiences during the band's 1977 In the Flesh Tour, where he was injected with a muscle relaxant to combat the effects of hepatitis.

Recording

Recording took place at a number of locations. Super Bear Studios was used between January and July 1979, with Waters recording his vocals at the nearby Studio Miraval. Supervising the orchestral arrangements recorded for the album, Michael Kamen used CBS Studios in New Yorkmarker in September. From 1 September–31 October the band used Cherokee Studios and The Village Recorder in Los Angelesmarker. They also planned to use the Sundance Productions studio in Los Angeles on 2 October, to record the Beach Boys, but this was cancelled on the day. From 1–6 November they were at the Producers Workshop, also in Los Angeles.

Brian Humphries was emotionally drained by his five years with the band, and was replaced by James Guthrie, who came with a recommendation from Alan Parsons. Guthrie was hired as a co-producer: "I saw myself as a hot young producer ... When we arrived, I think we both felt we'd been booked to do the same job." The early sessions at Britannia Row were emotionally charged, as Ezrin, Guthrie and Waters each had strong ideas about the direction the album would take. Relations between the band were at a low ebb, and Ezrin's role expanded to that of an intermediary, between Waters and the rest of the band. Britannia Row was, initially, felt to be inadequate for The Wall. The band upgraded much of the equipment, and by March another set of demos were complete. However their former relationship with NWG placed them at risk of bankruptcy, and they were advised to leave the UK by no later than 6 April 1979, and for a minimum of one year. Non-residency meant that any money they made while out of the country would not be taxed, and within a month all four members and their families had left the country. Waters became domiciled in Switzerland, Mason in France, and Gilmour and Wright in the Greek Islands. They moved some of their equipment from Britannia Row to Super Bear Studios near Nicemarker. Both Gilmour and Wright were familiar with the studio, having recorded there during production of their solo albums, and liked the atmosphere. Wright lived at the studio, and Waters and Gilmour stayed in houses nearby. Mason, who initially lived at the studio with Wright, eventually moved into Waters' villa near Vencemarker. Ezrin stayed in Nice.

Recording sessions were placed on a tight schedule, dictated by Waters; however, Ezrin's poor timekeeping caused problems. Mason found the producer's behaviour "erratic", but used his elaborate and unlikely excuses for his lateness as ammunition for "tongue-in-cheek resentment". Ezrin's cut of the royalties was less than the rest of the band, and he found Waters' demeanour similar to that of a "bully", especially after the bassist had badges made for the band that read NOPE (No Points Ezrin). Ezrin later admitted that he had marital problems, and was not "in the best shape emotionally". However, Waters' relationship with Wright had broken down completely. The band were rarely in the studio together. Mason recorded his drum tracks early on, which Ezrin and Guthrie then spliced together. Guthrie would also work with Waters and Gilmour during the day, returning at night to record Wright's contributions. Wright, worried about the effect that the introduction of Ezrin would have on the band's internal relationships, was keen to have a producer's credit on the album (their albums up to that point had always stated "Produced by Pink Floyd"). Waters agreed to a trial period, after which Wright would be given a producer's credit, but after a few weeks both Waters and Ezrin expressed dissatisfaction with his methods. Ezrin eventually confronted Wright, who thereafter stopped coming into the studio during the day, and worked only at nights. Gilmour also expressed his annoyance, complaining that Wright's lack of input was "driving us all mad". Bob Ezrin later said "… it sometimes felt that Roger was setting him up to fail. Rick gets performance anxiety. You have to leave him alone to freeform, to create …" Wright had his own problems, with a failing marriage, and depression. The band's holidays were booked for August, after which they would reconvene at Cherokee Studios in Los Angeles, but Columbia offered the band a better deal in exchange for a Christmas release of the album, and Waters increased their workload accordingly; the nearby Studio Miraval was booked. He also suggested starting recording in Los Angeles ten days earlier than agreed, and also hiring another keyboardist to work alongside Wright, whose keyboard parts had not yet been recorded. Wright, however, refused to cut short his family holiday in Rhodesmarker.

What exactly happened next remains unclear. In Inside Out (2005) Mason says that Waters called O'Rourke, who was travelling to the US on the QE2, and told him to have Wright out of the band by the time Waters arrived in LA to mix the album. In Comfortably Numb (2008), however, the author states that Waters called O'Rourke and asked him to tell Wright about the new recording arrangements, and that Wright's response was apparently "Tell Roger to fuck off …". Wright disagreed with this recollection, stating that the band had agreed to record only through the spring and early summer, and that he had no idea they were so far behind schedule. Mason later wrote that Waters was "stunned and furious", and felt that Wright was not doing enough to help complete the album. Gilmour was on holiday in Dublin when he learnt of Waters' ultimatum, and tried to calm the situation. He later spoke with Wright and gave him his support, but reminded him about his lack of input on the album. Waters, however, insisted that Wright leave, else he would refuse to release The Wall. Several days later, worried about their financial situation, and the failing interpersonal relationships within the band, Wright quit. News of his departure was kept from the music press. Although his name did not appear anywhere on the finished album, he was employed as a session musician on the band's subsequent The Wall tour.

Production of the album continued, and by August 1979 the running order was largely complete. Wright completed his duties at Cherokee Studios, aided by session musicians Peter Wood and Freddie Mandel. Jeff Porcaro performed the unusual drum work in place of Mason, on "Mother". Toward the end of The Wall sessions, Mason left the final mix to Waters, Gilmour, Ezrin and Guthrie, and travelled to New York to record his début solo album. The running order and content of the album were changed shortly before release, as side two of the LP would have been too long. "What Shall We Do Now?" was replaced by the similar but shorter "Empty Spaces", and "Hey You" was moved from its original place at the end of side three to the beginning. As the band were fast approaching the album's November 1979 deadline, the now incorrect inner bags of the album were left unchanged.

Instrumentation

Mason's early drum sessions were recorded in an open space on the top floor of Britannia Row. They were recorded onto sixteen-track tape and then mixed down and copied onto a twenty-four track master, for use as a guide. This allowed for greater flexibility, as during final mastering these sixteen-track recordings could be synced to the twenty-four track master, improving the quality of the final mix (the guide tracks would not be used). Ezrin later related the band's alarm at this method of working—they apparently viewed the erasure of material from the twenty-four track as "witchcraft".

While at Super Bear studios, Waters had agreed to Ezrin's suggestion that several tracks, including "Nobody Home", "The Trial", and "Comfortably Numb", should be accompanied by an orchestra. Michael Kamen, who had previously worked on David Bowie's 1974 US tour, was booked to oversee these arrangements, which were performed by musicians from the New York Philharmonic and New York Symphony Orchestras, and a choir from the New York City Opera. Although the band were not present, the sessions were recorded at CBS Studios in New York. Kamen eventually met the band once recording was complete.

"Comfortably Numb" had its origins in Gilmour's début solo album, and was the focus of much of the creative arguing between Waters and Gilmour. The song initially started life as, Ezrin later claimed, "… Roger's record, about Roger, for Roger"; however, he thought that it needed further work. Waters re-wrote the song, with additional lyrics for the chorus, but they now had two versions; Waters' "stripped-down and harder" recording, and Ezrin's "… grander Technicolor, orchestral version". Gilmour preferred the former, but Waters and Ezrin wanted the latter. After a full-scale argument in a restaurant in North Hollywood, a compromise was reached where the body of the song would comprise the orchestral arrangement, with Gilmour's second and final guitar solo standing alone.

Sound effects and voices

Ezrin and Waters oversaw the capture of various sound effects required for the album. On the original demo for "Run Like Hell", the phone call was recorded by Waters. He telephoned Mason without warning, who assumed it was a crank call and subsequently replaced the receiver in anger. The call is a direct reference to an incident on the In The Flesh Tour, when Waters telephoned his ex-wife Judy, only to be answered by the voice of a man. Waters recorded the sounds of Hollywood Boulevardmarker by hanging a microphone from a studio window. The studio's car park was used by engineer Phil Taylor to record some of the screeching tyre noises on "Run Like Hell". Taylor also recorded a television set being destroyed, and back at Brittania Row Nick Griffiths recorded the smashing of crockery for the same song. Random television broadcasts were used on the album, and one actor, who recognised his own voice, later threatened to sue, but accepted a settlement offer from the band.

The maniacal schoolmaster, who appears throughout the album, was voiced by Waters, and actress Trudy Young supplied the groupie's voice. Backing vocals were performed by a range of artists. The band had originally planned to work with the Beach Boys on "The Show Must Go On" and "Waiting for the Worms", and studio time was booked at Sundance Productions. Waters, however, cancelled on the day, and settled for Bruce Johnston (who had already contributed to some tracks) with Toni Tennille. Ezrin suggested releasing "Another Brick in the Wall part II" as a single, but with a disco-style beat, a suggestion that initially did not find favour with Gilmour; however, Mason and Waters were more enthusiastic. Waters was originally opposed to the idea of releasing a single at all, but was more receptive once he listened to a version that Ezrin and Guthrie had mixed themselves. With two identical verses, however, the song was felt to be lacking, and so a copy was sent to Griffiths, who was at Brittania Row in London. He was asked to find groups of children to perform several versions of the lyrics. Griffiths contacted the head of music at the nearby Islington Green school, who was more than enthusiastic about the idea:

Initially, Griffiths recorded small groups of pupils, before inviting more students to sing. He told them to effect a Cockney accent on the lyrics, and to shout rather than sing. Griffiths multitracked the voices to make it appear as though the groups were much larger than they had been, and sent the recordings back to Los Angeles. Waters was "beaming" at the result, and the song was later released as a single, becoming a Christmas number one hit. It proved controversial, however, and although the parents of those children involved were generally ambivalent, the press pursued the story, claiming that the children had effectively been 'ripped off' by a multi-millionaire rock band. The children were eventually given copies of the album, and a £1,000 donation was made to the school.

Packaging

The cover was one of Pink Floyd's most minimal designs, with a simple white brick wall, and no logo or band name, although later reissues contained simple lettering. It was also their first album cover since The Piper at the Gates of Dawn not designed by Hipgnosis. Waters had fallen out with Storm Thorgerson several years earlier, when the latter had included the cover of Animals in his book Walk Away Rene. Waters felt that the cover had little to do with Hipgnosis. The LP's sleeve art and custom picture labels by cartoonist Gerald Scarfe tied in with the album's concept. Side one had a quarter of the wall erected and a sketch of the teacher. Side two had half of the wall erected and a sketch of the wife. Side three had three-quarters of the wall erected and a sketch of the Pink character, while side four had the wall completely erected and a sketch of the prosecutor.

Release

The album was played in front of an assembled group of executives at Columbia's headquarters in California, but several were reportedly unimpressed by what they heard. Matters had not been helped when CBS/Sony had earlier offered Waters smaller publishing rights, because The Wall was a double-album. Waters was outraged, and refused the offer. Dick Asher offered to toss a coin to settle the dispute, only for Waters to ask why he should gamble on something he owned. The record company eventually capitulated. Their unease at the album's content was later alleviated by the success of "Another Brick in the Wall Part 2", which reached number one in the US, Norway, Portugal, Israel, West Germany, and South Africa, and was number one in the UK for Christmas 1979. The single was certified Silver and Gold on 1 December 1979, and held the number one position for five weeks. It was certified Platinum on 1 January 1980. In the US, it remained at number one for four weeks, was certified Gold on 24 March 1980, and Platinum on 25 September 2001.

Coinciding with the album's release, Waters was interviewed by veteran DJ Tommy Vance, who played the album in its entirety on BBC Radio 1. The Wall was released in the UK on 30 November 1979, and about a week later in the US. Reviews were mixed; Robert Christgau wrote "The music is all right, too—kitschy minimal maximalism with sound effects and speech fragments. But the story is confused", and Rolling Stone's Kurt Loder was similarly reserved, writing "The Wall is a stunning synthesis of Waters' by now familiar thematic obsessions". Melody Maker was more positive: "I'm not sure whether it's brilliant or terrible, but I find it utterly compelling."

Despite such reviews however, the album topped the Billboard charts for fifteen weeks, and as of 2009 is certified 23x platinum, (as a double album this signifies sales of 11.5 million). One of the best-selling albums of all time in the US, according to The New York Times, between 1979 and 1990 the album sold over 19 million copies worldwide. It is second only to The Dark Side of the Moon as Pink Floyd's best-selling album. It won the 1980 Grammy in the Best Engineered Recording – Non-Classical category.

Reissues

The album was originally released as a double-LP, but was re-issued in the UK as a double-CD in 1985. A remastered version with new artwork was issued in 1994, followed in 1997 by a digitally remastered double-LP. A half-speed master vinyl double-LP was released in the US in 1981, and a double-CD followed in 1983. Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab released the album on their Ultradisc format in 1990. The album was re-issued as a double-CD for its 20th anniversary by Columbia in 1997, and reissued by Columbia in 2000.

Covers

Songs from The Wall have been covered by several acts. Canadian alternative country band Luther Wright and the Wrongs recorded a bluegrass cover of the entire album, entitled Rebuild the Wall. Celebrating the The Wall's 20th anniversary, producer and artist Peter Mossman released The Wall 2000, an ambient electronic version of the album, as part of his "Out of Phase" project.

The nu-metal band Korn frequently covered Pink Floyd to close their concerts, and included "Another Brick in the Wall" on their compilation album, Greatest Hits Volume 1. Scissor Sisters released a charting cover version of "Comfortably Numb" from their début album Scissor Sisters, and Queensrÿche and Dream Theater gave a joint live performance of "Comfortably Numb", which was released on Queensryche's The Art Of Live DVD. Hard rock band The Step Kings cover "The Happiest Days Of Our Lives" and "Another Brick In The Wall Part 2" together on their 2000 album Let's Get It On!, and Staind covered "Comfortably Numb" on their greatest hits compilation, The Singles: 1996–2006.

In November 2009 Mojo magazine released The Wall Re-built (disc one) as a free cover disc (on the December issue). The tracks were covered (and to some extent re-interpreted) by various modern artists.

Tour

During each performance of the band's subsequent The Wall Tour, a high wall, built from cardboard bricks, would gradually be constructed between the band and the audience. Gaps allowed the fans to view various scenes in the story, and the wall was also used as a screen upon which Scarfe's animations were projected. Several characters from the story were realised as giant inflatables, including a new pig replete with the crossed hammers logo. The tour opened at the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arenamarker on 7 February 1980. One of the more notable elements of the tour was the performance of "Comfortably Numb". While Waters sang his opening verse in front of the wall, Gilmour waited in darkness, for his cue, at the top of the wall. When it came, bright blue and white lights would suddenly illuminate him, astonishing the audience. Gilmour stood on a flight case on castors, a dangerous set-up supported from behind by a technician, both supported by a tall hydraulic platform. At the end of the concert, the wall would collapse, once again revealing the band.

Scarfe was employed to produce a series of animations for The Wall. At his studio in London, he employed Mike Stuart and a team of forty animators to create a series of nightmarish visions of the future, including a dove of peace exploding to reveal an eagle, a schoolmaster, and Pink's mother. Large inflatable puppets were also created for the live shows. During the tour relationships within the band were at an all-time low; four Winnebago were parked in a circle, with the doors facing away from the centre. Waters remained isolated, using his own vehicle to arrive at the venue, and stayed in separate hotels from the rest of the band. Wright, who had returned as a paid musician, was the only 'member' of the band to profit from the venture, which lost about $600,000.

Film

The album also spawned a film. The film was originally to be a mixture of live concert footage and Scarfe's animations, however the concert footage proved impractical to film. Alan Parker agreed to direct, keeping the animated sequences, but using professional actors in each scene, with no dialogue. Bob Geldof took the role of Pink, and Waters took a six-week holiday during filming. A modified soundtrack was also created for some of the film's songs. The Wall was released in July 1982.

Track listing

Personnel

Pink Floyd
  • David Gilmour — electric and acoustic guitars, vocals, pedal steel,synthesizers, fretted and fretless bass guitars, synthesizers, clavinet, sound effects
  • Nick Mason — drums, percussion
  • Roger Waters — vocals, bass guitar, acoustic guitar, synthesizer, sound effects
  • Richard Wright — organ, piano, Rhodes electric piano, synthesizers, bass pedals


Additional musicians (credited)
  • Bruce Johnston — backing vocals
  • Toni Tennille — backing vocals
  • Joe Chomay — backing vocals
  • John Joyce — backing vocals
  • Islington Green School — children’s choir
  • Michael Kamen — orchestra arrangement
  • Bob Ezrin — orchestra arrangement


Additional musicians (uncredited)
  • Bob Ezrin — organ, piano, synthesizer, backing vocals
  • James Guthrie — percussion, synthesizer
  • Jeff Porcaro — drums
  • Joe Porcaro, Blue Ocean & 5 others — snare drums
  • Lee Ritenour — guitars
  • Ron di Blasi — classical guitar
  • Freddie Mandell — Hammond organ
  • Bobbye Hall — congas, bongos
  • Frank Marrocco — concertina
  • Larry Williams — clarinet
  • Trevor Veitch — mandolin
  • New York Orchestra — orchestra
  • New York Opera — choral vocals
  • Unnamed children's choir from New York — children’s choral vocals
  • "Vicki & Clare" — backing vocals
  • Harry Waters — child's voice
  • Chris Fitzmorris — male telephone voice
  • Trudy Young — voice of the groupie
  • Phil Taylor — sound effects


Production
  • Bob Ezrin — co-producer
  • David Gilmour — co-producer
  • Roger Waters — co-producer
  • James Guthrie — co-producer and engineer, remastering supervisor
  • Krieg Wunderlich — digital remastering (MFSL issue)
  • Doug Sax — mastering (original LP) and digital remastering (EMI/Sony re-issues)
  • Nick Griffiths — engineer
  • Patrice Quef — engineer
  • Brian Christian — engineer
  • Rich Hart — engineer
  • Phil Taylor — sound equipment
  • Gerald Scarfe — sleeve design
  • Roger Waters — sleeve design


Sales chart performance

Album
Year Chart Peakposition Source
1979 UK album chart 3
Norwegian Album Chart 1
Spanish Album Chart 9
Swedish Album Chart 1
Swiss Album Chart 29
German Album Chart 1
Danish Album Chart 19
New Zealand Album Chart 1
Italian Album Chart 13
Finnish Album Chart 21
Austrian Album Chart 1
1980 U.S. Billboard 200 1
French Album Charts 1


Singles
Date Single Chart Position Source
23 November 1979 "Another Brick in the Wall (Part 2)"/"One of My Turns" UK Top 40 1
7 January 1980 "Another Brick in the Wall (Part 2)"/"One of My Turns" US Billboard Pop Singles 1
9 June 1980 "Run Like Hell"/"Don't Leave Me Now" US Billboard Pop Singles 53
23 June 1980 "Comfortably Numb"/"Hey You"
23 June 1980 "Run Like Hell"/"Comfortably Numb"
March 1980 "Another Brick in the Wall (Part 2)" Norway's single chart 1


Selected album sales

Country Certification Sales Last certification date Comment Source(s)
Argentina Platinum 200,000+ 23 August 1999
Australia 8× Platinum 560,000+
Canadamarker 2× Diamond 2,000,000+ 31 August 1995
Germanymarker 4× Platinum 2,000,000 1994
Greecemarker 100,000
Poland 2003

United Statesmarker RIAA 23× Platinum 11,500,000+ 29 January 1999 8× Platinum on 28 May 1991
United States Soundscan   5,381,000+ 16 February 2008 Since 1991 – February 2007


Notes



References

Footnotes


Bibliography




External links




Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message